Gosford city centre TMAP

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  • 1. Gosford City CentreTransport Management and Accessibility PlanDecember 2010
  • 2. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMGosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility PlanPrepared forTransport NSWPrepared byAECOM Australia Pty LtdLevel 11, 44 Market Street, Sydney NSW 2000, PO Box Q410, QVB Post Office NSW 1230, AustraliaT +61 2 8295 3600 F +61 2 9262 5060 www.aecom.comABN 20 093 846 92513 December 201060154625© AECOM Australia Pty Ltd 2010The information contained in this document produced by AECOM Australia Pty Ltd is solely for the use of the Client identified on the cover sheetfor the purpose for which it has been prepared and AECOM Australia Pty Ltd undertakes no duty to or accepts any responsibility to any third partywho may rely upon this document.All rights reserved. No section or element of this document may be removed from this document, reproduced, electronically stored or transmittedin any form without the written permission of AECOM Australia Pty Ltd.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010
  • 3. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMTable of ContentsExecutive Summary i1.0 Background and report purpose 4 1.1 About Gosford 4 1.2 Gosford Challenge Renewal Master Plan 4 1.3 Report purpose and scope 52.0 Travel behaviour and trends 7 2.1 Regional travel 7 2.2 Travel to Gosford City Centre 10 2.3 Future trends 143.0 Walking 16 3.1 Introduction 16 3.2 Existing and Planned Pedestrian Facilities 16 3.2.1 Existing Pedestrian Facilities 16 3.2.2 Planned Pedestrian Facilities 17 3.3 Pedestrian Package of Measures 184.0 Cycling 22 4.1 Introduction 22 4.2 Existing and Planned Bicycle Facilities 22 4.2.1 Existing Bicycle Facilities 22 4.2.2 Planned Bicycle Facilities 23 4.3 Cycling Package of Measures 25 4.4 End of Trip Facilities 32 4.5 Active travel choices strategy 335.0 Buses 34 5.1 Overview 34 5.2 Gosford Transport Interchange 36 5.3 Bus Network Analysis 37 5.4 City Centre Loop Bus and Hospital Shuttle Bus 40 5.5 Other Bus Opportunities 41 5.6 Rail 42 5.7 Recommended Bus Initiatives – Bus Package of Measures 426.0 Ferry 43 6.1 Overview 43 6.1.1 Palm Beach Ferry Service 43 6.1.2 Central Coast Ferries 43 6.2 Potential catchment analysis 447.0 Road network 46 7.1 Introduction 46 7.2 Road Hierarchy 46 7.2.1 Functional Classification 46 7.2.2 Administrative Classification 48 7.3 Existing Transport Conditions and Infrastructure 49 7.3.1 Existing Traffic Volumes 49 7.3.2 Existing Network Performance 52 7.3.3 Managing Heavy Vehicles 52 7.3.4 Existing Infrastructure supporting Public Transport 52 7.4 Roads related initiatives for investigation 54 7.4.1 Road upgrade options recommended for consideration 548.0 Parking 56 8.1 Overview 56 8.2 Parking Policy – supply and demand management measures 56 8.3 Gosford Parking Strategy 57 8.4 Parking Package of Measures 589.0 Travel demand management 60 9.1 Introduction 60K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010
  • 4. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM 9.2 Potential TDM Approach 61 9.3 Potential Package of TDM Measures 6210.0 Mode Choice Modelling – Options Appraisal 63 10.1 Summary of calibrated mode choice model outputs 6311.0 Recommendations 64 11.1 Introduction 64 11.2 Area-based Recommendations 64 Measure 1: West Gosford to City Centre Access initiative 64 Measure 2: Planning for East-West traffic around Gosford 65 Measure 3: Gosford Waterfront State Significant Site listing 65 11.3 Modal Recommendations 66 Measure 4: Improving Bus connections with the City Centre 66 Measure 5: Connecting Cyclists with the City Centre 66 Measure 6: Increase Bicycle parking at key destinations 67 Measure 7: Implement package of Pedestrian improvements 67 Measure 8: Sustainable car parking management 68 11.4 Implementation and Monitoring recommendations 68 Measure 9: Monitor public transport patronage 68 Measure 10: Conduct regular modelling reviews of the TMAP’s performance 69 Measure 11: TMAP Implementation Working Group 69 Measure 12: Establish a Travel Behaviour Change Program 69 Measure 13: Implement Workplace Travel Plans 70 Measure 14: Establish a program of works for road and intersection upgrades 70Appendix A Future Trends .................................................................................................................................... AAppendix B Road Network Analysis....................................................................................................................... BAppendix C TDM Measures...................................................................................................................................CAppendix D Mode Choice Model Development ......................................................................................................DK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010
  • 5. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMExecutive SummaryTMAP contextThe preparation of this TMAP for Gosford city centre presents an opportunity to further realise and strengthenGosford’s role as a Regional Waterfront City. Gosford benefits from an outstanding natural setting, yet the city’sstreet network and transport assets do not fully utilise its greatest assets and it has been described as a‘disconnected city’. In 2006, over 30,000 commuters travelled each day from the Central Coast Region to Sydneyand Newcastle, on existing road and rail infrastructure.The primary purpose of this TMAP though is to increase the public transport share of work trips into Gosford citycentre. An analysis of available data1 indicates that presently only 6% of current journeys to work into Gosford citycentre are made by public transport, yet 92% of journeys originate from Gosford and Wyong2. Therefore, therewould appear to be significant potential to increase public transport use for trips to/ from Gosford. Achieving thispotential requires the implementation of transport management policies and measures, over time, to improvepublic transport (and walking and cycling) accessibility to Gosford.Whilst the NSW State Plan does not define a public transport mode share target for Gosford, the overall StatePlan target is for 28% of all journeys to be made by public transport across the Sydney Metropolitan Region. Inaddition the State Plan defines a target for cycling trip3 growth to 5% by 2016. This study therefore definesmeasures to increase the public transport mode share by enhancing transport links between Gosford and theCentral Coast region, as well as improving pedestrian and cycle connectivity in the City Centre and surroundingareas. The potential measures described in this TMAP would improve the quality of Gosford’s transport systemand environment for all its residents, businesses and visitors.The role of recent initiatives such as MyZone and the NSW bicycle plan reflect changing attitudes to travel andwider objectives to make sustainable travel alternatives easier and more attractive. The public transport ticketinginitiative, MyZone, makes public transport travel easier, more convenient and more attractive. Integrated ticketingis one aspect of reducing barriers to public transport travel. The potential measures described in this report seekto build on these emerging initiatives towards improving public transport, walking and cycling travel in NSW.Gosford TMAP and the Gosford ChallengeThe TMAP builds on a host of previous studies for Gosford, including the Gosford Challenge Masterplan, GosfordWaterfront Masterplan, Gosford Parking Strategy, Gosford City Centre PAMP, and the Gosford Cycle Strategy.This TMAP sits alongside the Gosford Challenge Master Plan and will complement the Central Coast RegionalTransport Strategy.This TMAP supports the renewal process in Gosford with measures to encourage sustainable growth. Itaddresses existing transport challenges such as access across the railway line, illegible and poor qualitypedestrian facilities, severance of the waterfront, a developing cycle network and end-of trip facilities, andmanaging parking supply. The focus of this TMAP is aligned with the Gosford Challenge renewal master plan todevelop a sustainable approach to accommodating significant growth in Gosford of 6,000 new jobs and 10,000new residents by 2031.The principles embodied by this TMAP are closely aligned with the overarching objectives of the GosfordChallenge Masterplan to revitalise Gosford, to increase the connectivity of the Gosford city centre, facilitateaccess and movement in a sustainable manner and to activate the city centre.The bicycle network and pedestrian network in the Gosford Challenge Masterplan are generally supportedthrough the recommended improvements to local connectivity in Sections 3 and 4. The objectives to bettermanage city centre parking, move away from long term to short term parking to support retail and commercialactivities as well as supporting shifts to public transport, walking and cycling where ever possible are set out inSection 8.The key Challenge Masterplan transport initiatives to improve connectivity and permeability such as the EtnaStreet Bridge Upgrade, pedestrian upgrades to Racecourse Road, the Railway pedestrian bridge, upgrades toMann Street and Donnison Street as well as initiatives such as the Waterfront Point Clare Cycle Link and1 Source: Transport NSW - Transport Data Centre (TDC) and 2006 census journey to work data for Gosford LGA.2 Source: 2006 census journey to work data for Gosford and Wyong LGA’s (Central Coast region).3 For trips up to 10km in length.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 i
  • 6. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMimproved pedestrian connectivity from the waterfront to the city centre are addressed in more detail through thisTMAP in the relevant sections of analysis by mode of travel to which they relate.TMAP measures and outcomesThe TMAP defines existing trends in travel behaviour associated with Gosford and identifies initiatives to reduce,over time, the dependence on single occupancy vehicle trips and to increase public transport, walking and cycling.Strategic initiatives for public transport are supported by parking and road network initiatives to improve theaccessibility of Gosford by sustainable modes and achieve a better balance in access across all modes.Buses will be crucial to providing a public transport travel alternative for those trips from origins outside ofGosford, especially those which are not served by rail. Whilst rail will continue to provide good public transportaccess to Gosford, this serves only the north-south corridor. Rail is considered in the context of station access bypedestrians and cyclists, and bus interchange, and onward links to the city centre and other destinations. Theimportance of buses is therefore considered fundamental in helping to achieve the mode share targets for travelto Gosford City Centre. This report describes a number of key bus corridors to improve connectivity throughoutGosford and the Central Coast Region. These bus measures cannot be considered in isolation and a range ofmeasures to manage transport supply and demand, to promote alternatives to the private car and to encouragetravel behaviour change will be needed.The TMAP proposes measures to improve the amenity and accessibility of Gosford as a location conducive topedestrian and cycle movement, especially for local travel. In addition, the promotion and implementation ofsustainable travel measures, travel demand management and behavioural change, especially for workplace,school and commuter travel will be essential to achieving modal shift in Gosford. Examples of similar city-wideschemes have been discussed with reference to their use in Gosford. Such measures have the potential to lead toa step change in attitudes and behaviour which may over time lead to more significant changes in travelbehaviour than can be assessed by a model calibrated to such existing low levels of public transport use.Parking management is a key initiative which is fundamental to balance the attractiveness of car travel to Gosfordto meet wider objectives. The role of parking should be to enable access to shops and services whilst limiting longterm, commuter parking and where feasible, provide park and ride on the city fringe in locations such as Erina andKariong. Management of long term parking needs to be accompanied by suitable alternative access measures,such as key bus corridors and park and ride.Preliminary road network proposals have also been considered though this report to understand the benefitsthese could achieve towards the TMAP objectives. These have not been subject to any detailed investigation andwill require further more detailed investigation and analysis in consultation with the relevant stakeholders and roadauthorities.Modelling of the recommended potential measures describes that, if implemented, a non-car mode share forjourneys to work into Gosford of 10% is achievable in the morning peak period. This would represent an increasein mode share to non-car modes of 67% over 2006 levels. This is indicative of the scale of change which could beconceived from a perspective based on modelling calibrated to existing travel patterns and current public transportuse for journeys to work into Gosford. 4 Non-car mode share 2006 2016 2021 2036 With Implementation of TMAP Measures 6% 8% 9% 10% Public Transport mode share increase 0% 2% 3% 4%Note – The mode share presented in the TMAP will be further confirmed using the RTA’s strategic model.All potential measures considered and recommended in the TMAP are grouped into timescales for potentialimplementation as follows: Short term measures - which could be delivered within 3-5 years (2010 - 2016). Medium term measures - which could be delivered within the next 5-10 years (2016 - 2021). Long term - which could be delivered within the next 10-15 years (2021 - 2036).4 2006 figure is a base figure using the 2006 census journey to work dataset.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 ii
  • 7. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMNo detailed costs are provided for the potential measures and recommendations. Costs will be subject to detaileddesign.Managing Travel DemandIt is clear that there is significant potential for future modal shift in Gosford and that, alongside tweaking existinginfrastructure, innovative measures will be needed to achieve significant modal shift from car travel to publictransport, walking and cycling. A key recommendation of this report is therefore that there is a significant role fortravel demand management in Gosford. It is recommended that Gosford be considered as a demonstration modelfor the implementation of an overarching travel behaviour change program.This would need to be a committed program delivered over a period of 3-5 years which would focus onbehavioural change to achieve modal shift through a combination of awareness, marketing, branding and co-ordination of travel demand management, in conjunction with some infrastructure measures. This TMAPhighlights examples of the modal shift which have been achieved in other demonstration sustainable travel towns(examples from the UK) in which an overarching travel behaviour change program has been implemented,supported by a comprehensive package of travel demand management (TDM) measures. This is discussed inmore detail in Section 9 of this TMAP.The model travel behaviour change program recommended for Gosford through the TMAP reinforces the work ofthe Gosford Challenge to improve the sustainability of Gosford and to improve the attractiveness of Gosford as adestination and as a viable, liveable city. The Gosford Challenge and Gosford City Council will be fundamental tothe implementation of a Travel Behaviour Change program in Gosford, with the support of other key stakeholders(RTA, Transport NSW etc).The 10% mode share for journeys to work by non-car modes will require implementation of the potential packageof measures and policy changes to guide future development in a sustainable manner. Progress against the 10%target will be measured over the life of the TMAP.The key recommendations and outcomes are: An overarching travel behaviour change program, making Gosford a demonstration sustainable travel city; Comprehensive parking strategy and parking management measures to encourage modal shift; Bus frequency, easily recognisable bus services and route consolidation to improve access and perception; Targeted walking, cycling and road network interventions; A 10% target of AM peak period journeys to work into Gosford by non-car modes potentially by 2036.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 iii
  • 8. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM1.0 Background and report purpose1.1 About GosfordGosford is one of six regional cities in Sydney’s Greater Metropolitan Area, offering higher order services toresidents of the Central Coast such as education, health, retail and entertainment. The centre serves apopulation of approximately 300,000 and has experienced growth of approximately 2% between 2001 and 2006.A significant proportion of the population (more than 25%) is over 55 years old, highlighting the popularity of theCentral Coast as a retirement destination.Gosford benefits from an outstanding natural setting on the waterfront, however the city’s network of streets doesnot utilise its greatest assets and it has been described as a ‘disconnected city’. The declining quality of the city’sstreetscape and it’s disconnect is compounded by the daily drain of commuters to Sydney and Newcastle. Over30,000 commuters travel from the region each day, straining existing road and rail infrastructure.The TMAP has been prepared in response to the Gosford Challenge as an agreed commitment by TNSW. TheTMAP builds on extensive community consultation underpinning the challenge process and subsequentcommunity consultation supporting the Central Coast Regional Transport Strategy. The Challenge processidentified a number of key transport and access issues including: challenges for improving future access from West Gosford; poor legibility and amenity for trips through and within the city centre; severance of the waterfront by Dane Drive; an immature cycle network and end-of trip facilities; high demand for parking facilities.The NSW State Plan does not define a public transport mode share target for Gosford, but analysis of existingtravel behaviour indicates that the current public transport mode split is 6.2% for journeys to work into Gosford citycentre (comparable with the NSW State Plan targets). Of this 6.2% public transport mode share, buses accountfor only 1.9%. With 92% of trips made to Gosford city centre originating in Gosford or Wyong LGA’s, there is asignificant opportunity to achieve an increase in public transport use.1.2 Gosford Challenge Renewal Master PlanTo address the need for revitalisation of the city, Gosford City Council in partnership with the Land and PropertyManagement Authority (LPMA) embarked on a city centre renewal process known as the ‘Gosford Challenge’. In2009, the NSW Government, local business and residents created a draft master plan to renew the city centre.This community led process is a milestone towards increasing the vibrancy and productivity of Gosford CityCentre, with the intent of positioning Gosford as a thriving regional capital.The Gosford City Centre Masterplan (Gosford City Council, 2009) was prepared as a community led renewalmasterplan for the Gosford City Centre. The focus of the renewal master plan was to develop a sustainableapproach to accommodating 6,000 new jobs and 10,000 new residents, with these people expected to live andwork in the centre by 2031. Therefore, while better transport infrastructure and policies will improve quality of lifefor these people, the focus of the master plan was to lift the existing transport provision to a level where the localcommunity has a sustainable and equitable travel choice.Detailed transport analysis was not completed as part of the Challenge process and indicative mode share targetsfor the city centre were not established. The mode share targets in this TMAP have considered therecommendations of the Gosford Challenge.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 4
  • 9. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMThe Renewal Master Plan identified the following transport related projects that would help to underpin therenewal of Gosford City Centre: Improving access to the waterfront and enabling waterfront development; Overcoming gradient changes through a Gosford Interchange transit oriented development, with high quality public transport facilities and east-west connections from Mann Street towards Gosford Hospital; A potential city centre Loop Bus to connect the city centre, interchange and hospital precincts; Upgrade of Mann Street as the main street of Gosford, including streetscape upgrades, cycling links and management of bus services; Improving east-west connectivity across the rail line through upgrades of Etna Street, Donnison Street and Gosford Station overbridges; and Various intersection upgrades for traffic performance, safety or accessibility reasons.The Gosford City Centre Masterplan (Gosford City Council, 2010) also recognises the importance of planning forany future sea level rise, which would be a consideration in any waterfront planning.1.3 Report purpose and scopeThis TMAP can be used as a delivery tool for assisting in the implementation of transport infrastructure, serviceand policy change. The study report is transparent in its process and recommendations, to maximise futurevalue. The TMAP will support regional planning being undertaken by the NSW Government, with the followingspecific outcomes: Clarification of existing and future (do-nothing) travel patterns and behaviour, utilising existing strategies and data; Development of a parking policy that will encourage increased public transport mode share, without compromising renewal ambitions; A bus network strategy for the city centre (with specific recommendations for bus priority, layover or additional services and routes); An assessment of road network changes required to support the renewal of Gosford City Centre, recognising the need to maintain efficient movement of people and goods; Advice on the role and benefits of travel demand management measures; Integration of these measures into a coherent package of ‘interventions’ that maximise the public transport and walking/cycling mode shares, assisting Transport NSW to establish a workable target for the city centre, that can inform the preparation of the Central Coast Transport Strategy.The study area considered in this strategy is Gosford City Centre, as shown in Figure 1.1 and as defined in theGosford City Centre Master Plan (Gosford City Council, 2010).K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 5
  • 10. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMFigure 1.1 Study Area Gosford TMAP study area Gosford City Centre West Gosford Gosford Rail Station Central Coast HighwayK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 6
  • 11. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM2.0 Travel behaviour and trends2.1 Regional travelThe Central Coast is home to around 300,000 people, with a further 100,000 people expected to be living in thearea over next 25 years. At an average growth rate of 4,000 people each year planning and support is required toensure the sustainability and viability of the region (Central Coast Regional Strategy, 2008). The Central Coast’spopulation is dispersed across a variety of urban settings that include towns, villages and neighbourhoods. Largecentres on the Central Coast include Gosford, Tuggerah – Wyong, Erina, Woy Woy and The Entrance.The Central Coast Regional Strategy identified that more than 25 percent of the workforce travels outside of theregion for employment, creating particular challenges for infrastructure. These issues are manifested incongestion on major arterial roads during peak periods, excessive demand for commuter parking in major centreswith rail access and informal parking near the F3 Freeway as people gather together to car share.The significant destinations (outside the Central Coast) for journey to work trips originating from the Central Coastare shown in Figure 2.1 overleaf. Those external destinations with more than 1,000 daily trips are (in order): Inner Sydney (6,307 daily trips) Central Northern Sydney (5,830 daily trips) Lower Northern Sydney (4,961 daily trips) Newcastle/ Lower Hunter (3,769 daily trips) Central Western Sydney (1,919 daily trips) The Northern Beaches (1,067 daily trips). Of those destinations, those with the highest rail mode share are all Sydney destinations: - Inner Sydney 57%; - Lower Northern Sydney 38%; - Inner Western Sydney 31%; and - Central Northern Sydney 21%. Those destinations with the highest vehicle driver mode share are: - Newcastle/ Lower Hunter 78%; - Northern Beaches 72%; - Central Western Sydney 68%; and - Central Northern Sydney 57%.Therefore, a key challenge for Gosford (and the Central Coast) is to provide for access to rail as an onward modefor regional travel. Consideration needs to be given to bus, walk and cycle access to rail interchanges, as part ofwider city centre accessibility planning. However this should not be to the detriment of promotion of the city centreas a destination in its own right.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 7
  • 12. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMFigure 2.1 Destination of Trips Originating in the Central Coast RegionSource: 2006 Journey to Work dataset, Transport Data Centre.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 8
  • 13. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMTable 2.1 shows the main mode of travel for journey to work trips originating in the Central Coast Region todestinations outside the Central Coast.Table 2.1 Mode of travel for Journey-to-Work trips – originating in Central Coast Region, with destination outside Central Coast Mode JTW trips Percentage Bus 235 1% Ferry / Tram 96 0% Not Stated 1,202 3% Other Modes 631 2% Train 8,313 20% Vehicle Driver 23,006 56% Vehicle Passenger 2,549 6% Work at Home or Not 5,087 12% Total 41,119 100%Source: 2006 Journey to Work dataset, Transport Data Centre.This can be compared with the information presented in Table 2.2 which summarises the mode of travel used forall journey to work trips originating in the Central Coast, which includes travel to employment for destinations bothwithin and outside the Central Coast.Table 2.2 Mode of travel for all Journey-to-Work trips originating in Central Coast Region Mode JTW trips Percentage Bus 1,447 1% Ferry / Tram 105 0% Not Stated 2,203 2% Other Modes 3,488 3% Train 9,107 8% Vehicle Driver 75,330 63% Vehicle Passenger 7,503 6% Work at Home or Not 20,846 17% Total 120,029 100%Source: 2006 Journey to Work dataset, Transport Data Centre.This highlights the issue that car travel dominates as the main mode for work travel originating in the CentralCoast, which partly explains the road congestion issues facing the Central Coast Region. Public transport formsonly a small proportion of work related travel for trips within the region, as evidenced by the differences betweenTables 2.1 and 2.2. The majority of work travel from the Central Coast by rail is made to external destinationsoutside the Central Coast, such as Sydney and Newcastle/ the Lower Hunter, to those destinations highlighted inFigure 2.1. The proportion of car based trips for journeys to work is higher taking account of all destinations, thanjust external destinations. This shows the higher car driver mode share for travel to work for trips to work withinthe central coast to key employment destinations such as Gosford.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 9
  • 14. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM2.2 Travel to Gosford City CentreThe origin of journey to work trips made to Gosford has also been identified to show existing travel patterns toaccess employment in Gosford City Centre. Overall, over 90% of all journeys to access employment in GosfordCity Centre are made from origins within the Central Coast Region. Only a small amount of travel for employmentin Gosford City Centre occurs from origins further afield, primarily from locations immediately outside the CentralCoast such as Newcastle and the north of Sydney (Hornsby).Table 2.3 Origin of trips made to Gosford by origin SLA Origin SLA Destination travel zone Total Proportion 3038 3039 of totalGosford - West 2,130 1,875 4,005 43%Gosford - East 1,319 1,254 2,573 28%Wyong - South and West 731 711 1,442 15%Wyong - North-East 416 376 792 8%Lake Macquarie - West 91 86 177 2%Other SLAs 57 274 331 4%Source: 2006 Journey to Work dataset, Transport Data Centre.Table 2.3 shows that the majority, 71%, of work trips into Gosford city centre5 originate within the Gosford area(Gosford –West and Gosford East SLA’s). A further 23% of work trips into Gosford city centre originate from theWyong SLA’s (Wyong - North-East and Wyong - South and West).Of those trips which originate within the Gosford SLA’s, 60% originate from Gosford West whilst 40% originate inGosford East. This analysis of trips indicates that there is potential to capture an increased proportion of local tripsby bus and cycling. Although the topography and urban form of the Central Coast present challenges to overcomein terms of services and routes, there are a significant number of trips within a localised catchment of Gosford.Furthermore, the waterfront location provides the potential for water based transport, but this would need moredetailed assessment of patronage and feasibility.5 Gosford city centre is defined as Travel zones TZ3038 and TZ3039, as per TDC classification.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 10
  • 15. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMFigure 2.2 Gosford city centre travel zonesApproximately 9,000 journey to work trips are made into Gosford City Centre each day, with the majority, 76 %,made by car as shown in Table 2.3. Public transport trips account for just over 6% of trips; comprising 1.9% bustrips and 4.2% by rail. It is interesting to note the proportion of respondents who work from home at 15%. The roleof people working from home should be encouraged in future, reducing the need to travel takes pressure offtransport networks, frees capacity and is of wider environmental benefit.Table 2.4 Mode of travel for trips ending in Gosford City CentreMode Mode shareBus 1.9%Train 4.2%Walk, Cycle and Other 2.7%Vehicle Driver (including Truck & Motorbike) 70.4%Vehicle Passenger 5.5%Worked at Home 15.2%Total 100%Source: 2006 Journey to Work dataset, Transport Data Centre.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 11
  • 16. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMFigure 2.3, below, presents a comparative analysis of public transport mode share for journey to work travel forGosford and other regional cities and major centres.Figure 2.3 Regional/ Major Centres Daily Journey to Work Public Transport Mode Share, 2006Source: 2006 Journey to Work dataset, Transport Data Centre.In comparison to other Regional Cities, with the exception of Wollongong, Gosford has the lowest existing publictransport travel mode share for journey to work trips. There are a number of destinations which have a publictransport mode share above 15%, which are regional cities (Parramatta) and major centres in Sydney(Chatswood, Bondi Junction, Burwood, Hornsby, Kogarah). Newcastle, Liverpool and Penrith all Regional Citiesare presently around the 10% mark. These locations whilst they have individual characteristics presentaspirational targets for Gosford to aim to move towards over the medium to long term.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 12
  • 17. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMA more detailed analysis of trip origins to Gosford City Centre is provided in Figure 2.4 below. This indicatesclusters of trips from Kariong, Ettalong, Woy Woy, Copacabana, Terrigal, Erina, Saratoga and The Entrance/Killarney Vale. Figure 2.4 provides an overview of the areas in which transport interventions for public transportshould be focussed to achieve a modal shift towards public transport.Figure 2.4 Origin of trips made to Gosford City CentreSource: 2006 Journey to Work dataset, Transport Data Centre.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 13
  • 18. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM2.3 Future trendsIn total 120,000 additional residents are forecast to live in the Gosford and Wyong local government areas by2036, increasing population from 305,000 to 425,000. 30% of the growth will occur within Gosford LGA, and 70%within Wyong. The population of Gosford LGA is therefore expected to increase by approximately 30,000 people,with 10,000 of these being additional residents living in Gosford City Centre by 2036. Population growth by area isshown in Figure 2.5.Figure 2.5 Population Growth, Gosford and Wyong, 2006 to 2031Source: Transport Data Centre, 2010Over the same period, an additional 50,000 jobs are forecast for the Gosford and Wyong local government areas,with 23,000 new jobs in Gosford and 26,000 new jobs in Wyong. Of these new jobs, 6,000 are expected to becreated within Gosford City Centre as shown in Figure 2.6.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 14
  • 19. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMFigure 2.6 Employment Growth, Gosford and Wyong, 2006 to 2031Source: Transport Data Centre, 2010Together, the increasing population within the Central Coast Region and increasing employment opportunitieswith Gosford City Centre will result in increased demand for access to the City. The figures in Appendix Aprovide more detail on the spatial location of population growth and employment growth within the Central CoastRegion.These figures highlight significant forecast population growth in both central Gosford and central Wyong, in thezones surrounding Gosford, in Wyoming, Lisarow and Niagara to the north, in Woy Woy to the south, TheEntrance/ Killarney Vale to the North East, and Erina, Terrigal, Saratoga, Kincumber and Copacabana to the Eastand South-East.These maps show forecast employment growth focused on the major centres of Gosford and Wyong, with othersignificant employment growth forecast to occur in Erina, Woy Woy and areas immediately surrounding Gosford.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 15
  • 20. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM3.0 Walking3.1 IntroductionThe majority of pedestrian activities occur along Mann Street, Baker Street, and Watt Street and along the coastalwalk, in particular outside the Gosford Station Transport Interchange and outside schools such as Gosford HighSchool, Henry Kendall High School and Gosford Primary. Mann Street, the north-south spine of the city centre,provides direct pedestrian access to the Gosford Transport Interchange and the William Street mall. Walking tripsto the City Centre are measured together with cycling and amount to 2.7% of the 9,000 daily trips presently beingundertaken to Gosford. Of course, all trips involve a walking component.A Pedestrian Access and Mobility Plan (PAMP) has already been produced for Gosford city centre. The PAMPalong with the Gosford Challenge Masterplan provides the context for this review of pedestrian accessibility forGosford. The pedestrian routes and measures identified in the PAMP have been considered and analysedalongside identification of additional measures where appropriate.From site visits, the identified north south routes mainly used by pedestrians have been identified as being alongthe Pacific Highway, Hills Street/Watt Street, Holden Street and Baker Street to the waterfront south of the towncentre. In addition to these major desire lines, important pedestrian routes were identified along Fielders Lanetowards the waterfront and along Henry Parry Drive east of the Pacific Highway. The major east-west pedestriandesire lines through Gosford town centre were identified to be along Donnison Street, Faunce Street andRacecourse Road. In addition, east-west pedestrian desire lines were noted across the rail line at Etna Street,Donnison Street and Dane Drive. These are described in more detail below.3.2 Existing and Planned Pedestrian Facilities3.2.1 Existing Pedestrian FacilitiesFootpaths are generally provided on both sides of the major north-south roads through the town centre (alongMann Street and Baker Street). Formal crossing opportunities for pedestrians are provided at the signalisedintersection of Etna Street / Mann Street and at Mann Street / William Street Mall. In addition to the existingpedestrian bridge over the railway line, pedestrian crossing opportunities are provided by mid block crossings andzebra crossings at Watt Street / Hill Street. A shortcut for pedestrians is provided through the car park outside therailway station via Baker Street to the waterfront; however, this pedestrian link is considered to be unsafe due tothe lack of lighting and security measures.There is a lack of footpaths or poor footpath conditions along the following major pedestrian routes through thestudy area, which discourage trips by foot along these important pedestrian desire lines: Partly no footpaths or poor condition along both sides of Watt Street/Hills Street (Figure 3.1); Narrow footpath (partly less than 1m wide) along the western side of Showground Road; Narrow footpaths (approximately 1m wide) along both sides of Holden Street; and Lack of footpath between Baker Street and waterfront through the park (Figure 3.2).K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 16
  • 21. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMFigure 3.1 Poor footpath condition along western side of Watt St Figure 3.2 Lack of pedestrian footpaths through the parkSource: AECOM3.2.2 Planned Pedestrian FacilitiesA Pedestrian Access and Mobility Plan (PAMP) was produced for Gosford City Centre in January 2009. Thepurpose of the PAMP was to develop and evaluate options for infrastructure improvements which would providean improved and interconnected pedestrian network in the Gosford City Centre.The PAMP proposed five routes as the main pedestrian thoroughfares through the city centre. These routes andthe major items recognised for improvement are described below. Route 1: Railway Station to Waterfront along Baker Street: - Improve signage, wayfinding and lighting; - Install additional speed hump between station and Baker Street; - Install raised threshold across Baker Street at car park entry to provide ‘at grade’ pedestrian access to western side of Baker Street; - Install raised crossing in Baker Street opposite laneway to Mann Street; - Install 3.0m wide shared pedestrian / cycleway along western boundary of Gosford Public School linking Georgiana Terrace with Dane Drive traffic signals; and - Install pedestrian refuge in Baker Street on northern side of intersection with Georgiana Terrace. Route 2: Railway Station Baker Street via Mann Street and Donnison Street: - Improve lighting and wayfinding; - Narrow travel lanes in Mann Street to 3.5m and parking lanes to 2.3m to provide greater footpath width along eastern side between Erina Street and Donnison Street; and - Through redevelopment, create pedestrian through site link between Mann Street and Baker Street (between Donnison Street and Georgiana Terrace). Route 3: Faunce Street – Henry Kendall High School to Gosford Rail Station: - Install pedestrian refuge in Batley Street North on the southern side of its intersection with Sinclair Street. (Traffic Committee Approved/Awaiting Funding); - Install centre island within existing crossing facility in Cape Street North on the southern side of Sinclair Street; - Provide short section of connecting footpath between this crossing facility and the existing footpath along the northern side of Ward Street; - Install pedestrian refuge and pram ramps in Ward Street at Holden Street; - Install ‘glassbead’ paint on ramps of existing raised pedestrian crossing in Holden Street and chevron signage;K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 17
  • 22. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM - Install reflective chevron signage within the centre islands at the roundabout in Faunce Street West at Showground Road; and - Replace pedestrian refuge in Showground Road south of Faunce Street with a marked pedestrian crossing. (Traffic Committee Approved/Awaiting Funding). Route 4: Showground Road - Racecourse Road to Gosford Rail Station: - Improve pedestrian pathways over railway line as part of the Etna Street Railway Overbridge replacement recommended by council; - Install ‘Watch for Pedestrians’ sign for northbound traffic in Showground Road on approach to the existing pedestrian refuge at Racecourse Road; - Extend existing footpath to last on street car space on eastern side of Showground Road to provide all weather path to station; and - Install marked foot crossing across Showground Road on the northern side of Beane Street (Traffic Committee approved). Route 5: Watt Street – Faunce Street to Erina Street + Erina Street – Watt Street to Mann Street: - Reconstruct pedestrian path along western side of Watt Street between Faunce Street and Watt Street; - Install a pedestrian refuge in Watt Street outside Centrelink in the vicinity of the entry to The Gateway Shopping Centre; - Install a marked pedestrian crossing within the existing pedestrian refuge in Watt Street on the northern side of Erina Street (warrants met); - Remove on street parking on the northern side of Erina Street between Mann Street and Watt Street and widen footpath on southern side; and - Option 3 – Any future redevelopment of the Imperial Shopping Centre should consider an active street frontage and pedestrian connections to bus facilities in Erina Street.The recommendations from the PAMP have been reviewed and taken into consideration for this TMAP, andwhere appropriate minor amendments have been suggested for implementation by Council through the packageof measures, as described below.3.3 Pedestrian Package of MeasuresThe review of existing pedestrian facilities and conditions within the study area has revealed that there is anumber of areas where improvements could be made that would enhance the network by providing for existingtrip patterns and desire lines as well as encouraging more trips to be made by foot.The existing PAMP for the Gosford City Centre has been used as a basis for improving and developing thepedestrian network within the study area. The following sections outline these recommendations and whereappropriate, suggest amendments to the existing plans in order to maximise future pedestrian trips within thestudy area and to further improve connectivity and accessibility for walking as a mode of transport.As mentioned previously, the already prepared PAMP has been used as a basis for the development of apackage of potential measures for pedestrians for this TMAP. An approximate distance of 800m or a 10-15 minutewalk is considered to be an acceptable walking distance for people to reach their destination. The main attractorsand pedestrian routes within Gosford town centre are well within this catchment which encourages walk as amode of transport. The potential key measures for the pedestrian network within the study area have beendeveloped based on this walking catchment, observed pedestrian desire lines and recommendations from thePAMP.Table 3.1 sets out the Gosford City Centre PAMP routes and measures which are supported through this TMAPwith some potential amendments as described.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 18
  • 23. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMAll measures are grouped into short term (to 2016), medium term (to 2021) and long term (to 2036) timescales forimplementation, in line with the suggested target implementation dates, as shown in the table below. Costs arenot provided and will be subject to detailed design.Table 3.1 Pedestrian Package of Measures I - Supported Gosford City Centre PAMP measures with potential amendmentsSupported PAMP Routes PAMP description Potential amendment/addition Timescale forand Measures implementationRoute 1: Railway Station to 3.0m shared pedestrian / No change Short TermWaterfront along Baker Street cycleway on western boundary of Gosford Public School, pedestrian refuge in Baker Street. Improved signage, wayfinding and lighting; Speed hump between station and Baker Street, raised car park entry and Baker Street crossing opposite laneway to Mann Street;Route 2: Railway Station to Narrow travel lanes in Mann This is not considered necessary Short TermBaker Street via Mann Street Street to 3.5m and parking lanes due to existing wide footpaths ofand Donnison Street to 2.3m to provide greater approximately 3m. Instead, it is footpath width along eastern side recommended to implement an on between Erina Street and street cycle lane along Mann Street Donnison Street. by reducing lane widths. This is described further in the ‘Cycling Package of Measures’ section.Route 3a: Sinclair Street N/A (potential addition) Widen footpath along southern side Short Termbetween Batley Street and of Sinclair Street between BatleyShowground Road Street and Cape Street North by approximately 1m (on current grass verge) to a minimum of 2m to allow for high volumes of pedestrians from Henry Kendall.Route 3b: Ward Street N/A (potential addition) Provide footpath along northern Short Termbetween Batley Street and side of Ward Street between CapeShowground Road Street North and Holden Street to a minimum standard of 2m to allow for high volumes of pedestrians from Henry Kendall.Route 4: Showground Road N/A (potential addition) Install pram ramps on both sides of Short Termbetween Racecourse Road the Beane Street crossing withand Faunce Street Showground Road.Route 5: Watt Street between N/A (potential addition) Upgrade footpath quality along the Short TermFaunce Street and Erina western side of Watt Street betweenStreet + Erina Street between Faunce Street and Erina StreetWatt Street and Mann Street (approximately 200m).Source: Gosford City Centre PAMP (GTA Consultants, 2009) and AECOMIn addition to the potential amendments to the measures in the Gosford city centre PAMP, additional measures toupgrade pedestrian facilities in Gosford on key routes and between key origins and destinations arerecommended. The identification of these routes follows a gap analysis on the PAMP routes, site visits to identifyneed for improvements and the review of existing and proposed routes highlighted in Sections 3.1 and 3.2. Thepotential additional pedestrian route upgrades recommended are shown in Figure 3.3 and described below.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 19
  • 24. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMThe potential packages of measures, additional to the PAMP routes, are set out below: Route W1: Hills Street / Watt Street between Lindsey Street and Erina Street; - Replacement of sub-standard pedestrian footpaths between City Centre, rail station interchange and residential development north of the City Centre. Widen to minimum recommended 1.2m and improve quality. Route W2: Hely Street between Donnison Street West and waterfront; - Provide footpath to link residential land uses to the City Centre and rail station interchange and between the leisure uses on Hely Street and surrounding residential development. Route W3: Provide footpaths on both sides of Pacific Highway, between Dwyer Street and Henry Parry Drive.Figure 3.3 Additional recommended pedestrian improvements (excluding those already identified PAMP routes)Source: AECOMK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 20
  • 25. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMPedestrian access between West Gosford and the Gosford City Centre requires further investigation with keystakeholders. There are a range of potential pedestrian links in addition to the station overbridge including atDonnison and Etna Streets. The Draft Masterplan for the Renewal of Gosford City Centre recommends thatGosford City Council provide a pedestrian and cycle bridge at Erina Street connecting through existing car parks.The feasibility of providing further pedestrian connections east-west across the railway line will need to beinformed through detailed investigations and cost benefit analysis as part of a broader access strategy for theWest Gosford area linked to future growth.All measures are grouped into short term (to 2016), medium term (to 2021) and long term (to 2036) timescales forimplementation, in line with the suggested target implementation dates, as shown in the table below. Costs arenot provided and will be subject to detailed design.Table 3.2 Pedestrian Package of Measures II - additions to PAMP routes/ measuresRef Description Timescale for implementationW1 Hills Street / Watt Street between Lindsey Street and Etna Street Short TermW2 Hely Street between Donnison Street West and waterfront Short TermW3 Pacific Highway footpaths (between Dwyer Street and Henry Parry Drive) Short TermSource: AECOMK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 21
  • 26. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM4.0 Cycling4.1 IntroductionThe level of existing cycling, especially for journeys to work in Gosford is very low (less than 1%). The potentialfor cycling in Gosford is hindered by a lack of connectivity and a lack of attractive routes and facilities through thecity centre, and between Gosford and surrounding areas. Barriers to cycling also exist in the form of the localtopography and physical infrastructure such as the railway line through the centre of Gosford, which constraineast-west movements to existing road crossings and Gosford station concourse.The majority of cycling activity currently occurs along the coastal walk, on the existing cycle path, and for accessto the Gosford Transport Interchange, confirmed by the number of parked bicycles at the station interchange.The potential measures in this section seek to improve the connectivity and amenity for bicycle trips, for access toGosford city centre, as a mode of travel to other centres and notably for journeys to work into Gosford city centre,including provision of trip end facilities for commuter cyclists.4.2 Existing and Planned Bicycle Facilities4.2.1 Existing Bicycle FacilitiesThe major regional cycle routes between the major town centres in the areas surrounding the study area arelimited and currently include the following: an off road cycleway between Umina Beach and Point Clare; an off road cycleway between East Gosford and Erina; an off road cycleway between Erina and Green Point; and an off road cycleway between Forresters Beach and Wamberal.There are relatively few local cycle routes within the study area and these are not well connected to major landuses in the area or the surrounding regional bicycle network. The major existing cycle route in the study area isthe off road cycle lane along the waterfront south of Gosford, between Point Frederick and Umina Beach.Significant volumes of cyclists were however observed using this off road path (Figure 4.1) which demonstratesthat where attractive cycle infrastructure is provided for cyclists it is currently well utilised. Therefore further cycleroutes to connect to this existing cycle path and to link to the city centre and the waterfront should be considered.Provision for secure cycle facilities is limited within the city centre, with the exception of the Transport Interchangewhere 20 secure bicycle lockers are provided for cyclists accessing the station by bike. During site visits it wasnoted that existing racks and lockers are currently fully utilised (as seen in Figure 4.2), suggesting that there isunmet demand for additional secure bicycle parking within the city centre. RailCorp have advised that 20 newbicycle parking facilities will be provided at Gosford station in 2010.Figure 4.1 Well utilised shared path along the waterfront Figure 4.2 Well utilised bicycle racks at stationSource: AECOMK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 22
  • 27. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM4.2.2 Planned Bicycle FacilitiesGosford City Council is committed to encouraging cycling as a legitimate alternative means of transport byproviding safe and convenient cycling routes in the study area and surroundings. A number of local cycleways areproposed by Gosford City Council as part of the NSW Coastline Cycleways Strategy (2009) and the Draft GosfordBike Strategy (2010). The Gosford City Cycleways map is shown below in Figure 4.3.The objective of Council’s Bicycle Policy is to create a shared road space for cyclists and to provide a safe link forcommuter and recreational cyclists along the Brisbane Water Foreshore, linking the commercial settlements of theWoy Woy Peninsula, Gosford and Terrigal. Another objective is to promote cycling as an alternative mode oftransport that is energy efficient and responds to relevant local and global issues such as obesity, affordableliving, climate change and energy.The main local cycleways recommended are the link to Point Clare along the railway causeway and the on-roadcycleway along Mann Street through the main part of Gosford city centre. In addition as opportunities fordevelopment in West Gosford, as identified in the Gosford Masterplan, are realised the need for increased bicycleparking on the West side of Gosford station should be identified. As part of any feasibility analysis into improvedaccess from West Gosford opportunities for improved cycle connections across the rail line should be considered.The aims developed from Council’s bicycle strategy have been taken into consideration for this TMAP, andrecommendations on cycle access build on council’s bicycle strategy.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 23
  • 28. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMFigure 4.3: Gosford City Cycleways mapSource: Gosford City Council, July 2009K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 24
  • 29. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM4.3 Cycling Package of MeasuresThe review of existing cycle facilities and conditions within the study area has revealed that there is a number oflocations where improvements could be made that would enhance the network by providing for existing trippatterns and desire lines as well as encouraging more cycling trips in future.The Gosford City Centre bicycle network plan under council bicycle policy is extensive and in general covers theroutes most likely to be used as cycle routes based on journey to work data. It has therefore been used as a basisfor improvements to the existing regional and local bicycle network. The following sections outline theserecommendations and where appropriate, suggest amendments to the existing plans in order to maximise futurecycling trips within and outside the study area and to further improve connectivity and accessibility for thesetransport modes. The development of a package of measures for cycling has been established based on thefollowing criteria identified in the bicycle plan: Link popular destinations with local residential areas; Be consistent and uninterrupted; Be easy to use for all types of riders and provide clear direction along the route; Have consistent quality of cycle facilities along the routes; Be easy to find; Avoid long detours and balance against problems of topography; Ensure bike riders are able to maintain a safe, comfortable and consistent; Operating speed throughout the length of the route; Safely accommodate bike riders, pedestrians and vehicles; and Be enjoyable to ride and well maintained.The potential cycle route network improvements recommended for the study area, are shown in Figure 4.4 andlisted below. These are based on major key trip attractors, journey to work data and observed cycle movements. Route C1: Existing rail causeway between Point Clare and Gosford waterfront (subject to more detailed safety and feasibility analysis by RailCorp and Transport NSW in terms of corridor feasibility and safety); Route C2: Connection between waterfront and Mann Street, via Baker St; Route C3: Along Mann St between Dane Drive and Etna Street; Route C4: East Gosford to Gosford Waterfront along Dane Drive; Route C5: Faunce Street West between Racecourse Road and Showground Road (based on assumption of Faunce St West / Racecourse Road Intersection Upgrade); Route C6: Racecourse Road between Faunce Street West and Dane Drive; Route C7: Across bridge connecting Racecourse Road to the West Gosford Industrial Estate; Route C8: Between intersection of Racecourse Road / Faunce Street West, continuing north along Showground Road; and Route C9: Investigation of the feasibility of options for future cycleway connections East-West across the railway line at Etna Street, Erina Street and Donnison Street.In addition to these routes, high level amendments have been recommended to the regional bicycle network. Thepotential package of measures for the regional and local bicycle network is described in the following sections.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 25
  • 30. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMFigure 4.4: Key cycle routes within the study areaSource: AECOMK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 26
  • 31. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMRegional cycle networkGosford City Council has developed the Draft Gosford Bike Strategy (2010) to promote cycling as an alternativemode of transport that is energy efficient and responds to serious local and global issues such as obesity,affordable living, climate change and energy. A review of the draft study has been undertaken, through the TMAP,using the following methodology:1) Establish where major employment origins and destinations (for example surrounding town centres) are based on Journey to Work data (2006);2) Establish catchment areas of approximately 10km around the identified routes (based on Draft Gosford Bike Strategy (2010) which suggests likely cycling catchments are nine times walking catchments of approximately 900m);3) Identify lack of bicycle routes based on major employment areas; and4) Undertake site visits to confirm the feasibility of our suggested amendments to the routes.Following this analysis, it is recommended to implement the routes proposed in the Gosford City Cycleways map(Figure 4.3) from the Draft Gosford Bike Strategy (2010), and the NSW Coastline Cycleways Strategy with thefollowing minor amendments to maximise the cycling catchment: Extend the cycleway along Davistown Road north to Mundoora Avenue, to provide a direct off road cycleway link for recreational cyclists to Green Point from Coomal Ave where the Kincumber to Davistown cycleway meets Davistown Rd; Extend the on road cycleway on Serpentine Road from Central Coast Highway at Erina Heights to Terrigal Drive; Extend the proposed off road cycleway connecting Gosford waterfront and East Gosford to include Point Frederick by providing dedicated on road cycleway (minimum 1.5m) extending to Pioneer Park; The proposed cycle plan connecting Niagara Park to Gosford has some minor gaps in off road cycleway provision. It is recommended that these stretches of on road cycleway be altered to off road cycleway to ensure greater ridership between Gosford, Narara, Wyoming, and Niagara Park. The specific sections are Deane Street between Hanlan Street South and Narara Valley Drive, Hanlan Street South between Deane Street and Carrington Street, and Showground Road between Manns Road and Wyoming Skate Park; and Extend the off road cycleway to Springfield shops (Spring Avenue) to ensure greater usage by cyclists and provide a designated route to Hylton Moore Park. From Spring Avenue, Springfield to East Gosford the proposed on-road route alignment follows Wells Street, a major arterial road providing an alternative access to Terrigal, Erina, and the north of the Central Coast. It is recommended to move this on-road cycleway to Maitland Road (Althorp Street). Being a local road it is more conducive to on road cycling.It should be noted that the feasibility of these recommendations have not been assessed in detail since they arelocated outside the study area. Further detailed analysis or feasibility studies regarding these recommendationswould have to be undertaken prior to implementation.Local cycle networkAs mentioned previously, the Draft Gosford Bike Strategy (2010) has been used as a basis for the development ofa package of measures for cyclists for this TMAP. The study area is within the identified catchment distancespeople are willing to cycle to reach their destination, which reinforces the importance of encouraging cycling as amode of transport.It is recommended that council review the draft strategic bicycle plan in light of these recommendations, inconsultation with the RTA, as part of their bicycle path construction program. The review should consider theNSW bicycle plan proposals outlined for Gosford as recommended under Action 2.2 of the NSW Bike Plan (2010)to improve subregional cycle networks serving Gosford. This includes the Central Coast Highway, Terrigal Drive,Avoca Drive and the Pacific Highway between Gosford and Ourimbah.Details of the potential package of measures for each local bicycle route are provided in Table 4.1. These optionsare subject to evaluation and availability of funding under the RTA bicycle path construction program which is a50:50 contribution from Council and NSW State Government.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 27
  • 32. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMAll measures are grouped into short term (to 2016), medium term (to 2021) and long term (to 2036) timescales forimplementation, in line with the suggested target implementation dates, as shown in the table below. Costs arenot provided and will be subject to detailed design.Table 4.1 Cycling Network Package of measures recommended by AECOMRef Description Timescale for implementationC1 Create cycleway via rail causeway between Point Clare and Gosford waterfront (subject Medium – Long to feasibility and safety review by RailCorp) TermC1a Construct elevated decking. Decking should be a minimum of 3m wide with a desirable width of 3.5m due to the heavy recreational usage expected along the route.C1b Construct bridge crossing. As with decking the bridge should have a minimum width of 3m; however a width of 3.5m is desirable.C2 Connection between waterfront and Mann Street, along Vaughan Avenue Short TermC2a In early 2011 Council will be commencing work to develop the Baker Street Boulevard between Donnison Street and Vaughan Avenue, connecting the City to the waterfront. On the eastern side will be a 4-6M shared pedestrian / cycle path.C3 Provide cycleway along Mann St between Dane Drive and Etna Street (subject to a Short Term review of balanced provision for footpaths, cyclists, public transport and parking).C3a Introduce a shared path with a minimum width of 2.5m* along the western side of Mann Street between Vaughn Avenue and Georgina Terrace.C3b Provide splitter islands at existing roundabout on eastern and western approaches of the Georgiana Terrace to ensure safe crossing point for cyclists.C3c Provide 1.5m on road cycleway on eastern and western side of Mann Street for cyclists by narrowing Mann Street in accordance with Austroads standards. At the intersections of Mann Street with Donnison Street and Erina Street, where a minimum on road cyclist lane of 1.5m cannot be achieved a shared lane for cyclists and cars should be implemented. This shared lane should be a maximum of 3.1m to ensure bus use is not compromised, as shown in Figure 4.6 and Figure 4.7. At the intersections of Donnison Street and Erina Street the kerbside or left hand lane should be shared where applicable. Removal of existing landscaping work may be required in certain locations to achieve minimum 1.5m cycle lane width.C3d Resume off-road cycleway on existing footpath between Erina Street and Burns Crescent. Minor widening of footpath can be considered but is not necessary to accommodate separated off road bicycle facilities.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 28
  • 33. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMRef Description Timescale for implementationC3e Along the western side of Mann Street between Burns Crescent and Faunce Street two footpaths exist; one running at a higher level and the other remaining at street level, as seen in Figure 4.5. Figure 4.5: Split level footpaths along western side of Mann Street It is recommended to split the uses of these paths, allowing for cyclists to use the bottom path and pedestrians to use the top path. It is also recommended to relocate the existing waiting area near the Faunce Street roundabout to western side of the pedestrian area allowing for additional seating for taxi rank patrons.C3f As a minimum an off road shared path should be provided on the western side of Mann Street between Faunce Street and Etna Street. Cross section analysis undertaken at various locations along this link between Burns Crescent and Etna Street indicates an existing footway width of at least 3.8m. It is recommended that the entire existing footpath be converted to a shared path. Removal of landscaping at the Faunce Street/ Mann Street roundabout may be required to ensure the minimum desirable shared path width of 2.5m is achieved.C4 Widen cycleway from East Gosford to Gosford Waterfront along Dane Drive Short TermC4a Widen footpath on southern side of Central Coast Highway between Frederick Street (East Gosford) and Gosford Waterfront to a minimum width of 2.5m with a desirable width of 3m provided adequate footpath width is available.C5 Create cycleway C6: Racecourse Road to Holden Street via Sinclair Street Short TermC5a Cyclists will cross at the marked crossing outside Henry Kendall High School on Racecourse Road. Upgrade the existing footpath along Racecourse Road to a shared path with a minimum width of 2.5m (3m desirable) to the (potential) crossing on Batley Street.C5b Upgrade existing footpath on Sinclair Street to the crossing on Cape Street North to a shared path with a minimum width of 2.5m (3m desirable). Minimal retaining wall work may be needed along Sinclair Street due to the small gradient in the verge.C5c Upgrade existing footpath along the northern side of Ward Street from the Cape Street North crossing to the intersection of Ward Street and Holden Street to shared path with a minimum of 2.5m, by removing existing light foliage and installing retaining walls and guardrail. Large trees to the south of the existing footpath between the intersection of Cape Street North and Ward Street and the hospital car park access form a constraint for widening the footpath. However, their removal would cause a loss of amenity to the path. It should be considered if widening is not appropriate on the northern side of the footpath to investigate the possibility of adopting a reduced shared path width for this component of the shared path link.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 29
  • 34. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMRef Description Timescale for implementationC5d Install a marked pedestrian crossing at the intersection of Ward Street and Holden Street on the Ward Street approach. Associated widening for the footpath on the western side of Holden Street to the Holden Street pedestrian crossing is also required. The shared path should be a minimum of 2.5m.C6 Create cycleway Racecourse Road between Faunce Street West and Dane Drive Short TermC6a Installation of footpath/cycleway on western side of Racecourse Road. Shared path must be a minimum of 2.5m* with a desirable width of 3.0m. Minor footpath widening required outside the Gosford Racecourse.C7 Create cycleway across bridge connecting Racecourse Road to the West Gosford Long Term Industrial Estate (subject to detailed cost benefit analysis).C7a Provide footpath/cycleway on each approach to bridge crossing. The recommended minimum clear width for a cycle path on a bridge is 3m.C7b Construct bridge crossing.C7c Install appropriate lighting along link.C8 Create cycleway between intersection of Racecourse Road / Faunce Street West, Short Term continuing north along Showground RoadC8a Provide footpath/cycleway on western/northern side of Racecourse Road until the Henry Kendall High School pedestrian crossing with a minimum width of 2.5m.C8b From the Henry Kendall High School pedestrian crossing to the Gosford Golf Club the footpath width is approximately 1.45m. A minimum width of 3m* is required. Where significant space in the verge does not exist it is suggested to narrow the existing carriageway by approximately 1m.C8c Provide a minimum shared path of 3m* between Gosford Golf Club to the intersection of Racecourse Road / Showground Road by reducing the current grass verge.C9 Investigation of the feasibility of options for future cycleway connections East-West Short-medium across the railway line potentially including Etna Street, Erina Street and Donnison Term StreetSource(s): AECOM; RTA 2010.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 30
  • 35. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMFigure 4.6 demonstrates the use of a mixed traffic environment with cyclists and cars. However; as statedpreviously, to provide for buses a minimum lane width of 3.2m is recommended as opposed to 2.9m as shownbelow.Figure 4.6: Example of mixed bicycle and traffic lane on the local road networkSource: City of Sydney (2007) Cycle Strategy and Action Plan 2007-2017Figure 4.7 provides a view of design requirements for an on road bicycle lane, based on Austroads standards.Figure 4.7: On Road Bicycle Lane RequirementsSource: Austroads (2009) Guide to Road Design Part 3: Geometric DesignK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 31
  • 36. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM4.4 End of Trip FacilitiesA major barrier to cycling is a lack of suitable end of trip facilities, particularly for journeys to work. Commutercyclists require secure bicycle parking as well as showers, change rooms and lockers at their place of work tomaximise convenience of cycle, as well as pedestrian, commuting.Provision of end of trip facilities also has the potential to increase bicycle travel to public transport interchangesand major generators such as schools and shopping centres. There are currently a limited number of bicyclefacilities such as lockers, showers and dedicated bicycle parking within Gosford city centre.High quality bicycle parking should have the following characteristics: Convenient – parking should be located in close proximity to the cyclist’s destination. In the case of railway stations, parking should be located as close as possible to the station entrance. It is important to minimise the distance a cyclist has to travel after they dismount to minimise trip disruption; Secure – parking should be secure and within a high visibility area; Sheltered – parking should be sheltered from the weather; Visible and well lit – parking should have high surveillance and be well lit at night; Easy to use – parking should be easy to use and provide signage to assist new users; Safe from obstructions – parking should be located clear of pedestrian and motor vehicle movements; and Signage – should clearly identify the location of parking facilities.The NSW Bicycle Guidelines6 recommend the use of medium or high density parking facilities in situations wherethe floor space available for bicycle parking is at a premium cost and user demand is substantial, such as towncentres, railway stations and transport interchanges. Bicycle parking space requirements are provided in the NSWBicycle Guidelines.The amount of bicycle parking required depends on the future cycle demand. It has been demonstrated that, ingeneral, more bicycle parking spaces results in greater usage. Therefore, providing more parking spaces willserve to encourage cycling. Based on this, a package of measures has been recommended to improve andincrease end of trip facilities along identified major cycle routes, as shown in Table 4.2.It is worth noting that the majority, if not all residents in West Gosford are within easy walking and cycling distanceof the station and City Centre. The need therefore for bicycle parking on the west of the station needsconsideration in line with the development in West Gosford, envisaged under the draft Gosford Master Plan.All measures are grouped into short term (to 2016), medium term (to 2021) and long term (to 2036) timescales forimplementation, in line with the suggested target implementation dates, as shown in the table below. Costs arenot provided and will be subject to detailed design.Table 4.2 End of trip facilities package of measures recommended by AECOMRef Description Timescale for implementationC11 Increase the number of secure bike parking at the Gosford Interchange and investigate Short Term opportunities and timing for adequate additional parking on the West of Gosford station.C12 Provide approximately 20 additional U-rails along Mann Street within the city centre. Short TermC13 Provide additional cycle parking (secure bike parking/ U-rails) at key trip generators such as Short Term Gosford High School, Gosford City Council building, Gosford Hospital, and Gosford WaterfrontSource: AECOM6 NSW Bicycle Guidelines, Roads and Traffic Authority, 2003K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 32
  • 37. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM4.5 Active travel choices strategyIn addition to the identified ‘hard measures’, travel behaviour change programs are recommended to encourageactive travel choices such as walking and cycling. As an additional package of measure it is thereforerecommended to implement ‘soft’ measures to promote cycling as a mode of transport as part of a travelbehaviour change program which would include the following: Provision of cycling training; Preparation and promotion of walking and cycling maps; Implementation of signs for pedestrians and cyclists; and Promotion of ‘non car day’ events.More detail on the recommended travel demand management measures in provided in Section 9.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 33
  • 38. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM5.0 Buses5.1 OverviewAccording to the 2006 Journey to Work data, the current mode share of public transport in the Central CoastRegion is relatively low especially in comparison to surrounding areas. Bus travel represents only 1.9% of journeyto work trips to Gosford City Centre.The Central Coast region is broken up into two bus contract regions which operate services under contract toTNSW through the Outer Metropolitan Bus Contract (OMBSC) scheme. These regions are OMBSC ContractRegion 6, which is operated by Busways encompassing the Gosford City Centre and a large portion of Gosfordand Wyong Local Government Areas (LGA), OMBSC Contract Region 7 operated by Redbus, significantly smallerthan Region 6, operating services to Gosford City Centre from the eastern part of Gosford and Wyong LGA’s.In December 2009, both Busways and Redbus presented a proposed Integrated Network Plan to the community,which is required under the OMBSC. The Integrated Network Plan defines the specification for Bus Services thatidentifies the Contract Service Levels and Route Networks which replaces the Initial Service Plan under thecurrent contract. The proposed Integrated Network Plan is shown in Error! Reference source not found.(overleaf), and a map of existing bus routes within Gosford City Centre is provided at Figure 5.1.Figure 5.1: Gosford City Centre Bus Network prior to November 2010Source: Busways / RedBus, 2010K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 34
  • 39. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMFigure 5.2: Central Coast Region - Integrated Bus Network Plan (November 2010)Source: NSW Government, 2010.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 35
  • 40. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM5.2 Gosford Transport InterchangeThe Central Coast bus network covers the majority of residential areas surrounding Gosford, with most busservices using Gosford Transport Interchange as a focal point in the network. Transport NSW will continue tomonitor the performance of Gosford Transport Interchange in meeting the needs of customers and bus operators.The layout of the Gosford Transport Interchange (Figure 5.3) provides good legibility for bus passengers with busservices grouped by route/ direction to assist bus passengers to understand service destinations. Good signage isprovided to direct passengers (Figure 5.4) and covered seating areas and cycle facilities, such as bike lockersFigure 5.5.Figure 5.3: Layout of Gosford Bus InterchangeSource: AECOMFigure 5.4: Bus Stand Information Figure 5.5: Bicycle LockerSource: AECOM Source: AECOMK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 36
  • 41. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMThe Gosford City Centre Renewal Master Plan identifies the opportunity to create a transit oriented developmentat Gosford Interchange, which could include employment and residential developments, together with a highquality bus/rail interchange. The proposed development would also work to overcome the grade differencebetween Mann Street in the east and Holden Street in the west, across the rail line and Showground Road. Aconcept schematic of the potential development is provided in Figure 5.6.The potential to provide a transit oriented development that overcomes the grade change within the city andlessens the severance caused by the railway should be encouraged and pursued if feasible with private sectorfunding. This would be a catalyst project for Gosford and would create a transport focussed gateway to the CityCentre.Figure 5.6: Concept Sketch of potential interchange developmentSource: Gosford Renewal Master Plan, Gosford City Council, 20095.3 Bus Network AnalysisAnalysis of potential trip origins for journeys to work into Gosford City Centre, as shown in Figure 5.7, hasidentified six key bus corridors, which are grouped below into existing corridors and potential future corridors:Existing corridors Gosford to The Entrance / Killarney Vale (Corridor 1) Gosford to Terrigal / Avoca (Corridor 2) Gosford to Woy Woy / Ettalong (Corridor 3)Potential future corridors Gosford to North Gosford/ Ourimbah (Corridor 4) Gosford to Saratoga/ Copacabana / Kincumber (Corridor 5) Gosford to Kariong (Corridor 6)Table 5.1 provides an analysis of the patronage potential on each of the six corridors (excluding Corridor 6-Kariong due to issues with the travel zone size). With current bus patronage into Gosford City Centre at around200 trips, this table illustrates significant potential for increased patronage, with Corridor 1 (Gosford to TheEntrance/ Killarney Vale) having the highest potential for increased patronage, with over 11,000 existing tripsmade within this corridor alone, both to Gosford and back loading to other destinations on the corridor.All key bus corridors have a significant existing bus catchment, with the exception of Kariong /Somersby, which isidentified for its potential future purpose as both the main route into Gosford from the West, a location ofsignificant population growth, and as a possible location for park and ride services between the Karionginterchange and Gosford city centre.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 37
  • 42. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMThe key bus corridor designation is considered to support high quality, easy to understand, easily recognisablebus services on major routes with high potential patronage between key towns and cities on the Central Coast,ensuring that bus services become considered a viable alternative option to the car.Table 5.1: Assessment of potential key bus corridor patronage (number of trips to or from destinations within corridor catchments) Origin Destination 1 2 3 4 5 North East South North South East East Central Coast Gosford (excluding Gosford) (5 zones) 2,715 1,531 920 2,302 1,729 Gosford Central Coast (5 zones) (excluding Gosford) 839 555 311 421 187 Central Coast Central Coast (excluding Gosford) (excluding Gosford) 7,921 1,804 1,403 1,484 1,017 TOTAL (on corridor) 11,475 3,890 2,634 4,207 2,933Source: 2006 Journey to Work dataset, Transport Data Centre.Note - excluding: (1) intra-zonal trips; (2) intra-zonal trips within 5 Gosford zonesFigure 5.7: Origin of trips to Gosford City Centre and Key Bus Route Corridors Corridor 4 Corridor 1 Corridor 6 Corridor 2 Corridor 5 Corridor 3Source: 2006 Census, Transport Data Centre; and Central Coast Integrated Network PlanK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 38
  • 43. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMThe existing bus services operating on the six key bus route corridors are described in Table 5.2. With theexception of services to The Entrance and Killarney Vale, most bus services operate at an average frequency ofapproximately 30 minutes during the peak periods.The key bus route corridors identified through the TMAP reflect the latest proposed planning of Strategic Corridorsfor the Central Coast and support the development of key routes to significant trip origins and destinations, forexample to/ from Gosford, Terrigal, Killarney Vale, Tuggerah, and The Entrance.Table 5.2: Existing and Potential Bus Frequencies – by key corridorService Description Peak Headway 1 Existing Potential Corridor 1: The Entrance/Killarney Vale to Gosford (North East)11 The Entrance to Gosford 20 1512 North Entrance to Gosford (combined (combined21 North Entrance to Gosford via Bay Village & Bateau Bay East frequency) frequency)22 The Entrance to Gosford via Killarney Vale & Bay Village23 The Entrance to Gosford via Killarney Vale & Bay Village Corridor 2: Terrigal to Gosford (East)67 Gosford to Erina Fair, Terrigal & North Avoca 60 2068 Gosford to Erina Fair, Wamberal & Terrigal 60 20 Corridor 3: Woy Woy/ Ettalong to Gosford (South)55 Gosford to Point Claire, Tascott, Woy Woy, Umina & Ettalong 30 30 Corridor 4: North Gosford to Gosford (North)36 Gosford to Narara, Niagara Park, Ourimbah & Tuggerah 30 2037 Gosford to Lisarow, Settlers Park, Ourimbah & Tuggerah 30 2038 Gosford to Wyoming 30 2040 Gosford to North Gosford & North Gosford private Hospital 30 20 Corridor 5: Copacabana to Gosford (South East)63 Gosford to Green Point, Saratoga & Davistown 30 2066A Gosford to Kincumber & Avoca Beach 30 2066C Gosford to Kincumber & Copacabana 30 20 Corridor 6: Kariong to Gosford (West)33 Gosford to West Gosford & Somersby Industrial areas 30 3034 Gosford to Kariong, Somersby, Mangrove Mountain & Spencer 30 30Note(s): 1. Potential frequencies to be implemented subject to further feasibility investigation and funding in line with development along corridors.Around 2,000 of the 10,000 new residents in Gosford City Centre will live in the western part of the city, south ofWaterview Park on Donnison Street West. These residents will be served by Service 34 via Racecourse Roadand could walk or cycle into the City Centre. The remaining growth is seen in the centre of Gosford and theWaterfront Precinct which are both served by the majority of bus services operating within Gosford City Centre.Together, these corridors have a significant potential to transfer car trips to bus services. The focus of the firstrecommendation is therefore the establishment of four strategic bus corridors into Gosford, with an averageminimum service frequency of 15 minutes for Corridor 1 North East to The Entrance/ Killarney Vale and 20minutes for Corridors 2 East to Terrigal, 4 North – to Ourimbah and 5 South East to Saratoga and Copacabana.This TMAP does not propose an enhancement of commuter services to the south of Gosford to Woy Woy. Whilstenhancements of bus services on all corridors into Gosford would ideally be desirable, the cost-benefit of majorimprovements to services south of Gosford would compete with an existing rail corridor and likely generate littleadditional patronage benefit between rail stations on this route.Furthermore, whilst no improvements to services to Kariong and areas West of Gosford are recommended at thisstage, this is a corridor which could, subject to future population and employment growth, demand furtherinvestigation. Further investigation and analysis could be re-assess service expansion on this corridor, and shouldalso consider services to/ from any potential park and ride and/ or car share site near the Kariong F3 interchange.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 39
  • 44. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM5.4 City Centre Loop Bus and Hospital Shuttle BusWithin Gosford City Centre, service 41 provides a bus loop via Donnison Street West, Faunce Street West,Holden Street and Showground Road. However, this service operates every two hours during the day.In addition, to assist people with mobility difficulties to access the Gosford Hospital Precinct, a free courtesyshuttle bus service is operated by Gosford Hospital between the railway station and the Hospitals main entrancein Holden Street. The service runs every 15 minutes between 8.00am - 11.15am and 12.00pm - 4.00pm.The Gosford Challenge Masterplan identified the potential to expand the city centre loop service into a continuousloop service. Figure 5.8 shows the proposed loop in blue with other bus routes presented in green. The proposedblue route is approximately 3.5km long, with the green route (the western section of which is covered by theexisting route) adding an additional 2.5km, making the route length 6km in total. The potential need for a CityCentre Loop bus will be further considered by Transport NSW to establish the benefits of improving bus access tothe Gosford Hospital precinct and the City Centre.Figure 5.8: City Centre Bus LoopSource: The Gosford Challenge Masterplan, 2009K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 40
  • 45. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM5.5 Other Bus OpportunitiesBus PriorityPotential locations for bus priority are discussed in Section 7. In the future, as traffic demands and volumesincrease, the time benefit would increase, while maintaining average bus running speeds at 2010 levels.TicketingTo reduce boarding times (and hence increase bus running speeds) in future, buses operating on principle routesshould move from a balance of pay-on-board to electronic or pre-pay tickets, with an information campaign tomake passengers aware of their options. A staged approach could potentially see morning peak in-bound andevening peak out-bound services move to solely electronic or pre-pay ticketing, with all services following as theelectronic or pre-pay ticketing processes become better accepted.To ensure that all passengers are still able to access bus services operating to and from Gosford City Centre, itwould be recommended that some services accepting cash fares are made available to ensure that no-one istransport disadvantaged by the introduction of an electronic or prepay only method of payment on bus services.Bus Corridor initiativesTo encourage modal shift to buses it is recommended that a network of corridors is created, on which the featuresthat make buses more competitive with the private car and make buses easier to use, more recognisable andmore attractive are adopted.This concept has been successfully implemented through Metrobus routes in NSW.Potential Park and Ride Locations – East Gosford and Kariong InterchangeThe potential exists to provide park and ride facilities outside Gosford City Centre, to reduce car trips into thecentral area with external parking sites and high frequency bus corridors. Two locations that have potential forpark and ride facilities are East of Gosford (either East Gosford OR east of Gosford) near Erina and to the West,at Kariong. A location near to Erina would be able to capture trips which originate to the east of Gosford CityCentre from destinations such as The Entrance, Long Jetty, Bateau Bay, Terrigal and Avoca. Erina is situated onan established bus corridor, which has the catchment and demand to support a higher frequency bus service. Aninvestigation into the proposal would need to consider the potential impacts on bus viability and congestion.Kariong would also be a suitable location for increased bus frequency and a park and ride station to serve tripsfrom the West and inbound into Gosford city centre from the F3 Freeway corridor. Increased travel demand is alsoexpected into Kariong as a growing employment area, therefore a park and ride site here would not only serveinbound trips to Gosford City Centre but also reverse trips originating or linking through Gosford City Centre with aKariong as a destination.The investigation of a Kariong park and ride station for Gosford should also consider the potential to capturedemand for car share trips which originate in Gosford and have onward destinations further afield such asSydney, Newcastle and the Lower Hunter via the F3 Freeway and Pacific Highway. Bus services could facilitatetrips out to Kariong from Gosford, whilst a park and ride station provides a safe, convenient location forinterchange and parking close to the Freeway.Bus priority measures are important to park and ride operations, as with quality or strategic bus corridors in orderto provide a reliable, consistent link between origin and destination and to provide a time benefit to bus trips overcar trips. There would also need to be greater parking control, in Gosford to encourage people to use park andride servicing the city centre. Park and ride schemes have tended to use a dedicated branded bus fleet to raiseawareness of the system and have a marketing and branding campaign to make car drivers aware of the service.To support bus measures, parking restrictions and constraints such as time restrictions, tariff changes and othersupply and demand management measures need to be implemented. More detail on walking measures isincluded in Section 4, cycling measures, Section 5, parking Section 8 and travel demand management inSection 9.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 41
  • 46. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM5.6 RailExisting rail services to Gosford provide connectivity between Gosford and trip origins and destinations within theCentral Coast, such as Wyong to the north and Woy Woy to the south, as well as providing a direct connection fortravel to major external destinations such as Newcastle and Sydney.This TMAP recognises the importance for rail travel to Gosford and focuses on onward access by public transport(bus), walking and cycling for access into Gosford city centre and surrounding areas for those people who arriveinto Gosford by rail. The rail station and the transport interchange will remain integral to public transport inGosford. As stated above, future transit oriented development (TOD) should be encouraged and pursued butwould need substantial private sector funding. TOD could be a major catalyst project for Gosford, creating atransport gateway to the City Centre which could influence perception of public transport accessibility to Gosford.Whilst the focus of the report is on commuter trips into Gosford, the role of commuter car parking at upstreamstations has not been discounted. Whilst primarily these car parks, developed under the commuter car parksprogram, provide for commuting to the higher order centres of Newcastle and Sydney, there is a linked benefit forGosford as they provide a potential alternative for commuters driving to Gosford as they have an alternativeoption to drive to a local station and use rail for onward journeys into Gosford.5.7 Recommended Bus Initiatives – Bus Package of MeasuresThe potential bus improvement initiatives for the Gosford City Centre are summarised in Table 5.3 and will beconsidered by Transport NSW in finalising its current Bus Network Review.All measures are grouped into short term (to 2016), medium term (to 2021) and long term (to 2036) timescales forimplementation, in line with the suggested target implementation dates, as shown in the table below. Costs arenot provided and will be subject to detailed design.Table 5.3: Potential Bus Service ImprovementsRef Description Timescale for implementationB1 Consider feasibility of increasing frequency to the North of Gosford, establishing a North Short Term Gosford to Gosford key bus route corridor (increasing average frequencies to a minimum of 20 minutes). Subject to a detailed patronage demand analysis.B2 Consider a potential key bus route corridor from The Entrance to Gosford (Erina Fair) with Short Term increasing average frequencies subject to detailed patronage demand analysis.B3 Consider a potential key bus route corridor connecting Terrigal to Gosford with increasing Short Term average frequencies subject to detailed patronage demand analysis.B4 Consider feasibility of increasing frequency to the South-East of Gosford, establishing a Short Term Saratoga/ Copacabana to Gosford key bus route corridor (increasing average frequencies to a minimum of 20 minutes). Subject to a detailed patronage demand analysis.B5 To minimise bus stop dwell times, implement use of Pre-Pay tickets on all identified key bus Short Term - route corridors into Gosford. This would be an interim measure, to be replaced in the medium Medium Term term by electronic ticketing.B6 Continue to provide Bus Priority works between Erina Fair and Gosford City Centre as part of Ongoing future road upgrades.B7 Apply MetroBus principles of infrastructure, easily recognisable bus services and service Short Term improvements to all key bus route corridors.B8 Gosford City Council, in collaboration with key stakeholders, to examine the potential for TOD Medium Term focused on the Gosford station precinct as discussed in the Gosford City Centre Renewal Master Plan.B9 Investigate potential feasibility of Park & Ride Stations at Kariong (West) and Erina (East) with Medium Term Park & Ride services to/ from Gosford.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 42
  • 47. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM6.0 Ferry6.1 OverviewThe Central Coast is typified by coastal towns on bays within Brisbane Water. Historically, Gosford had a thrivingferry service, but over time with better road and rail connections ferry services have been discontinued intoGosford, with limited ferry services in the Gosford Region. Palm Beach Ferry Service and Central Coast Ferriesprovide regular route services, while Starship Cruises offers day cruises and charter hire.6.1.1 Palm Beach Ferry ServiceTwo regular passenger routes are operated by Palm Beach Ferry Service in the Palm Beach area: Palm Beach to Wagstaff and Ettalong on the Central Coast - Palm Beach to Ettalong via Wagstaff (30 minute trip, approximately hourly) - Ettalong to Palm Beach (25 minute trip, approximately hourly) - Wagstaff to Palm Beach via Ettalong6.1.2 Central Coast FerriesCentral Coast Ferries operates two services in the Woy Woy region, as shown in Figure 6.1 and Figure 6.2: Woy Woy to Empire Bay service and corresponding return service (30 minute trip, approximately hourly); and Woy Woy to Ettalong twice-daily round trip service that links with the Palm Beach Ferry Service.Figure 6.1: Woy Woy to Empire Bay Figure 6.2: Woy Woy to EttalongSource: Central Coast Ferries, 2010 Source: Central Coast Ferries, 2010K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 43
  • 48. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM6.2 Potential catchment analysisTo understand the potential catchment for a ferry service to Gosford, an analysis of trip origins to Gosford CityCentre from locations served by ferry wharves has been undertaken. The travel zones and ferry wharves used inthe analysis are shown in Figure 6.3. It is noted that the ferry wharf in Gosford is some distance from the CBDwhich makes it less attractive as an access mode especially as this may necessitate an onward journey byanother mode.Figure 6.3: Origin of Trips to Gosford City Centre from ferry wharf catchmentsSource: AECOMK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 44
  • 49. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMTable 6.1 shows existing trips to Gosford City Centre from catchments served by ferry wharves. This indicatesapproximately 600 trips could be made by ferry, with 97% of those (580 trips) being made by car. This is notunexpected as there are not currently regular ferry services to Gosford, but it does indicate that the provision of aferry service would not be likely to transfer people from existing public transport services, but would transferpeople from cars.The majority of trips are being made from Saratoga, with marginal travel from Woy Woy, Ettalong and EmpireBay. As shown in Table 6.2, there is little residential growth forecast within the ferry catchment zones to supportnew or improved services.Table 6.1: Ferry catchment potentialTRAVEL ZONE within 800m of: FERRY WHARF - REFERENCE JOURNEY TO WORK (2006 CENSUS) ID (s) Name (s) Car Train Bus Other TOTAL2,944 Sandy Beach 1 Palm Beach 0 0 0 0 02,945 Ku-ring-gai Chase NP - 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Bennetts, Bonnie Doon, 0 0 0 0 0 West Head The Basin, Currawong, Great Mackerel Beach2,999 Saratoga Ferry Wharf 11 Saratoga Veterans Hall 244 3 7 6 2603,002 Davistown Ferry Wharf 12, 13, 14 Lintern Street, 86 0 0 0 86 Lintern St Davistown Central, Pine Avenue3,006 Empire Bay 15 Empire Bay 96 0 0 0 963,008 Putty Beach 8, 9 Wagstaffe, Killcare 56 0 0 0 563,049 Woy Woy Station 10 Woy Woy 38 9 0 0 473,055 Ettalong Markets 7 Ettalong 56 3 0 0 59 Ettalong BeachTOTAL (POTENTIAL) 576 15 7 6 604Table 6.2: Residential growth potential within ferry catchment areasTRAVEL ZONE FERRY WHARF - Populationwithin 800m of: REFERENCE 2006 2011 2016 2021 2026 2031 2036Sandy Beach Palm Beach 2,183 2,252 2,268 2,271 2,277 2,284 2,291 Bennetts, Bonnie Doon, The Basin,Ku-ring-gai Chase Currawong, GreatNP -West Head Mackerel Beach 341 363 372 381 387 396 404Saratoga Ferry Saratoga VeteransWharf Hall 4,258 4,269 4,269 4,298 4,355 4,412 4,486 Lintern Street,Davistown Ferry Davistown Central,Wharf Lintern St Pine Avenue 2,356 2,363 2,366 2,383 2,417 2,450 2,492Empire Bay Empire Bay 2,974 2,979 2,981 2,999 3,040 3,079 3,130Putty Beach Wagstaffe, Killcare 1,838 1,856 1,859 1,881 1,911 1,944 1,983Woy Woy Station Woy Woy 2,976 3,495 3,785 4,272 4,678 5,166 5,639Ettalong MarketsEttalong Beach Ettalong 3,490 3,508 3,614 3,700 3,838 3,953 4,103TOTAL (POTENTIAL) 22,421 23,097 23,530 24,206 24,929 25,714 26,565The draft Central Coast Regional Transport Strategy addresses long term planning for ferries on the CentralCoast, advising that the Government would be willing to consider deregulation of ferry routes in certaincircumstances. Regulatory change allowing operators to provide services without the need for a service contractwith the Government may be considered where it would not impact on the legal rights of any existing serviceproviders.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 45
  • 50. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM7.0 Road network7.1 IntroductionGosford City Centre is bounded by the Central Coast Highway (Dane Drive) and Gosford Waterfront to the south,Henry Parry Drive to the east, Etna Street to the north and Racecourse Road (or the Narara Creek) to the north-west.Mann Street forms the north-south spine of the city centre with indented parking bays, pedestrian crossings andlandscaping. It provides a direct connection to the Gosford Transport Interchange, with access to the pedestrianmall on William Street and the east-west links over the rail line located at Etna Street, Donnison Street and DaneDrive.The Central Coast Highway (Dane Drive), traversing the Gosford Waterfront, forms part of the strategic roadnetwork and provides a significant east west connection between the Central Coast and the Sydney NewcastleFreeway. This corridor forms part of the Gosford City Centre network, providing the only linkage between the citycentre and the waterfront.The existing road network for the Gosford City Centre is illustrated in Figure 7.1 on the following page.7.2 Road HierarchyThere are two main systems which are used to classify roads systems in New South Wales; they are the“functional classification” and the “administrative classification” systems. The main distinction between the two isthat the functional class is based on usage, while the administrative class defines the jurisdictional responsibilityof the road corridor. Each system has a different purpose and objective as outlined below.7.2.1 Functional ClassificationAs outlined in the RTA’s “Network and Corridor Planning Practice Notes”, the main purpose of defining a road’sfunctional class is to provide a basis for establishing policies which will guide the management of the road. Thefunctional class of a road reflects its intended role and guides the traffic management principles appropriate toachieve a balance between mobility and access. The following functional classes are of significance to theGosford City road network: Arterial roads – fulfilling a role as a major inter-regional link, providing connections between motorways and sub-arterial roads. Traffic movement is considered a higher priority than access, with focus on capacity and congestion management. Arterial roads typically carry over 20,000 vehicles per day7; Sub-arterial roads – providing a supporting role to arterial roads, connecting the arterial road to collector and local roads. Distribute traffic and bus services within residential, commercial and industrial built up areas with strategies requiring a balance between traffic movement function and the need for access. Sub-arterial roads within the Sydney metropolitan area typically carry 10,000 to 20,000 vehicles per day; Collector roads – serve several functions such as providing access surrounding streets, access for emergency and service vehicles, movement of pedestrians and cyclists, limited property access and providing a means to enable social intersection. Collector roads typically carry 5,000 to 10,000 vehicles per day. Local roads – providing access to individual properties, carrying low volumes, with typically less than 4,000 vehicles per day.Peak hour flows are typically 8% to 12% of total daily flows. A figure showing the functional road hierarchy (basedon existing traffic volumes) within Gosford City Centre is provided below in Figure 7.1 together with the surveyedtraffic volumes.7 Roads Design Guide, RTAK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 46
  • 51. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMFigure 7.1 Gosford City Centre Road Network - Functional HierarchySource: AECOMK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 47
  • 52. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM7.2.2 Administrative ClassificationAdministrative or legal road classifications define the jurisdictional responsibility for the care and control of theroad network and the basis of sharing funding between responsible agencies. In NSW the administrativeclassification of roads includes “State Roads”, “Regional Roads” and “Local Roads’, and is defined as follows: State Roads – formed by the primary network of traffic routes for people within the urban centres of Sydney, Newcastle, Wollongong and throughout the state. The RTA is responsible for development of the network, determining priorities and funding 100% of the maintenance cost. Regional Roads – comprising a secondary network which together with state roads provide for travel between smaller towns and districts. Regional roads perform a sub-arterial function within major urban areas and are wholly the responsibility of Council. The RTA contributes towards funding based on a contributing formula and via specific programs on a competitive basis. Local Roads – roads performing a local or collector function and for which the Councils fund 100% of the maintenance cost. Other sources of funds available to Council for local roads are from the Australian Government through such programs as Nation Building. Funding is generally not available from RTA for these roads.This classification is a key mechanism to support effective resource allocation meeting the social and economicneeds of the community and industry.In general terms, the RTA is responsible for the state road network and all signalised intersection on the networkwhile the Council is responsible for the regional and local road network. The RTA Local Government LiaisonCommittee is the body for communication between RTA and Local Government in regard to roads and trafficmanagement. Any changes to the local or regional road network which may impact on the state road network,such as increased traffic flow, require RTA concurrence.The administrative classification forms a hierarchy which is in broad alignment with the functional hierarchy assummarised in Table 7.1.Table 7.1 Road classification relationshipAdministrative System Functional SystemState Roads Freeways, motorways and arterial roadsRegional Roads Sub-arterial roadsLocal Roads Collector and local roadsA NSW Road Classification review was undertaken in 2007, with the final report recommending a list of roadreclassifications. Figure 7.2 illustrates the existing administrative classification within the Gosford LGA, followingreclassification in April 2010. As part of this review, some roads identified in the Gosford LGA were reclassified toa higher order with the exception of Mann Street within the city centre.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 48
  • 53. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMFigure 7.2 Existing Administrative Road Classification for Gosford City Council Regional Roads State RoadsSource: NSW Road Classification Review, 2010.7.3 Existing Transport Conditions and Infrastructure7.3.1 Existing Traffic VolumesExisting traffic volumes in the area were obtained from RTA permanent and temporary count sites, together withprevious studies including the Gosford City Centre Pedestrian Access and Mobility Plan (2009) and Gosford EtnaStreet Railway Overbridge Replacement and Showground Road Grade Separation (2009).The estimated two-way daily traffic volume for key areas within the study area has been illustrated in Figure 7.1.The data identifies several locations where the estimated daily mid-block traffic volume indicates a higher orderfunctional classification of the road. This occurs on Mann Street, Racecourse Road, Etna Street and DonnisonStreet all with estimated daily traffic volumes exceeding 10,000 vehicles per day.Racecourse Road and Mann Street (north of Etna Street Bridge) form a bypass between the north and west ofGosford CBD for traffic. These roads are classified as Regional Roads (following the 2010 reclassification) andserve a sub-arterial function.In order to assess the existing performance of the road network, traffic volumes have been compared with thefunctional class, typical capacity and number of lanes on each corridor. From this comparison, the collectorfunction and reduced capacity of Donnison Street and Mann Street (south of Etna Street) indicates that traffic onthe road is exceeding capacity. The implication of exceeding the class of the road include: increased delays,congestion, altered trip choice and potential impacts to safety. These roads currently serve almost 11,000vehicles per day. As Mann Street is currently supported by the north-south Henry Parry Drive, Showground Roadand Racecourse Road, consideration should be given to introducing further traffic calming measures todiscourage further traffic growth on the corridor.Mann Street currently serves as the trunk bus corridor through the city centre. There are currently no specific buspriority measures on the corridor protecting buses, and journey time reliability, from the resulting congestion.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 49
  • 54. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMDonnison Street currently provides an east-west connection between the Central Coast Highway and Henry ParryDrive and the city centre through Mann Street. Increased capacity may be required on this road to accommodatethe increased demand and provide connectivity to alternative north-south corridors such as Showground Roadand Henry Parry Drive.Figure 7.3 through to Figure 7.6 illustrate the available 24 hour traffic profiles for Dane Drive, Mann Street,Racecourse Road and Henry Parry Drive.Figure 7.3 Traffic profile on Dane Drive (adjacent to Vaughan Street) Dane Drive (adjacent to Vaughan Street) 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 Vehicles / hour 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 Hour commencing Weekday average (SB) Weekday average (NB) 7 day average (SB) 7 day average (NB)Source: 2009 RTA CountsFigure 7.4 Traffic profile on Mann Street (north of Etna Street) 1000 900 800 700 600 Vehicles / hour 500 400 300 200 100 0 0:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 Hour commencing Weekday average (SB) Weekday average (NB) 7 day average (SB) 7 day average (NB)Source: 2009 RTA CountsK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 50
  • 55. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMFigure 7.5 Traffic profile on Henry Parry Drive (near Frederick Street) 1600 1400 1200 1000 Vehicles / hour 800 600 400 200 0 0:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 Hour commencing Weekday average (EB) Weekday average (WB) 7 day average (EB) 7 day average (WB)Source: 2009 RTA CountsFigure 7.6 Traffic profile on Racecourse Road (west of Holden Street) Racecourse Road (west of Holden Street) 600 500 400 Vehicles / hour 300 200 100 0 0:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 Hour commencing Weekday average (EB) Weekday average (WB) 7 day average (EB) 7 day average (WB)Source: 2009 RTA CountsThe traffic profile of Dane Drive indicates a tidal demand, with a pronounced northbound AM and southbound PMpeak during commuter periods. Traffic volumes reach approximately 1,800 veh/h per direction during the peakhour; approaching the theoretical capacity of the corridor. Average travel speeds during this period reduce toapproximately 49km/h to 54km/h, at other times the average speed on the corridor is indicated at 60km/h.Peak hour tidal flow movements are also observed Mann Street and Henry Parry Drive, with dominant flowtravelling inbound towards the city centre during the AM peak and outbound during the PM peak. On MannStreet, one-way peak hour flows reach 900 veh/ h. North of Etna Street, Mann Street is a four lane carriagewaywith two traffic lanes and two parking lanes. In the southbound direction, parking is prohibited 100m north of theEtna Street intersection to provide additional capacity.Peak hour flows on Henry Parry Drive approach 1,400 veh/h in the westbound direction. Henry Parry Drive is atwo-lane two way carriageway, with overtaking opportunities and auxiliary turning lanes.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 51
  • 56. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMThe traffic profile of Racecourse Road indicates a peak in the westbound traffic movement between 7am and9am. Peak hour traffic throughput is constrained at this location due to the limited capacity of the intersections ofRacecourse Road with Showground Road and Mann Street. Increased capacity would be required by 2016 atthese locations to accommodate forecast increased traffic growth in the morning peak, as described in AppendixB. At all other daytime periods, a flat profile is observed with traffic flow ranging from 350veh/h to 500veh/h.7.3.2 Existing Network PerformanceNetwork performance within the study area has been reviewed through site visits and the use of the 2009Paramics model provided by the RTA. The review has identified a number of congested intersection located atclosely spaced signalised intersection and those on the strategic network.Congested intersection located at signalised intersections were found to be associated with coordination andrestricted capacity. Table 7.2 provides a listing of signalised intersection within the city centre and on the maineast-west corridor where increased queuing and congestion was observed.Table 7.2 Congested intersections within the Gosford CBD AM Peak PM PeakIntersections within the City Centre Mann Street / Donnison Street West Mann Street / Donnison Street West Donnison Street West / Riou Street Donnison Street West / Henry Parry Drive Donnison Street West / Henry Parry Drive Henry Parry Drive / William StreetIntersections between West Gosford and Avoca DriveBrisbane Water Drive / Central Coast Highway / Manns Road Brisbane Water Drive / Central Coast Highway / Manns Road Central Coast Highway / Frederick Street Central Coast Highway / Frederick Street Central Coast Highway / Adelaide Street Central Coast Highway / Henry Parry Drive Central Coast Highway / Adelaide StreetSource: AECOM; 2010A large portion of traffic entering the Gosford CBD is commuter traffic which utilises the existing park and ridefacilities at Gosford Station before travelling to employment in Sydney. Therefore the Gosford CBD AM peak isspread over a longer period as the majority of people commuting are at Gosford Station by 7:30AM.During the PM peak congestion occurs for the eastbound traffic movement extending from East Gosford to theGosford Waterfront as a result of the large volumes of school and commuter traffic. Additional congestion isgenerated by commuter traffic returning from Sydney and wishing to access the eastern beachside suburbs.7.3.3 Managing Heavy VehiclesGosford City Council has recognised that Mann Street is unsuitable for heavy vehicles and Henry Parry Drive isconstrained by its topography. Gosford City Council is preparing a heavy vehicle signage strategy (in consultationwith the RTA) to direct heavy vehicles away from Mann Street to state roads other than Henry Parry Drive.7.3.4 Existing Infrastructure supporting Public TransportBus priority improvements have been made to the road network to enhance the operation of the Central Coastbus network, including: Westbound bus jump at the intersection of Central Coast Highway and Avoca Drive; Recent upgrade of Dane Drive / Masons Parade include a dedicated bus only lane with a bus priority – ‘B’– signal at the preceding set of mid-block pedestrian signals. This provides a virtual bus lane at the following signal as buses gain priority over the traffic stream towards the city centre; Northbound bus jump at the signalised pedestrian crossing opposite Gosford waterfront (south of Dane Drive / Mann Street intersection); and Bus lane along the Central Coast Highway, East Gosford between George Street and approximately 50m north at the intersection of Adelaide Street / Central Coast Highway.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 52
  • 57. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMFigure 7.7 illustrates the existing road network infrastructure in Gosford City Centre, together with areas forpotential upgrade as described in Section 7.4.1.Figure 7.7 Existing road network with identified potential upgradesSource: AECOMK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 53
  • 58. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM7.4 Roads related initiatives for investigation7.4.1 Road upgrade options recommended for considerationThe underlying objective of this TMAP process is to increase the use of public transport, walking and cycling inthe Gosford City Centre area and the need for road network upgrades has been balanced against the need toincrease mode shares for public transport together with walking and cycling.Potential measures for the road network have been developed with consideration of the following objectives:improvement of journey time reliability and efficiency of the bus route network travelling to and within the citycentre; promotion of a transit and cycle corridor through the city centre (Mann Street); and promotion of alternativeroutes to encourage all other traffic to bypass the city centre.The package of potential measures for investigation is summarised in Table 7.3, and indicative locations areillustrated in Figure 7.8. Further detail regarding the analysis completed to identify these initiatives for furtherinvestigation is provided in the Technical Note in Appendix B.The options put forward in this TMAP are not intended to be definitive and the final layout of intersection upgradeswill be subject to detailed planning for specific projects.All measures are defined as short term (to 2016) to medium term (to 2021) timescales for implementation, in linewith the suggested target implementation dates, as shown in the table below. Costs are not provided and will besubject to detailed design.Table 7.3 Potential high level package of measures for investigationRef Description Timescale for implementationR1 Mann Street – Promotion of Mann Street as a public transport corridor Short – Medium TermR2 Bus improvements and pedestrian connectivity to increase East-West Short – Medium Term connectivity across railway line (Including at Donnison Street and Etna Street)R3 Redistribution of traffic to bypass the city centre Short – Medium TermR4 Bus Priority and road infrastructure improvements on the strategic network Short – Medium Term (Central Coast Highway)R5 West Gosford to Gosford access initiative (multi-modal) Short – Medium TermIncreasing pedestrian and cycle connectivity is supported by the TMAP, therefore it is recommended that furthermore detailed assessment is undertaken to assess the upgrade requirements at specific locations. Theinvestigation may need to include a review of accident history and assessment of potential impacts to trafficperformance such as resulting queues, access and circulation within the city centre.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 54
  • 59. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMFigure 7.8 Potential package of road network measures R2a, R2c, R3a R3b R1a R3e R2d R1b R3c R2b R4d R4b R4cSource: AECOMK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 55
  • 60. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM8.0 Parking8.1 OverviewGosford City Centre and the surrounding areas are forecast to accommodate significant additional population andemployment growth over the next 20 years. These changes will necessitate changes in the planning controls forGosford which will determine the pricing, regulation and availability of parking in Gosford.The focus for parking in the future will be on managing supply for maximum economic benefit (to the City) toensure a vibrant, viable city centre environment.Gosford City Council manages parking in Gosford, with the current primary planning tool being the DevelopmentControl Plan No.111 Car Parking (Amendment 1) dated November 2000. The purpose of this document is toensure sufficient, well designed parking is provided by all new developments and to manage existing parkingwithin the Gosford City Council area. The currently applicable parking standards for Gosford require all newresidential developments to provide a minimum of 1 space per unit (within 400m of the railway station) and 1space per 1.5units elsewhere. The commercial standard specifies a rate of 1 space per 45 sq m GFA.In central Gosford there are approximately 10,500 parking spaces, including over 7,000 off-street parking spaces.The vast majority of parking in Gosford City Centre is available for long stay parking, with almost 90% of parkingsupply available for long stay use or unrestricted in the case of on-street supply.8.2 Parking Policy – supply and demand management measuresMaximum or threshold parking provision for Gosford will have little effect as a travel demand management tool tomanage traffic flow and achieve modal shift. It is moreover the amount of long term parking supply which impactson vehicular demand in the peak periods, as travel associated with these spaces tends to be concentrated in themorning and evening peaks. Such commuter or long term parking also impacts on the streetscape and availableland for development, as having a significant number of stationary vehicles in the city centre takes up valuablespace for development and creates a visual eyesore.Therefore the focus for Gosford should be on provision of adequate short-term parking to maintain and enhancethe economic and cultural attractiveness of Gosford city centre. Long term planning policy should focus onencouraging a modal shift away from long term commuter parking by providing suitable public transportalternatives, transferring long term parking capacity to short term and relocating long-term parking to theperiphery, possibly in conjunction with park and ride provision.However, with significant growth proposed, additional capacity will be needed in line with new development inGosford City Centre. This should be at a rate of provision which supports the wider objectives of increasingaccess by modes other than the private car and with the aim of increasing the mode share for journey to worktrips into Gosford by public transport, and also by walking and cycling wherever possible.Gosford City Council should consider reviewing their Development Control Policy for parking for newdevelopments. If present rates for residential and commercial development were retained, Gosford city centrewould require significant additional parking provision over time which would increase road network congestionA signage strategy for Gosford City Centre could be considered to increase public awareness of the location andsupply of parking, and of the availability of free spaces. Strategic static signage or variable message signage, assuccessfully implemented in other locations, could be considered in Gosford.The introduction of park and ride for the city centre should also be considered. Park and ride could provide amultiple benefits for Gosford city centre:a) alleviate the pressure for parking in the city centre (especially long term commuter parking);b) reduce the pressure on the city centre roads and alleviate congestion; andc) provide environmental benefits for the city centre.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 56
  • 61. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM8.3 Gosford Parking StrategyThe Gosford Parking Study (GTA, 2010) reported both long and short term parking demand to be atapproximately 85% of available supply throughout the city centre, which they divided into three precincts for thepurposes of their study. Therefore the present parking regime is performing at around operational capacity,allowing for circulation and inefficiencies in demand/ supply. Particularly high on-street utilisation was found in thevicinity of the rail station and Gosford hospital, which are in close proximity.The study also reported contraventions of parking limits in locations where restrictions do apply, and the fact thatwhilst short term parking supply and demand appear to be fairly well balanced that there is evidence ofencroachment of long stay parking into short stay areas, with overstays being one such example. A further keyfinding revealed in an interview survey of access travel mode to Gosford railway station was the high proportion(60%) of people who drive and park to catch the train from Gosford. This is facilitated by a large (>1,000 space)dedicated commuter car park adjacent to Gosford rail station. The vast majority of these people drive from withinGosford or near suburbs.The key principles of a successful parking regime are highlighted which consider in the design of measuresproviding the right balance of supply to demand for various trip types, land uses and user groups: to provide short term parking on-street or within public parking stations conveniently accessible to key drivers of short term demand in the city centre to provide accessibility to shops and services and facilitate short stay trips which support the local economy; and to provide long term parking within parking stations located on the periphery of the central area, to minimise traffic intrusion and circulation, and assist in the creation of a pedestrian and cycle friendly environment and to enhance the urban design quality of the city centre.The following measures to improve the management of parking in Gosford City Centre were proposed: Use of sustainable transport strategies to promote alternatives to vehicular demand and parking – promoting walking and cycling for city centre trips and opening up or enhancing routes for pedestrians and cyclists; employer subsidised staff travel tickets for public transport; green travel plans for new development in Gosford to reduce the environmental impact of travel and the dominance of single occupancy car trips; Transport Management Associations (TMA’s) to provide a structured framework for local area TDM programs. These recommendations align with the travel demand management initiatives in this TMAP. GCC shuttle bus – Provision of a shuttle bus serving key developments and fringe areas of long-stay parking around Gosford to help reduce the dominance of the private car; this could be in conjunction with the adoption of a free transit zone in the city centre. The analysis of city centre travel indicates that route buses, walking and cycling would be preferred travel modes for trips within the city centre, although a more sophisticated park and ride system may use shuttle buses. Parking Restrictions – to encourage turnover, especially in prime city centre locations, in close proximity to shops and services; to discourage staff parking in areas set aside for customer parking; to discourage long term parking by staff and employees in the city centre; to promote consistent access and a consistent approach to parking management to enhance user expectations and maximise operational efficiency. Enforcement of Parking Restrictions – Enforcement is critical to the function of parking restrictions to ensure that operations on the ground adhere to policy and planning requirements. Paid parking could be introduced to encourage turnover, which would help to provide natural enforcement of supply, act as a demand management tool and to fund operational enforcement. Pricing of parking – Parking pricing is significantly lower than other centres in NSW, such as Newcastle and Wollongong, although these locations are different in many respects the price of parking needs to emphasise the order of spaces and the price of convenience. Increasing the cost of parking, especially long term parking, should be utilised as a tool to encourage modal shift in workers in Gosford city centre. Future Demands – The future demands in Gosford will be determined by (i) the extent to which new development comes on line (additional floor space) (ii) changes to existing land use and (iii) changes in the way people travel and the mode share for journeys to Gosford city centre. A major change in (i) of the order anticipated in both the Central Coast regional strategy and the Gosford masterplan, would have the most significant impact on future parking demand and supply.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 57
  • 62. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM8.4 Parking Package of MeasuresTo achieve a significant modal shift from car travel to public transport travel for work related trips into Gosford achange in parking management is needed. This will need to be implemented in conjunction with accessibilityimprovements for public transport, pedestrian and cycle travel to provide viable alternatives and will need to beimplemented over time to maintain and enhance the viability and vitality of Gosford city centre. A re-distribution oflong-term parking, moving long term parking to the city fringe and possibly implementing park and ride, andfreeing up short term parking capacity in the city centre are key tenets of this strategy.At present the needs of Gosford’s residents, business, workers and tourists are well served by the availability of alarge amount of accessible, cheap parking, in off-street parking stations and on-street. In future, in line withproposed population and employment growth, pressure on parking will increase, with a less favourable balance ofsupply to demand. Current demand levels are clearly unsustainable. The focus for parking should be to facilitategrowth and local economic prosperity but with the aim of a redistribution of trips (especially commuter and longterm trips to the city centre) towards public transport, cycling and walking.The overall objective for parking is therefore to achieve a better balance between supply and demand toemphasise the role of parking as a measure to support an integrated, balanced transport system in Gosford,reducing the dominance of car travel, especially for long stay trips into the city centre. This will need to beachieved through two mechanisms: Firstly, by strengthening the role of planning policy (DCP) on parking provision for new developments; Secondly, through more efficient management of existing parking supply.Parking rates for new development should ensure parking restraint can be used as a demand managementmeasure, to support travel by alternatives modes and to restrain growth in car travel. This needs to be used inconjunction with efficient management of existing off-street and on-street parking through pricing and timerestrictions to support short stay parking demand and seek to reduce, over time, the availability of long stayparking in the city centre.The aim of these parking restraint and parking management measures is to promote the viability of alternativemodes (public transport, walking and cycling), ensure efficient supply of short stay parking in the city centre tosupport the local economy and enhance the local environment. Improving the future viability of accessibility byalternative modes should be achieved by managing future development to ensure this promotes facilitates fornon-vehicular access alongside reduced parking. It is therefore recommended that the Gosford DCP 111 Parkingis reviewed within the short term to revise the parking standards for new development, to the rates stated in Table8.1.Table 8.1: Recommended maximum Parking Rates for New Development (by land use) (agreed by Gosford Council) Existing calibrated parking rate Future (2031) reduced parking rateLand Use (spaces per 100 sq m) (spaces per 100 sq m)Residential (visitor) 0.17 0.125Hotel/ Club 1.3 0.75Commercial 2 1.25Retail 3 2Industrial 2.2 1.8Place of worship/ assembly 5 3.75Hospital 3.3 2.8Education 0.13 0.09Source: Gosford Parking Study, GTA, 2010In addition to reducing the provision of car parking for new developments, the provision of dedicated cycleparking, motorcycle parking, and end of trip facilities for cyclists should be mandatory for all new developments. Interms of restricting parking for new employment uses, there are clear benefits to be derived from workplace travelplanning and travel demand management (TDM) or travel behaviour change (TBhC) policies to encourage andsupport more informed modal choice and greater uptake of sustainable travel modes in Gosford. (Section 9)K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 58
  • 63. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMFurthermore, the following on-street parking management measures could be implemented: residential parkingzones, time restricted parking bays and potentially on-street charging, already commonplace in similar cities suchas Newcastle and Wollongong. Where residential parking zones are considered necessary to manage on-streetparking demand, the adoption of incremental charging for higher polluting vehicle types should be considered.This initiative has already been adopted by other councils in the Sydney region and is commonplace in othercountries.The implementation of car sharing in Gosford is identified in the following chapter on travel demand managementmeasures and Gosford City Council could also consider the implementation of dedicated car sharing parking bayswithin the city centre, possibly in conjunction with new development. These could however be implementedrelatively quickly taking up only a small amount of on-street parking capacity.Increasing the cost of parking should be done very carefully, and any tariff regime should be sensitive to the localcontext and the objectives which it is designed to achieve. In Gosford, tariffs and charging should be set toencourage and support local economic prosperity, town centre vitality and provide access to waterfront for leisure.Therefore short term parking should be encouraged through the pricing regime, especially on street and in thevicinity of key trip attractors. On-street charges should be set at a level which is higher than the equivalent off-street price, to facilitate high turnover in the most convenient parking locations, to maximise the potential of allcentral area on-street capacity. Short stay parking should also be supported in off-street car parks in the centralarea, with less priority given to long stay parking in off-street car parks.Lower charges can be afforded to long stay parking outside the city centre for commuters, in conjunction with theprovision of park and ride bus services, if supported by a reasonable fare and pricing strategy (comparable toalternative central area parking) and supported by travel time savings, afforded by bus priority on key corridors.The recommended package of parking measures for Gosford is summarised in Table 8.2, below.All measures are grouped into short term (to 2016), medium term (to 2021) and long term (to 2036) timescales forimplementation, in line with the suggested target implementation dates, as shown in the table below. Costs arenot provided and will be subject to detailed design.Table 8.2: Recommended Parking InitiativesRef Description Timescale for implementationP1 Revise parking prices to a level consistent with other major centres Short TermP2 Revise Parking DCP 111 to include maximum parking rates consistent with the reduced supply Short Term rates identified in Table 8.1P3 Improve enforcement of parking controls and hypothecate revenue to public transport based Short Term initiativesP4 Investigate the potential to provide a park & ride system Medium TermP5 Revise tariff and time restriction management arrangements to increase short stay parking in Short Term central area (on- and off-street)P6 On-street residential parking policy formalised with incremental charging for higher polluting Short Term vehiclesP7 Investigate feasibility for car share in city centre in conjunction with implementation of TDM Short Term measuresK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 59
  • 64. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM9.0 Travel demand management9.1 IntroductionTravel Demand Management (TDM) is the application of strategies and policies to change travel behaviour andreduce travel demand. TDM strategies seek to encourage more efficient travel patterns and influence decisionsabout travel and can involve the following: improve the transport options available; provide incentives to change travel mode, time or destination; improve land use accessibility; and transport/ travel policy reforms.Travel plans or travel demand management strategies generally encourage alternatives like walking, cycling,public transport and car pooling. The benefits of developing a TDM strategy include: Reducing air and noise pollution and other types of environmental damages; Improving fitness, health and wellbeing due to more physical activity; Reducing traffic congestion delays and associated costs; Helping participants save money by reducing their need to own and operate motor vehicles; Improving travel options, particularly for non drivers; Reducing the need for parking – a travel plan can reduce the need for additional car parking spaces bringing savings in capital expenditure and the opportunity cost of converting land to car parking. Savings can also be made on the costs of administration, electricity, security and maintenance. Supporting strategic land use planning objectives, such as reduced urban sprawl; and Improving local environmental quality and community cohesion.Implementing travel demand management strategies will assist Gosford in achieving its strategic direction ofbecoming a liveable city which provides for healthy and active lifestyles. The role of a travel demand managementstrategy for Gosford is to reduce car travel and vehicular trips into the city centre, especially for commuter tripsduring peak periods. Additional benefits would be to positively impact the environment, addressing sustainabilityand climate change objectives, and to facilitate active, healthy travel choices for residents, workers and leisure.As a key element of the TDM strategy for Gosford, it is strongly recommended that a Travel Behaviour ChangeProgram for the city centre is implemented. A Travel Behaviour Change Program (TBhC) is an overarching policyand strategy designed to encourage people to choose to travel via sustainable modes as opposed to the car,where appropriate to needs and lifestyle.This would involve various individual elements of travel planning for different land uses, travel demandmanagement, public transport, walking and cycle infrastructure improvements, parking restraint, and travelawareness marketing, branding awareness campaigns and promotion. The managed implementation of all theseelements together under a single comprehensive travel behaviour change program could deliver significant stepchange in a location such a Gosford. The TBhC program would need to be applied across schools, workplaces,universities, precincts and communities. Whilst an individual travel plan for a site would encompass a range ofactions that form a strategy for that site, to effectively address travel behaviour change, an overarching TBhC isconcerned with active travel behaviour changes across an entire city or town and evidence has shown that thiscan create the necessary behavioural changes that infrastructure provision alone or other management measuresin isolation can struggle to achieve.The use of an overarching Travel Behaviour Change Program for Gosford could be considered as a case studyfor other major towns and cities in New South Wales to address future challenges of achieving and facilitatinggrowth through sustainable development and improved management of infrastructure and resources. Thesuccess of city-wide TBhC policies has been reported in many towns and cities across the world, however themost credible evidence for their success in achieving the aims of reducing car travel, improving travel choices,K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 60
  • 65. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMchanging behaviour and creating environmental benefit are shown by the three UK towns/ cities which were casestudies for the UK Department for Transport (DfT) sustainable travel towns initiative. Darlington, Peterboroughand Worcester all applied a package of measures to increase sustainable travel, including travel planning,marketing and improved information over a 3-5 year period with financial support to deliver the soft measuresrather than hard infrastructure improvements. The success of the TBhC strategies implemented in these towns/cities and the modal shift achieved is summarised in Table 9.1.Table 9.1: Travel Behaviour Change Programmes Results Mode Shift Change (%) Time Area public transport Period car driver trips walking trips cycling trips trips Worcester 4 years -7% +12% +19% +20% (bus)Peterborough 5 years - 9% +14% +12% +35% (bus) Sutton 3 years -6% +3% +75% +16% (bus) Range 3-5 years -6% - -9% +3% - +14% +12% - +75% +16% - +35%Source: AECOM and http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/sustainable/The following recommended TDM package of measures encourage and enable travel behaviour, to increasewalking, cycling and public transport travel wherever possible for all trip purposes, including fundamentally tofacilitate modal shift to public transport for journeys to work into Gosford city centre.9.2 Potential TDM ApproachThe use of travel behaviour change programs on the Central Coast is not in itself a wholly new approach, as in2002, the Central Coast was chosen to pilot Voluntary Behaviour Change programs aimed at reducing car usewithout limiting people’s travel needs. Woy Woy was a pilot for the voluntary travel behaviour change programaimed at 2,000 households. Results of this pilot were that households in Woy Woy exhibited a reduction inweekday car driver trips and an increase in weekday walk/cycle trips. Overall there was a decrease in vehiclekilometres travelled of 30% in Woy Woy by participating households during the study period.There is evidence to support the potential for implementation of an overarching Travel Behaviour Changeprogram in Gosford. This would need to be led by Gosford City Council but would need to be supported at thestate level.Gosford currently has a population of approximately 160,000, with a forecast population growth of 10,000 newresidents and employment projections of 6,000 new jobs expected in the city centre by 2031. Gosford also has sixschools (primary and secondary schools) and a hospital which is the referral hospital for the Central Coastcommunity. Gosford would benefit from implementing the following travel plans as part of the program: Workplace travel plans for large companies/organisations; Residential / community travel plans; School travel plans; and A hospital travel plan.The implementation of travel plans needs to be supported through the planning process, therefore it is stronglyadvised that relevant local planning policies (DCP) for new developments be reviewed to include compulsorytravel plans to be undertaken for all new employment generating developments.As well as travel plans, it is recommended that the travel behaviour change program involves a city car sharingscheme and a marketing and awareness campaign which promotes sustainable transport in Gosford. Othermeasures involved in a travel behaviour change program include encouragement of active travel choices (walkingand cycling) and encouragement of public transport use. Encouragement of travel behaviour change throughpromotion, marketing and awareness campaigns and branding will be as important as the introduction ofinfrastructure in enacting modal shift in Gosford.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 61
  • 66. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMThe recent introduction of the NSW Government’s MyZone ticketing scheme will play a part in the success oftravel plans and travel demand management as MyZone aims to encourage people onto public transport. This willbe achieved by reducing the barriers to public transport use, making public transport fares simpler, easier to use,fairer and integrated between all modes (buses, trains and ferries).A more detailed description of the various potential aspects of a Travel Behaviour Change Program and therecommended measures for Gosford is provided in Appendix C.9.3 Potential Package of TDM MeasuresTable 9.2 summarises the recommended transport demand management measures together with associatedtiming of implementation.All measures are grouped into short term (to 2016), medium term (to 2021) and long term (to 2036) timescales forimplementation, in line with the suggested target implementation dates, as shown in the table below. Costs arenot provided and will be subject to detailed program consideration and resources.Table 9.2 Potential package of TDM measuresRef Description Timescale for implementationTDM1 Implementation of Gosford Travel Behaviour Change Program (including travel planning) Short TermTDM1a Include requirements for Travel Plans (workplace, new developments) in relevant Council Short Term DCPsTDM1b Marketing and Awareness campaign for Gosford Travel Behaviour Change Program Short TermTDM1c City Car Sharing Scheme Short TermTDM1d Active travel choices strategy (promotion of walking/cycling) Short TermTDM1e Public transport promotion Short TermK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 62
  • 67. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM10.0 Mode Choice Modelling – Options Appraisal10.1 Summary of calibrated mode choice model outputsTable 10.1 summarises the modal shift which is expected to be achieved if all the potential TMAP measures areimplemented. These are outputs produced by the mode choice model which is calibrated to existing publictransport travel data, therefore presents an evidence based review of the changes which could be forecast tooccur if all these measures were implemented but does not allow for any more significant change in travelbehaviour.Table 10.1 PT mode share with implementation of TMAP measures (calibrated mode choice model outputs) 8 PT mode share 2006 2016 2021 2036 With Implementation of TMAP Measures 6% 8% 9% 10% Public Transport mode share increase 0% 2% 3% 4%The above table describes that with the implementation of all TMAP measures the mode share for public transportwill increase to 10%, which represents a 4% gross increase in the public transport mode share.Therefore, modelling of the potential measures describes that, if implemented, a public transport mode share forjourneys to work into Gosford of 10% is achievable in the morning peak period, an increase in public transportmode share of 67% over 2006. This is indicative of the scale of change which could be conceived from aperspective based on modelling calibrated to existing travel patterns and current public transport use for journeysto work into Gosford.The estimated 10% mode share for journeys to work by public transport using the mode choice model, calibratedto existing data, is based on an assessment of the potential measures in this TMAP. This target should beachievable sooner than anticipated as the majority of measures and the mode share improvements are in placeby 2021. This would be subject to implementation of the potential package of measures and policy changes toguide future development in a sustainable manner in this timeframe.The comprehensive, overarching focus on travel behavioural change could drive more fundamental behaviouralchange and uptake of sustainable modes. This would encapsulate significant increases in walking and cyclingtrips and a reduction in single occupancy vehicle trips, as well as a major increase in public transport travel.8 2006 figure is a base figure using the 2006 census journey to work dataset.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 63
  • 68. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM11.0 Recommendations11.1 IntroductionIn order to deliver the mode share targets for Gosford outlined in this TMAP a comprehensive package oftransport measures is required. The recommendations described in this section set out a high level objectives-based approach to delivering the desired sustainable transport and planning outcomes.The key agencies with responsibility for delivering the recommendations are outlined together with the potentialtimeframe for implementation and a description and discussion of the measures. The majority of actionsrecommended will need a multi-agency approach in partnership with Gosford City Council.The potential measures have informed the draft Central Coast Regional Strategy (CCRS). The CCRS will alsoinclude other actions and strategies which are not described here, but which are relevant to Gosford.The TMAP recommendations are grouped into the following categories:1) Area-based recommendations2) Modal recommendations3) Implementation and Monitoring recommendations11.2 Area-based RecommendationsThe following recommendations are grouped into a series of area-based packages of measures to address issuesat specific locations in and around Gosford City Centre.Measure 1: West Gosford to City Centre Access initiativeImplementation timeframe: Short – Medium TermOverview: A Comprehensive review of Multi Modal Access between Gosford and West GosfordLead Agency: Gosford City CouncilSupporting Agency: Transport NSWThe TMAP and the Gosford Challenge Master Plan have identified a range of pedestrian, cycle and road basedoptions for better connections between proposed urban renewal west of the railway line. An overarching feasibilityreview of the identified measures is needed which builds on initiatives in the body of the TMAP including thefollowing potential options: Shared path cycleways from Racecourse Road to Holden Street via Sinclair Street, and Racecourse Road from Faunce Street West to Dane Drive, across bridge connecting Racecourse Road to the West Gosford Industrial Estate and from intersection of Racecourse Road / Faunce Street West, continuing north along Showground Road. Additional cycle parking on the West side of Gosford station. Potential upgraded pedestrian connections, including investigation of improved access at Donnison Street to include a new footpath, improved connection with the waterfront across the Central Coast Highway, and Donnison Street West along Hely Street, Roads related initiatives to facilitate bus improvements and pedestrian connectivity and redistribute central area traffic to bypass Mann Street, including potential signalisation of Etna Street intersections with Showground Road, Holden Street and Hills Street; investigation of bridge capacity enhancements at Etna Street; signalisation of Racecourse Road intersection with Showground Road; and monitoring of pedestrian and cyclist movements in the vicinity of the Hely Street and Central Coast Highway intersection, as development occurs.Improved east-west connectivity across the railway line is identified in the draft master plan in the period to 2015.A coordinated Government response is needed that involves all key stakeholders to determine the feasibility,staging and cost benefits of various options to improve access between west Gosford and the City Centre overthe short term.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 64
  • 69. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMMeasure 2: Planning for East-West traffic around GosfordImplementation timeframe: Short term – OngoingOverview: East-West traffic needs to be managed to ensure road network performance in and aroundGosford in line with the overarching objectives of the TMAP and the Central Coast Regional TransportStrategy.Lead Agency: Transport NSW (RTA)Supporting Agency: Gosford City CouncilThe TMAP recognises the need to manage road capacity, heavy vehicle access, and road network performancein and around Gosford City Centre, noting the importance of existing road network corridors as strategic routesbetween the Central Coast and towns to the East and the Sydney-Newcastle Freeway to the West. Forwardplanning and network management will consider the objectives of the TMAP which are related to sustainablefuture planning and encouraging and facilitating a modal shift in Gosford over time. Road network improvementoptions arising from the TMAP include: Signalisation of intersections to the West of the city centre (Etna Street) to improve bus and pedestrian connectivity. Potential infrastructure improvements on the strategic network (Central Coast Highway/ Manns Road / Brisbane Water Drive) to improve traffic throughput. Introduction of bus lanes at key strategic locations. Investigate removal of on-street parking, where appropriate, to improve bus reliability. Investigate feasibility of alternative options for strategic traffic, such as an east-west bypass in the longer term.Measure 3: Gosford Waterfront State Significant Site listingImplementation timeframe: Short termOverview: The listing of Gosford Waterfront State Significant Site provides an opportunity to inform thefuture planning of the Gosford Waterfront and better integrate land use and transportLead Agency: Land and Property Management Authority (LPMA)Supporting Agency: Gosford City CouncilLPMA has lodged an application with the Department of Planning, which has been successful in having theGosford Waterfront considered as a State Significant Site. The assessment process will enable detailedconsideration of land use and transport integration with particular regard to future management of Dane Drive forpedestrians, cyclists and other transport users. Access arrangements for motorists will also be considered.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 65
  • 70. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOM11.3 Modal RecommendationsThe following recommendations are grouped into a series of modal packages of measures to address the functionof specific modes in terms of access both to and within Gosford City Centre.Measure 4: Improving Bus connections with the City CentreImplementation timeframe: Short term – Medium termOverview: Improving bus connectivity and encouraging uptake of bus travel within Gosford and betweenGosford and the wider Central Coast Region will be critical to achieving substantial modal shift.Lead Agency: Transport NSWSupporting Agency: Gosford City CouncilIn order to improve public transport connectivity to Gosford, especially for journeys to work, bus serviceenhancements are needed to improve the relative attractiveness of bus travel in relation to other modes. This is acombination of measures including network coverage, interchange facilities, service frequency, bus priority,awareness and marketing, ticketing and associated complimentary measures such as sustainable parkingmanagement, which together will contribute to the objective to increase public transport use.The potential measures to achieve these aims include: Investigate the feasibility of establishing an upgraded network of Strategic Bus Corridors to the North, North- East, East, and South East with increasing frequency subject to detailed demand analysis; Continued provision of bus priority at key strategic locations and monitoring the performance of the Gosford Transport Interchange; Investigate the feasibility of Park & Ride at Park & Ride Stations in Kariong (West) and Erina (East). This option would be dependent of demand and the availability of suitable sites and funding; Investigate bus routes for access to Gosford City Centre.Measure 5: Connecting Cyclists with the City CentreImplementation timeframe: Short term – Medium termOverview: Provision of enhanced local cycle connections to improve amenity for cycle travelLead Agency: Gosford City CouncilSupporting Agency: Transport NSW (RTA)The potential for cycling in Gosford is currently hindered by a lack of connectivity and a lack of attractive routesand facilities through the city centre and between Gosford and surrounding areas. Barriers to cycling also exist inthe form of the local topography and physical infrastructure such as the railway line through the centre of Gosford,constraining east-west movements to existing road crossings and the Gosford station concourse overbridge andlifts on the east side of the railway.The potential measures seek to improve the connectivity and amenity for bicycle trips, focusing on improvementsto the local bicycle network, as follows: Cycleways along Gosford Waterfront and Mann Street, in the city centre, with continuous connections to between the Waterfront and the city centre (subject to detailed assessment). Improved cycle connections between Gosford city centre and West Gosford, as Measure 1. Funding of bicycle improvements through the RTA bicycle program (match funded 50:50 contributions with local councils). This is an opportunity for continuing council and state collaboration to improve cycle connections to Gosford City Centre. It should be noted that potential option C1 and C7 are longer term options.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 66
  • 71. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMMeasure 6: Increase Bicycle parking at key destinationsImplementation timeframe: short termOverview: Provide additional bicycle parking at key strategic locationsLead Agency: Gosford City CouncilSupporting Agency: Transport NSW (station and interchange facilities)The provision of trip end facilities is essential to improving the attractiveness of cycling as a serious alternativemode to car travel, especially for commuter cyclists, but is also for education, retail and leisure trips. As suchadditional provision should be made to allow for parking at key destinations, including (but not limited to) thefollowing: Mann Street (city centre); Gosford Station; Gosford High School; Gosford Hospital; Workplaces (through workplace travel plans).End of trip facilities, including secure bicycle parking, but also showers, lockers and changing areas areencouraged and should be secured through the planning process for new developments in Gosford city centre.Measure 7: Implement package of Pedestrian improvementsImplementation timeframe: Short termOverview: Recommended package of measures to enhance pedestrian connectivity in Gosford city centreLead Agency: Gosford City CouncilSupporting Agency: -The TMAP has reviewed council’s recent Pedestrian Access Management Plan (PAMP) for the Gosford CityCentre and made a number of additional recommendations for consideration, including: Improved pedestrian connections to the north of the city centre (Hills Street/ Watt Street between Lindsey Street and Etna Street and to the West of the city centre linking to the Waterfront (Hely Street between Donnison Street West and the waterfront). Improved pedestrian connections through existing development, between Henry Perry Drive and Baker StreetK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 67
  • 72. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMMeasure 8: Sustainable car parking managementImplementation timeframe: Short termOverview: Parking measures to nominated mode share targets.Lead Agency: Gosford City CouncilSupporting Agency:Parking supply in a centre has a strong relationship with car based trip making. Limiting the growth of parkingwithin the Gosford City Centre can contribute to increased public transport use and greater sustainability of travel.Council’s traffic study includes a range of important measures, tailored to reduce overall parking growth, TheTMAP has identified other potential means to better manage parking provision, including: A tariff and time restriction strategy which ensures the parking supply is managed to meet policy objectives, with a focus on short terms central parking to facilitate access and vitality of shops and businesses. Adoption of maximum parking rates for new development to ensure there is no over-supply of parking provision in the city centre and that developable land is maximised whilst encouraging access, especially for commuter trips, by non-car modes, alongside the enhancement of access by these modes. On-street parking is managed appropriate to the needs of residents and local destinations. Car sharing is encouraged in central Gosford. Long term peripheral parking is encouraged through investigating feasibility of a park and ride, especially for use by workers travelling to/ from the Gosford City Centre.11.4 Implementation and Monitoring recommendationsThe following recommendations are focused on the implementation and monitoring of delivery in line with theTMAP objectives.Measure 9: Monitor public transport patronageImplementation timeframe: OngoingOverview: Review public transport travel toward a mode share target.Lead Agency: Transport NSWSupporting Agency: -In order to assess progress towards the objectives and recommended targets outlined in this TMAP, it will benecessary to regularly review patronage of public transport. This can be used to assess the effectiveness ofmeasures on the ground and help to focus funding, program and project delivery over time to achieve the statedaims. This may over time necessitate amendments or revisions within the overall framework of the strategy andmeasures outlined in this TMAP and the Central Coast Regional Transport Strategy, and the draft GosfordMasterplan, in order to ensure progress in delivery towards objectives. It is recommended that this is monitoredevery 5 years with the target reviewed and amended (upwards) if appropriate.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 68
  • 73. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMMeasure 10: Conduct regular modelling reviews of the TMAP’s performanceImplementation timeframe: OngoingOverview: Regular annual review of the TMAP is required through monitoring of modal performance totrack progress towards TMAP targets over time and re-evaluate if necessary.Lead Agency: Transport NSWSupporting Agency: Gosford City CouncilThe RTA’s model can be used to review progress towards mode share targets annually; with an additional 5 yearreview against Census and Household Travel Survey data when available. In this way the rate of development ofupgrades will need to be reviewed in these timeframe to ensure these are in line with the development of GosfordCity Centre.A review of modelling as part of the TMAP will be undertaken by Transport NSW following the release of thecentral regional transport strategy. The review will further test initiatives concerning key intersections and also thelong term capacity to reach the nominated mode share target.Measure 11: TMAP Implementation Working GroupImplementation timeframe: OngoingOverview: Transport NSW will establish a Working Group to oversee the implementation of the TMAPoutcomes and to ensure cross government involvement.Lead Agency: Transport NSWSupporting Agency: Gosford City CouncilTransport NSW in partnership with Gosford City Council and other key government stakeholders will conveneregular meetings to ensure the delivery of TMAP outcomes and measures overtime.Measure 12: Establish a Travel Behaviour Change ProgramImplementation timeframe: Short term – Medium termOverview: Gosford City Council and other key stakeholders to establish an agreed program of travelbehaviour change programs for Gosford City Centre.Lead Agency: Gosford City CouncilSupporting Agency: Transport NSWThe role of a travel demand management strategy in Gosford is to reduce car travel into the city centre, especiallyfor commuter trips during peak periods. Additional related benefits would be positive impacts on the environment,addressing sustainability and climate change objectives, and encouragement of healthy, active travel choices forworkers as well as other trip purposes.A key element of the potential TDM strategy and the key recommendation to achieve a step change towards anambitious target for sustainable travel in Gosford is the implementation of the Travel Behaviour Change Actionsfor the city centre. This may involve: travel plans for specific land uses; travel demand management; public transport, walking and cycle infrastructure improvements; parking restraint and sustainable parking management; travel awareness, marketing, branding awareness campaigns and promotion.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 69
  • 74. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMMeasure 13: Implement Workplace Travel PlansImplementation timeframe: Short termOverview: Workplace travel plans for new development adopted through the planning systemLead Agency: Gosford City CouncilSupporting Agency: Transport NSWA workplace travel plan comprises a package of measures to encourage and enable staff and visitors to aparticular building or company to choose alternatives to single-occupancy car-use, and promote greener, cleanerand healthier travel choices. In order for a travel plan to be successful, it should be tailored to suit the needs of theparticular organisation in question, and have the full backing of management and staff at all levels.The implementation and uptake of travel plans for Gosford should be supported through the planning process andlocal businesses encouraged to develop, adopt and implement appropriate plans, objectives and measures.Work place travel planning information for businesses is available on the Premier’s Council for Active Living(PCAL) website.Measure 14: Establish a program of works for road and intersection upgradesImplementation timeframe: Short term – Medium TermOverview: Develop a program of works for local and strategic road network improvementsLead Agency: Gosford City CouncilSupporting Agency: Transport NSW (RTA)A cohesive package of works which increases accessibility to Gosford city centre and prioritises key upgradesshould be developed to ensure a managed program of road and intersection upgrades is in place. This should bein line with the recommendations in the TMAP, the draft Gosford Masterplan and the Central Coast RegionalTransport Strategy and maintain a focus on upgrades which do not just enhance general traffic capacity but whichprovide improvements to bus service travel times and reliability, as well as enhanced pedestrian and cycleconnections. Also there is a need to consider and address conflict between strategic and local traffic flow andalternative modes, especially in the central area.A program of potential road works should be delivered in line with the actual population and employment growthand be fully supported by developer contributions. Options for consideration, as part of the package of future roadenhancements, are canvassed in Appendix B – Road Network Analysis: Technical Note.K:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 70
  • 75. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMAppendix AFuture TrendsK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 A
  • 76. Appendix A – Future trendsFigures A.1 to A.4 provide trends of population growth within the Central Coast Region.Figure A.1 Population by Travel Zone, 2011Source: Transport Data Centre, 2010 A-1
  • 77. Figure A.2 Population by Travel Zone, 2016Source: Transport Data Centre, 2010 A-2
  • 78. Figure A.3 Population by Travel Zone, 2021Source: Transport Data Centre, 2010 A-3
  • 79. Figure A.4 Population by Travel Zone, 2031Source: Transport Data Centre, 2010These figures highlight significant forecast population growth in both central Gosford and central Wyong, in thezones surrounding Gosford, in Wyoming, Lisarow and Niagara to the north, in Woy Woy to the south, TheEntrance/ Killarney Vale to the North East, and Erina, Terrigal, Saratoga, Kincumber and Copacabana to the Eastand South-East. A-4
  • 80. Figures A.5 to A.8 provide trends of employment growth within the Central Coast Region.Figure A.5 Employment by Travel Zone, 2011Source: Transport Data Centre, 2010 A-5
  • 81. Figure A.6 Employment by Travel Zone, 2016Source: Transport Data Centre, 2010 A-6
  • 82. Figure A.7 Employment by Travel Zone, 2021Source: Transport Data Centre, 2010 A-7
  • 83. Figure A.8 Employment by Travel Zone, 2031Source: Transport Data Centre, 2010These maps show forecast employment growth focused on the major centres of Gosford and Wyong, with othersignificant employment growth forecast to occur in Erina, Woy Woy and areas immediately surrounding Gosford. A-8
  • 84. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMAppendix BRoad Network AnalysisK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 B
  • 85. Technical NoteProject: Gosford TMAP Job No: 60154625Subject: Recommended Infrastructure Upgrade Options for ConsiderationCreated by: Seamus Christley, Siddharth Sharma Date: 11/05/10Reviewed by: Erika Garbayo Date: 12/05/10Approved by: Roger Jeffries Date: 16/07/10Recommended Infrastructure Upgrade Options for ConsiderationIntroductionThe following document provides a preliminary analysis of the potential road network initiatives considered as partof the Gosford City Centre – Transport Management and Accessibility Plan (TMAP). Any potential upgrades aresubject to further feasibility analysis and the timing is subject to realising forecast growth.The underlying objective of the Gosford City Centre TMAP process is to increase the use of public transport,walking and cycling in the Gosford City Centre area. In that context, it is considered appropriate to minimise therange of road upgrade options considered in regard to increasing traffic movement unless adverse impacts to theperformance of public transport, cycle and pedestrian movement on the road network is identified.The proposed options considered are not the only options available but provide potential strategies tomanage traffic growth on Mann Street while providing increased priority for buses. Actual intersectionupgrades will be confirmed through such as the projects Gosford Waterfront.This is achieved by encouraging redistribution of private vehicles onto existing north-south and east-west linkagesthrough the town centre for circulation and access. The following initiatives have been assessed throughintersection modelling: R1a: Improve bus time reliability through Mann Street - Mann Street / Erina Street; - Mann Street/ Donnison Street - Henry Parry Drive / Donnison Street (R3c) - Henry Parry Drive / Erina Street (impacts of redirected traffic) - Henry Parry Drive / York Street (impacts of redirected traffic) R2b: Signalisation of Dane Drive / Central Coast Highway Roundabout (Option 1) R2d: Signalisation of Donnison Street / Baker Street R3a: Increase capacity of Etna Street bridge to accommodate forecast traffic volume and serve as a bypass to the town centre R3b: Donnison Street Bridge Widening and Donnison Street / Riou Street upgradeForecast Traffic Volumes – Existing NetworkExisting and forecast traffic volumes used during the analysis were determined using the available data providedby the RTA and Council.Existing traffic volumes identified from the RTA‟s Gosford-Wyong Paramics Model, were obtained from trafficcounts collected in 2009 at the following locations: Mann Street / Etna Street; Mann Street / Erina Street; Mann Street / Donnison Street; Henry Parry Drive / Erina Street; Henry Parry Drive / Donnison Street; Henry Parry Drive / York Street; and11 May 2010 B-1
  • 86. Technical Note Henry Parry Drive / Etna Street.Existing traffic volumes provided from the Council was made available from the Gosford Etna Street RailwayOverbridge Replacement and Showground Road Grade Separation (2009) and Gosford City Centre PedestrianAccess and Mobility Plan (PAMP) (2008). These sources provided data for the locations: Baker Street / Georgina Terrace; Faunce Street / Showground Road; Watt Street / Erina Street; Racecourse Road / Showground Road; and Etna Street / Mann Street.Remaining counts throughout the network were extracted from the Paramics 2009 AM and PM peak traffic model.Using these traffic volumes as a base, forecast growth from the RTA Strategic Model, Brisbane Water Drive andCentral Coast Highway intersection assessment and Council VISUM model was applied to identify 2016 and 2031traffic volumes throughout the network.It is understood that forecast traffic growth within the RTA model was based on land use forecasts (population andemployment) provided by the TDC, and the assumed network improvements as per the RTA‟s committed workprogramme.The following assessment has utilised these inputs as a base for the preliminary assessment only. The reader isreferred to the relevant study documentation for further details regarding calibration and verification of thestrategic model projected forecast.Forecast Traffic Volumes – Proposed NetworkThe table below provides a summary of the mode shift impacts when all the proposed measures (pedestrian, busfrequency, bus priority, parking, and TDM) are implemented.PT mode share for do nothing scenario and with the implementation of all measures PT mode share 2006 2011 2016 2021 2031 2036 Do Nothing 6.2% 6.2% 6.3% 6.5% 6.7% 6.8% All Measures 6.2% 7.6% 7.8% 8.7% 9.8% 9.9% Difference 0% 1.4% 1.5% 2.2% 3.1% 3.1%As such, the forecast modal shift to public transport has been assumed for the assessment of the proposednetwork scenario.In 2016 this is equivalent to a reduction in traffic of 1.5%, in 2031 a 3.1% reduction has been applied to theforecast traffic volumes.Option AssessmentTable 1 to Table 11 documents the overall intersection performance in the AM and PM peak periods for each ofthe proposed upgrade options considered, across three scenarios. The first details a „Do-Nothing‟ scenario thefuture year scenario, the second provides statistics pertaining to the implementation of the proposed scheme,whilst the third includes analysis of the proposed option incorporating the proposed modal shift target.This three stage analysis process is repeated for future intersection analysis. Existing phase operation and cycletimes were identified from the 2009 RTA Paramics Model.Two forecast years were used for the basis of assessment; 2016 and 2031. During the assessment, it was foundthat several locations were unable to operate within capacity (existing and proposed scenario) when the forecast11 May 2010 B-2
  • 87. Technical Notegrowth was applied. In these instances, a comparative analysis has been provided for the year 2016, togetherwith an indication of the design year where the intersection is able to cater for the forecast traffic growth.Potential Infrastructure Improvement Options for ConsiderationR1a: Improve bus time reliability through Mann StreetThe potential infrastructure upgrade options on Mann Street manage the increase in traffic growth by reducing theaccessibility from this corridor, while increasing its viability as a public transport, walking and cycling corridor.Mann Street / Erina StreetThree potential improvement options were considered for the Mann Street / Etna Street intersection: Ban right turn movement from Mann Street into Erina Street; Realign southbound approach to two lanes, with shared left and through movement allocation on the kerbside lane; Bus priority on Erina Street eastbound.As a result of the proposed banned movement, vehicles travelling to Erina Street eastbound would redirect toalternative routes such as Henry Parry Drive.Banning the right turn movement gives natural priority to southbound buses as the phase allowing for right turnmovements is removed. In addition traffic forecasts indicate that by 2031, approximately 224 vehicles and 162vehicles are removed from Mann Street in the AM and PM peak respectively. This will further enhance bus prioritydue to reduced congestion.2031 traffic volumes at the intersection under the “Do Nothing” and proposed scenario are summarised inFigure 1 to Figure 4.The results indicate that the average delay decreases for buses on Erina Street entering the intersection duringboth the morning and afternoon peak hour. Savings in the order of 10 seconds are achieved on this approach inthe AM peak hour. During the PM peak hour, the average delay for buses travelling northbound on Mann Streetfalls from a projected 22.9 seconds to 19.6 seconds. An improvement of approximately 6 seconds is recorded forsouthbound bus movements.Comparing the “Do Nothing” to proposed scenarios, the degree of saturation falls from > 0.9 in the AM peak toapproximately 0.775 - 0.750. In the PM peak the degree of saturation at the intersection remains stable, improvingfrom 0.753 to 0.730. This indicates increased stability of the intersection, whilst also indicating increased sparecapacity. Consideration to reducing the cycle time to limit the available capacity at this intersection would furtherreduce delay for pedestrians.In both peaks the intersection is forecast to continue operating at LoS B as occurs in the proposed scenario.It should be noted that the success of the proposed improvement options is not only found in intersectionperformance outputs but also in the ability to remove traffic and assist in the conversion of Mann Street to aprimary public transport, walking and cycling corridor.In the case of Mann Street and Erina Street, as well as improving the amenity of Mann Street, reducing trafficflows will further improve the operation of the intersection and a positive knock on effects to the upstreamintersection at Donnison Street as described in the following.11 May 2010 B-3
  • 88. Technical Note Figure 1: 2031 AM peak traffic flows (Existing) Figure 2: 2031 PM peak traffic flows (Existing) Source: AECOM, 2010 Source: AECOM, 2010 Figure 3: 2031 AM peak traffic flows (Proposed) Figure 4: 2031 PM peak traffic flows (Proposed) Source: AECOM, 2010 Source: AECOM, 201011 May 2010 B-4
  • 89. Technical NoteTraffic RedistributionThe traffic redistribution assumed as a result of the banned right turn into Erina Street, assumed a proportionalsplit of vehicle origins based on the existing traffic pattern at the intersection of Mann Street / Donnison Street. Inthe AM peak, 24% are assumed to originate from Donnison Street (EB) These vehicles now continue through to Henry Parry Drive, and access Erina Street from the east; 74% are assumed to originate from Mann Street (NB) Of this traffic volume, 50% will use Henry Parry Drive to access the east of the city, gaining access from the intersection of York Street / Henry Parry Drive. The remainder would turn left at Georgina Terrace at the upstream intersection, and undertake a displaced right turn through Baker Street and then onto Donnison Street before continuing onto Henry Parry Drive and gaining access to Erina Street from the east; 2% are assumed to originate from Donnison Street (WB) These vehicles would utilise Henry Parry Drive and access Erina Street from the east.Mann Street/ Donnison StreetThe proposed upgrade options considered for the intersection of Mann Street / Donnison Street include: Banning the right turn movement from Donnison Street (westbound) onto Mann Street (northbound); Reassign eastbound kerbside lane to shared left and ahead; and Extended southbound kerbside lane, with reassignment to left only (buses excepted)The potential proposed changes to lane designation aim to reduce the accessibility for vehicles into Mann Streetfrom Donnison Street. With the forecast traffic growth on Donnison Street, increased demand for the westboundthrough movement will result in increased queuing. Reassignment of the eastbound kerbside lane to a sharedthrough and left, promotes the through movement so that vehicles are not encouraged to turn left into Mann Streetas a means to bypass queuing.Reassignment of the southbound kerbside lane to left turn only, buses excepted, similarly provides an opportunityfor buses to bypass the southbound queue and gain priority at this intersection. The southbound kerbside lanehas been extended to increase the opportunity for buses to gain priority. It is noted however that the 95thpercentile queue extends beyond the length indicated; therefore further extension should be considered toincrease priority for buses.The 2016 forecast traffic volumes for the “Do Nothing” and proposed scenario are illustrated in Figures 5 toFigure 8. In the forecast traffic movements under the proposed case, traffic volumes have been redirected at theintersection (and through the network) due to the banned right turn movement from Mann Street to Erina Street,as described earlier.11 May 2010 B-5
  • 90. Technical NoteFigure 5: 2016 AM peak traffic flows (Existing) Figure 6: 2016 PM peak traffic flows (Existing)Source: AECOM, 2010 Source: AECOM, 2010Figure 7: 2016 AM peak traffic flows (Proposed) Figure 8: 2016 PM peak traffic flows (Proposed)Source: AECOM, 2010 Source: AECOM, 2010The results, highlighted in Table 2 indicate that the measures are forecast to result in an improvement in busdelay at the intersection. In the AM peak an improvement in average delay of 20.2 seconds is recorded for thesouthbound bus movement on Mann Street. In the PM peak, for the same movement, a decrease in averagedelay of 63.5 seconds is recorded when a modal shift of 1.5% is achieved. The average delay for northbound busmovements along Mann Street increases by 6.6 seconds in the AM peak and 6.2 seconds in the PM peak.The intersection performance under the 2016 forecast AM and PM peak traffic volumes have been summarised inTable 2. It can be seen from the results that the existing layout (“Do Nothing” scenario) has insufficient capacityto cater for the forecast traffic volumes during the AM Peak, as such an assessment on the intersection at 2031was not undertaken. Under the proposed design with redistributed traffic volumes, the intersection operateswithin capacity up to 2021 forecast traffic volumes.Henry Parry Drive / Donnison Street (R3c)With the redistribution of traffic flows resulting from the banned turning movements from Mann Street, thepotential to upgrade the intersection of Henry Parry Drive / Donnison Street could be considered to cater for theincreased traffic volumes and therefore minimise adverse impacts to the surrounding road network. The potentialproposed recommendations for the intersection of Henry Parry Drive / Donnison Street include: Widening the Henry Parry Drive northbound approach to two lanes to increase capacity; and Remove parking on Donnison Road (eastbound) on the northern and southern side of the carriageway.11 May 2010 B-6
  • 91. Technical NoteThe extent of parking removal (which could be assigned as a clearway during peak periods) was determinedthrough the analysis. The critical period occurs during the PM peak hour, with the analysis indicating a clearwayof 130m on the eastern approach to the intersection and 100m on the eastern departure.These initiatives promote Henry Parry Drive as an attractive alternative to Mann Street.Table 3 summarises the intersection performance under 2016 forecast traffic volumes under the “Do Nothing” andproposed scenario. Forecast traffic volumes for the year 2016 has been used for the comparative analysis(Figure 9 to Figure 12), beyond this year the intersection has insufficient capacity to cater for the forecast trafficvolumes under both the existing and proposed design, operating at LoS F.In 2016 the intersection operates at LoS D and C respectively in the AM peak period for both the do-nothing andproposed scenario. The proposed scenario records a degree of saturation (DoS) of 0.818 which is lower than thedo-nothing scenario at 0.945 despite 220 more vehicles passing through the intersection.Under the existing scenario, the existing layout is unable to cater for the forecast traffic growth in the PM peakwith a degree of saturation of 1.214. Under the proposed scenario, the intersection operates at a LoS F howeverjust within capacity. The forecast mode shift to public transport is insufficient to provide observable benefit. Theanalysis indicates the reliance on alternative north-south routes, and increased accessibility to those routes, toensure forecast increase in traffic does not transfer onto Mann Street.Figure 9: 2016 AM peak traffic flows (Existing) Figure 10: 2016 PM peak traffic flows (Existing) Source: AECOM, 2010Source: AECOM, 2010Figure 11: 2016 AM peak traffic flows (Proposed) Figure 12: 2016 PM peak traffic flows (Proposed)Source: AECOM, 2010 Source: AECOM, 201011 May 2010 B-7
  • 92. Technical NoteTraffic redirected to Erina Street (EB) at Henry Parry Drive / Erina Street intersectionDue to the potential modifications to Mann Street additional traffic movements are anticipated at the intersectionof Henry Parry Drive / Erina Street. Accordingly the future operating conditions of the intersection have beenanalysed with the results shown in Table 4. Analysis indicates that the intersection will operate satisfactorily in2031 for both the AM and PM peak periods. Under the do-nothing scenario the intersection operates at Level ofService B in the AM peak and C in the PM peak. Identical Level of Service figures are recorded for both theproposed and mode share reduction scenarios.In the AM Peak for the modal shift scenario an additional 154 vehicles pass through the intersection, increasingthe overall average delay by only 0.5 seconds. In the PM peak an additional 97 vehicles pass through theintersection, resulting in an increase in overall average delay of 2.2 seconds. Figure 13 to Figure 16 documentthe forecast traffic volumes at the intersection.Figure 13: 2031 AM peak traffic flows (Existing) Figure 14: 2031 PM peak traffic flows (Existing) Source: AECOM, 2010Source: AECOM, 2010Figure 15: 2031 AM peak traffic flows (Proposed) Figure 16: 2031 PM peak traffic flows (Proposed) Source: AECOM, 2010Source: AECOM, 2010Traffic redirected to Henry Parry Drive (NB) at Henry Parry Drive / York Street intersectionAn assessment has been undertaken on the intersection of York Street / Henry Parry Drive to consider theimplications of traffic redirected from the banned right turn movement into Erina Street. As identified through theMann Street potential upgrades for consideration, approximately 36% of this demand is assumed to utilise HenryParry Drive in order to access Erina Street in the proposed scenario.11 May 2010 B-8
  • 93. Technical NoteAnalysis indicates that the intersection performs at an acceptable Level of Service under the 2016 forecast trafficvolumes, under both the existing and assumed reassignment of right turning traffic.The intersection performance for the base, proposed and proposed with modal shift (1.5%) scenarios is detailedin Table 5. Figure 17 to Figure 20 summarise the forecast traffic volumes at the intersection in 2016 AM and PMpeak periods. Analysis indicates that under the base case scenario the intersection is able to cater for the forecasttraffic volumes until 2025, at which point the right turning queue into Henry Parry Drive extends beyond theavailable storage space. Under the proposed scenario the intersection operates up to 2020 forecast trafficvolumes, which extends to 2021 when the forecast modal shift is applied. Figure 17: 2016 AM peak traffic flows Figure 18: 2016 PM peak traffic flows Source: AECOM, 2010 Source: AECOM, 2010 Figure 19: 2016 AM peak traffic flows (proposed with mode shift) Figure 20: 2016 PM peak traffic flows (proposed with mode shift) Source: AECOM, 2010 Source: AECOM, 2010R2b: Signalisation of Dane Drive / Central Coast Highway Roundabout (Option 1)The roundabout operation at the intersection of the Central Coast Highway / Dane Drive is currently constrainedon the Dane Drive approach due to heavy eastbound traffic volumes on the Central Coast Highway.The existing roundabout will have insufficient capacity to cater for the 2031 AM traffic volumes, operating at LoS Fwith a degree of saturation of 1.111. Analysis indicates that the existing roundabout will have insufficient capacityto cater for the forecast 2016 PM peak flows. Results suggest that the existing roundabout will continue to performat an acceptable Level of Service until 2014.In order to allow continued connectivity to Showground Road, signalisation of the roundabout is recommended toincrease capacity at this location.A potential design upgrade has been tested which would provide a 75m right turn bay for vehicles originating fromthe east, together with a left turn slip lane for vehicles originating from the west 1. An 80m right turn bay isproposed for the southbound Dane Drive movement. This turn bay caters for the existing traffic volumes togetherwith projected traffic growth. An alternative to this arrangement would be to direct vehicles to Donnison StreetBridge. The final design of this intersection will be confirmed through the Gosford Waterfront Project.1 The left turn slip lane caters for existing traffic volumes, with projected growth. It is acknowledged that drivers are able to exit the Central CoastHighway upstream at the Riou Street (Pacific Highway) turn off, therefore the slip lane is optional provided traffic redistribute to the earlier exit.11 May 2010 B-9
  • 94. Technical NoteThe potential upgrade requires that the existing intersection is relocated to the east. The location satisfies the safeintersection sight distance (SISD) of 134m2 required for the 60km/h Central Coast Highway. From the 50km/hDane Drive approach, a 97m SISD. Consideration for queuing and increasing driver awareness through signageshould also be given.In relation to intersection spacing, the RTA‟s Traffic Signal Design Guide specifies that the total spacing betweensignalised intersection to not be less than 200m. According to the RTA Traffic Signal Design Guide (Section 2Warrants), when considering signalised mid-block marked foot crossing (such as that adjacent to VaughanStreet), a minimum distance of 130m is specified.Forecast traffic volumes for the year 2031 illustrated in Figure 21 and Figure 22. The traffic volumes associatedwith a 3.1% mode shift to public transport is illustrated in Figure 23 and Figure 24. Figure 21: 2031 AM peak traffic flows Figure 22: 2031 PM peak traffic flows Source: AECOM, 2010 Source: AECOM, 2010 Figure 23: 2031 AM peak traffic flows (with mode shift) Figure 24: 2031 PM peak traffic flows (with mode shift) Source: AECOM, 2010 Source: AECOM, 2010Under the forecast 2031 AM and PM peak traffic volumes, the proposed intersection operates at LoS B and LoSC respectively. Application of the 3.1% mode shift to public transport, results in an intersection performance ofLoS B and LoS B for the AM and PM peak periods respectively.The results of the preliminary analysis are summarised in Table 6. It is noted that the final design and location ofthe intersection is subject to the Waterfront Masterplan. Signalisation of the existing roundabout has beenassessed for informative purposes alone.2 Allowing for a 6% downgrade11 May 2010 B-10
  • 95. Technical NoteR2d: Signalisation of Donnison Street and Baker Street RoundaboutThe Donnison Street / Baker Street intersection forms a critical part of the east-west link between Showground Rdand Mann Street. With increasing traffic demands through the corridor, provision of a signalised intersection hasbeen assessed as a means of facilitating the forecast demand while maintaining pedestrian connectivity and thiskey route to the city centre.A performance evaluation of Donnison Street / Baker Street intersection has been undertaken with forecast flowsfor 2031 under the existing roundabout operating conditions and a proposed signalised intersection scenario. Theexisting traffic flows for the intersection were derived from RTA‟s Paramics Model of the Gosford City Centre.Future year flows have been based on the annual growth factors obtained from RTA‟s Strategic Model. Results ofthe aforementioned analysis can be found in Table 7. Forecast traffic volumes for the year 2031 are illustrated inFigure 25 to Figure 26. The traffic volumes associated with a 3.1% mode shift to public transport are illustrated inFigure 27 and Figure 28.Results indicate that the intersection would continue to perform at a LoS A under the existing layout and under asignalised intersection. The primary objective of the signalised intersection is to provide pedestrian connectivity atthis location. This can be achieved with comparable levels of performance. The potential intersection upgradecould provide two entry and exit lanes on the Donnison Street approaches, so the existing kerb build out wouldneed to be reduced to allow the four lane continuous carriageway. Figure 25: 2031 AM peak traffic flows Figure 26: 2031 PM peak traffic flows Source: AECOM, 2010 Source: AECOM, 2010 Figure 27: 2031 AM peak traffic flows (with mode shift) Figure 28: 2031 PM peak traffic flows (with mode shift) Source: AECOM, 2010 Source: AECOM, 201011 May 2010 B-11
  • 96. Technical NoteR3a: Increase capacity of Etna Street Bridge to accommodate forecast traffic volume and serve as abypass to the town centreIncreasing the capacity of Etna Street Bridge improves the operational performance and conditions for bus,pedestrian and cyclist movement across the Etna Street Bridge. The intersections on either side of the bridgecurrently operate at capacity during the morning peak, and are therefore identified as potential bottleneck forShowground Road and Racecourse Road as local bypass routes of the city centre. The two intersections inquestion are that of Showground Road / Etna Street and Mann Street / Etna Street.Showground Road / Etna StreetTwo intersection designs were assessed as a means of increasing the operational performance at ShowgroundRoad / Etna Street.Table 8 compares 2016 forecast traffic flows for the existing intersection layout against a potential gradeseparated solution at the intersection, identified within the 2009 OPUS report „Gosford Etna Street Railway BridgeReplacement and Showground Road Grade Separation‟. Modelling suggests that in 2016 the existing roundaboutwill cease to operate within capacity at a degree of saturation of 1.073 in the AM peak and 1.068 in the PM peak.Under a potential grade separated layout the intersection operates within capacity during peak periods. During theAM peak a Level of Service of B is achieved, with and without a mode shift to public transport. In the PM peak theintersection operates at Level of Service C. If the forecast mode share improvement of 1.5% can be achieved theLevel of Service improves to B. Further analysis indicates that the proposed grade separated intersectioncontinues to operate within capacity until 2023 under forecast traffic growth, both with and without the projectedmodal shift.The second option assessed involves an at-grade signalised intersection in place of the existing roundabout.Analysis of this option has been documented in Table 9. As identified, the existing roundabout is not anticipatedto operate past 2016. Under signalisation, minor improvement is observed in regard to queue length however theintersection continues to operate at capacity with Degree of Saturation 1.0, and LoS E during the AM peak andLoS D during the PM peak. The major limitation of the signalisation is the geometric constraints with insufficientstorage within the available turning bay lengths. The traffic volumes used for relevant analysis can be seen inFigure 29 to Figure 32.11 May 2010 B-12
  • 97. Technical Note Figure 29: 2016 AM peak traffic flows Figure 30: 2016 PM peak traffic flows Source: AECOM, 2010 Source: AECOM, 2010 Figure 31: 2016 AM peak traffic flows (Proposed) Figure 32: 2016 PM peak traffic flows (Proposed) Source: AECOM, 2010 Source: AECOM, 2010Mann Street / Etna StreetThe 2016 performance of the Mann Street / Etna Street intersection can be seen in Table 10. Under a do nothingscenario the intersection is expected to reach capacity in 2016 with a degree of saturation in the AM and PM peakperiods of 0.999 and 1.000, respectively. The proposed widening of the Etna Street bridge allows for an additionaltwo lanes which contribute to an improvement in degree of saturation in the AM and PM peaks to 0.851 (Level ofService B) and 0.836 (Level of Service C), respectively. When a 1.5% reduction in traffic volumes is applied to theintersection the Level of Service in the AM and PM peak periods remains constant. 2016 traffic volumes at theintersection can be seen in Figure 33 to Figure 36. Under the proposed layout the intersection operates withincapacity until 2022.11 May 2010 B-13
  • 98. Technical Note Figure 33: 2016 AM peak traffic flows (Existing + Proposed) Figure 34: 2016 PM peak traffic flows (Existing + Proposed) Source: AECOM, 2010 Source: AECOM, 2010 Figure 35: 2016 AM peak traffic flows (with mode shift) Figure 36: 2016 PM peak traffic flows (with mode shift) Source: AECOM, 2010 Source: AECOM, 2010R3b: Donnison Street Bridge Widening, with pedestrian and intersection upgrade at Riou Street and DaneDriveForecast traffic growth on the already congested Henry Parry Drive will result in vehicles redistributing toalternative routes. With the rail line dissecting the town centre, there are limited opportunities to access the north-south Showground Road. An upgrade is recommended at the Donnison Street Bridge in order to increaseaccessibility to the north-south Showground Road as an alternative to Mann Street.The existing bridge and roundabout operates at capacity during peak periods, the proposed recommendationsinclude increasing capacity in the westbound direction (toward Showground Road) through widening of the bridgeand upgrade to the existing roundabout. Forecast traffic volumes for 2016 are illustrated in Figures 37 to 40.11 May 2010 B-14
  • 99. Technical Note Figure 37: 2016 AM peak traffic flows Figure 38: 2016 PM peak traffic flows Source: AECOM, 2010 Source: AECOM, 2010 Figure 39: 2016 AM peak traffic flows (with mode shift) Figure 40: 2016 PM peak traffic flows (with mode shift) Source: AECOM, 2010 Source: AECOM, 2010The analysis indicates that the intersection operates satisfactorily under both the existing and proposedroundabout designs during the year 2016, with LoS A and B. Under the existing layout, increasing queue lengthsare observed during the 2016 PM peak period, with the westbound queue length on Donnison Street extending tobeyond Dane Drive. The results of the intersection performance under 2016 forecast flows is summarised inTable 11.Further analysis indicates that under the forecast annual growth identified by the strategic model, the existingroundabout layout continues to operate within capacity until the year 2019. At this point the eastbound queuingextends to the Donnison Street / Baker Street roundabout, with the westbound and southbound approachesoperating at DoS 0.96 to 0.97 during the PM peak. Under the proposed layout, the roundabout can cater for PMpeak traffic volumes up to the year 2029 and AM peak traffic volumes until 2031.11 May 2010 B-15
  • 100. Technical NoteTable 1: Performance of Mann Street / Erina Street Intersection (2031) Do-Nothing Scenario No Right Turn from Mann St to Erina St No Right Turn with Modal Shift 95% 95% 95% Mann Street / Erina Av Lane Permitted Back of Permitted Back of Av Delay Back of Av Delay Street Veh/h LoS DoS Delay Veh/h LoS DoS Veh/h LoS DoS movements Queue Movements Queue (s) Queue (s) (s) (m) (m) (m) AM Peak 1 Th, L, B 557 B 0.536 118 17.2 L, B 54 B 0.172 14 25.3 52 B 0.162 14 24.4 Mann Street (NB) 2 R 224 B 0.999* 52 24.1 Th 503 B 0.722 117 22.2 487 B 0.672 108 20.1 1 L, B 37 D 0.224 17 48.8 L, B 37 C 0.199 13 38.7 36 C 0.194 13 38.7 Erina Street (E Leg) 2 Th, R 167 D 0.611 62 46.1 Th, R 167 C 0.515 49 35.3 162 C 0.499 48 35.2 1 L 244 A 0.431 24 8.4 L, Th, B 951 B 0.775 166 15.7 921 B 0.750 153 14.6 Mann Street (SB) 2 Th, B 707 A 0.616 144 12.7 R 276 B 0.752 69 27.1 267 B 0.742 66 25.7 3 R 276 B 1.001* 69 21.0 - - -- - - - - - - - - Total 2212 B 1.001 149 17.1 1988 B 0.775 166 19.2 1925 B 0.750 153 18.0 PM Peak 1 Th, L, B 683 B 0.753 145 22.9 L, B 28 B 0.078 6 19.7 27 B 0.075 6 19.6 Mann Street (NB) 2 R 162 B 0.483 24 17.6 Th 655 B 0.735 137 17.5 635 B 0.712 130 16.7 1 L, B 164 C 0.725 48 34.0 L, B 164 C 0.753 50 36.6 159 C 0.730 48 35.8 Erina Street (E Leg) 2 Th, R 257 C 0.740 75 37.7 Th, R 257 C 0.687 73 35.7 249 C 0.666 70 35.3 1 L 99 A 0.213 12 10.3 L, Th, B 675 A 0.567 102 13.7 654 A 0.550 98 13.6 Mann Street (SB) 2 Th, B 576 B 0.689 120 17.6 R 115 B 0.314 30 25.2 111 B 0.295 28 24.2 3 R 115 B 0.349 19 19.4 - - - - - - - - - - - Total 2056 B 0.753 120 21.0 1894 B 0.753 137 19.1 1835 B 0.730 130 18.6* Due to right turn bay from Mann Street to Erina Street exceeding the available storage space.Source: AECOM, 20101 – kerbside2 – second lane3 – third lane (median lane)Cells highlighted in pink are those with existing bus movements. B-1611 May 2010
  • 101. Technical NoteTable 2: Intersection Performance of Mann Street / Donnison Street Intersection in 2022 Do-Nothing Scenario No Right Turn from Mann St to Erina St No Right Turn with Modal Shift 95% 95% 95% Mann Street / Av Lane Permitted Back of Permitted Back of Av Delay Back of Av Delay Donnison Street Veh/h LoS DoS Delay Veh/h LoS DoS Veh/h LoS DoS movements Queue Movements Queue (s) Queue (s) (s) (m) (m) (m) AM Peak 1 L, B 103 B 0.213 27 23.8 L, B 103 C 0.211 31 30.4 101 C 0.198 30 29.5 Mann Street (NB) 2 Th 700 C 0.845 198 28.5 Th 553 C 0.873 174 37.2 541 C 0.822 156 31.3 Donnison Street Th, L, R 291 C 0.634 73 33.4 Th, L 269 B 0.324 55 23.0 263 B 0.305 53 22.1 (WB) 1 Th, L 93 B 0.350 19 15.9 L, B 93 B 0.390 21 18.9 91 B 0.390 21 19.5 Mann Street (SB) 2 Th, R, B 475 C 0.844 144 39.1 Th, R 475 C 0.839 139 39.6 465 C 0.841 140 39.5 Donnison Street Th, L 740 C 0.847 141 31.3 Th, L 814 C 0.893 193 33.5 796 B 0.842 169 28.2 (EB) Total 2,402 C 0.847 198 30.5 2,307 C 0.893 193 32.8 2,257 C 0.842 169 29.4 PM Peak 1 L, B 74 C 0.189 25 33.5 L, B 74 C 0.197 31 42.3 72 C 0.176 28 39.7 Mann Street (NB) 2 Th 614 F 1.012 367 113.4 Th 530 F 0.997 328 106.7 518 F 0.984 282 90.2 Donnison Street Th, L, R 420 D 0.927 138 53.8 Th, L 391 C 0.493 96 29.6 382 B 0.448 88 27.4 (WB) 1 Th, L 138 B 0.588 32 18.6 L, B 138 C 0.721 45 32.6 135 B 0.663 39 25.4 Mann Street (SB) 2 Th, R, B 616 F 1.000 317 88.9 Th, R 616 F 1.010 371 101.6 602 F 0.985 302 96.9 Donnison Street Th, L 976 F 1.019 383 83.6 Th, L 1018 F 1.000 453 79.4 995 E 0.987 389 67.4 (EB) Total 2,838 F 1.019 383 81.4 2,767 F 1.010 453 78.3 2,704 E 0.987 389 68.9Source: AECOM, 2010 B-1711 May 2010
  • 102. Technical NoteTable 3: Performance of Henry Parry Drive / Donnison Street Intersection (2016) Do-Nothing Scenario No Right Turn from Mann St to Erina St No Right Turn with Modal Shift 95% 95% 95% Henry Parry Drive / Av Permitted Back of Permitted Back of Av Delay Back of Av Delay Donnison Street Veh/h LoS DoS Delay Veh/h LoS DoS Veh/h LoS DoS movements Queue Movements Queue (s) Queue (s) (s) (m) (m) (m) AM Peak Henry Parry Drive (NB) Th, L 1,132 D 0.943 318 51.8 Th, L 1,220 C 0.817 203 34.3 1,201 C 0.826 205 35.8 Donnison Street (WB) Th, L 240 C 0.721 80 42.3 Th, L 240 D 0.682 52 50.5 236 D 0.670 52 50.3 Henry Parry Drive (SB) Th, L, R 774 B 0.834 123 26.6 Th, L, R 774 C 0.814 143 28.9 763 C 0.819 142 29.7 Donnison Street (EB) Th, L, R 387 D 0.882 111 47.6 Th, L, R 519 C 0.788 105 30.3 511 B 0.741 100 28.3 Total 2,533 D 0.945 318 42.5 2,753 C 0.818 203 33.4 2,711 C 0.826 205 33.9 PM Peak Henry Parry Drive (NB) Th, L 866 F 1.077 403 127.9 Th, L 925 F 0.956 307 94.9 912 F 0.943 261 80.9 Donnison Street (WB) Th, L 360 F 1.041 229 145.1 Th, L 360 F 0.934 121 84.0 354 F 0.980 120 86.1 Henry Parry Drive (SB) Th, L, R 1,031 F 1.089 503 129.9 Th, L, R 1,031 E 0.969 351 68.0 1,015 E 0.977 330 66.4 Donnison Street (EB) Th, L, R 587 F 1.085 380 164.0 Th, L, R 671 F 0.979 312 83.9 661 E 0.958 251 66.0 Total 2,844 F 1.089 503 138.3 2,987 F 0.979 351 81.9 2,942 F 0.980 330 73.2Source: AECOM, 2010Table 4: Performance of Henry Parry Drive / Erina Street Intersection (2031) Do-Nothing Scenario Proposed Redirected Flows Redirected Flows with modal shift 95% 95% 95% Henry Parry Drive / Erina Back Av Permitted Permitted Back of Av Delay Back of Av Delay Street Veh/h LoS DoS of Delay Veh/h LoS DoS Veh/h LoS DoS movements Movements Queue (s) Queue (s) Queu (s) (m) (m) e (m) AM Peak Henry Parry Drive (NB) L, Th, R 1143 B 0.700 131 20.5 L, Th, R 1387 B 0.751 168 20.0 1344 B 0.728 160 19.3 Erina Street (WB) L, Th, R 163 D 0.609 37 44.6 L, Th, R 163 D 0.686 42 50.9 158 D 0.663 41 50.7 Henry Parry Drive (SB) L, Th, R 1024 B 0.610 126 17.2 L, Th, R 1024 B 0.636 148 19.5 992 B 0.610 140 19.0 Erina Street (EB) L, Th, R 319 C 0.700 78 30.2 L, Th, R 319 C 0.674 84 32.5 309 C 0.650 81 32.1 Total 2649 B 0.700 131 21.9 2893 B 0.751 168 22.9 2803 B 0.728 160 22.4 PM Peak Henry Parry Drive (NB) L, Th, R 1352 C 0.860 238 37.8 L, Th, R 1546 C 0.850 311 37.4 1498 C 0.842 282 35.8 Erina Street (WB) L, Th, R 213 D 0.808 67 56.1 L, Th, R 213 E 0.817 82 70.0 206 E 0.819 75 66.1 Henry Parry Drive (SB) L, Th, R 830 B 0.595 146 19.4 L, Th, R 830 B 0.611 193 22.9 804 B 0.581 168 21.0 Erina Street (EB) L, Th, R 469 C 0.853 148 42.1 L, Th, R 469 D 0.849 181 50.3 455 D 0.834 163 46.5 Total 2864 C 0.860 238 34.5 3058 C 0.850 311 37.7 2963 C 0.842 282 35.5Source: AECOM, 2010 B-1811 May 2010
  • 103. Technical NoteTable 5: Performance of Henry Parry Drive / York Street Intersection (2016) Proposed Right Turn Restrictions with Modal Do-Nothing Scenario Proposed Right Turn Restrictions Shift Henry Parry Drive / York 95% 95% 95% Av Street Permitted Back of Permitted Back of Av Delay Back of Av Delay Veh/h LoS DoS Delay Veh/h LoS DoS Veh/h LoS DoS movements Queue Movements Queue (s) Queue (s) (s) (m) (m) (m) AM Peak Henry Parry Drive L 243 C 0.211 41 34.6 L 243 C 0.184 35 28.7 239 C 0.187 35 29.4 York Street (WB) Th, R 2,854 A 0.797 243 11.9 Th, R 2,854 A 0.805 227 12.7 2,812 A 0.793 220 12.5 York Street (EB) Th, L 1,466 B 0.660 173 15.8 Th, L 1,466 B 0.736 178 18.5 1,444 B 0.710 170 17.5 Total 4,563 A 0.797 243 14.3 4,563 B 0.805 227 15.4 4,495 B 0.793 220 15.0 PM Peak Henry Parry Drive L 362 D 0.696 74 54.1 L 362 D 0.627 66 47.2 357 D 0.618 65 47.1 York Street (WB) Th, R 1,890 A 0.754 119 11.7 Th, R 1,890 A 0.790 121 13.2 1,934 A 0.772 117 12.7 York Street (EB) Th, L 2,260 A 0.784 233 8.6 Th, L 2,260 A 0.816 236 9.8 2,226 A 0.804 226 9.4 Total 4,512 A 0.785 233 13.6 4,512 A 0.826 236 14.2 4,444 A 0.804 226 13.8Source: AECOM, 2010Table 6: Performance of Central Coast Highway / Dane Drive Intersection (2031) Do-Nothing Scenario Signalised Intersection Signalised Intersection with modal shift 95% 95% 95% Central Coast Highway / Back Av Permitted Permitted Back of Av Delay Back of Av Delay Dane Drive Veh/h LoS DoS of Delay Veh/h LoS DoS Veh/h LoS DoS movements Movements Queue (s) Queue (s) Queu (s) (m) (m) e (m) AM Peak Stadium (NB) L, Th, R 30 C 0.225 12 30.2 L, Th, R 30 F 0.332 20 73.5 30 F 0.332 20 73.5 Central Coast Highway (WB) L, Th, R 2719 F 1.109 1,466 209.5 L, Th, R 2,719 B 0.848 473 19.7 2,635 B 0.822 482 19.1 Dane Drive (SB) L, Th, R 415 C 0.909 92 40.5 L, Th, R 415 E 0.804 148 68.6 402 E 0.797 143 68.8 Central Coast Highway (EB) L, Th, R 2105 A 0.764 77 5.7 L, Th, R 2,095 B 0.665 232 15.9 2,030 B 0.637 216 15.1 Total 5269 F 1.111 1,466 113.7 5,259 B 0.848 473 22.4 5,097 B 0.844 482 21.7 PM Peak Stadium (NB) L, Th, R 30 A 0.075 3 12.8 L, Th, R 30 F 0.384 23 85.2 30 F 0.384 23 85.2 Central Coast Highway (WB) L, Th, R 1850 A 0.690 61 5.8 L, Th, R 1,850 B 0.897 431 18.3 1,793 B 0.867 410 17.8 Dane Drive (SB) L, Th, R 458 F 2.279 2,355 2341 L, Th, R 458 F 0.905 180 90.3 445 F 0.880 169 86.0 Central Coast Highway (EB) L, Th, R 3098 F 1.066 1,235 128.4 L, Th, R 3,089 B 0.927 588 26.7 2,993 B 0.898 496 20.1 Total 5436 F 2.5 2,355 272.4 5,427 C 0.926 588 29.5 5,261 B 0.898 496 25.2Source: AECOM, 2010 B-1911 May 2010
  • 104. Technical NoteTable 7: Performance of Donnison Street / Baker Street Intersection (2031) Proposed Layout (Signalisation) with modal Do-Nothing Scenario Proposed Layout (Signalisation) shift Donnison Street / Baker 95% 95% 95% Av Street Permitted Back of Permitted Back of Av Delay Back of Av Delay Veh/h LoS DoS Delay Veh/h LoS DoS Veh/h LoS DoS movements Queue Movements Queue (s) Queue (s) (s) (m) (m) (m) AM Peak Baker Street (NB) L, Th, R 33 B 0.081 5 17.8 L, Th, R 33 B 0.074 7 20.8 33 B 0.074 7 20.8 Donnison Street (WB) L, Th, R 1079 A 0.701 72 4.4 L, Th, R 1,079 A 0.600 81 11.3 1,046 A 0.582 78 11.1 Baker Street (SB) L, Th, R 51 A 0.028 1 5.0 L, Th, R 51 B 0.087 7 22.0 50 B 0.084 6 22.0 Donnison Street (EB) L, Th, R 468 A 0.308 17 1.7 L, Th, R 468 A 0.306 37 9.1 454 A 0.297 35 9.1 Total 1631 A 0.714 72 3.9 1,631 A 0.601 81 11.2 1,583 A 0.585 78 11.1 PM Peak Baker Street (NB) L, Th, R 215 B 0.407 26 18.3 L, Th, R 212 B 0.398 32 17.0 205 B 0.383 31 16.9 Donnison Street (WB) L, Th, R 847 A 0.578 50 4.4 L, Th, R 847 A 0.660 66 13.8 821 A 0.640 64 13.5 Baker Street (SB) L, Th, R 132 A 0.098 6 7.2 L, Th, R 132 B 0.199 15 18.1 128 B 0.191 14 18.1 Donnison Street (EB) L, Th, R 544 A 0.414 27 2.5 L, Th, R 544 A 0.412 40 11.3 527 A 0.399 39 11.2 Total 1,738 A 0.588 50 5.7 1,735 A 0.663 66 13.8 1,681 A 0.644 64 13.6Source: AECOM, 2010Table 8: Performance of Etna Street / Showground Road Option 1 (2016) Proposed Option 1 – Grade Separation with Do-Nothing Scenario Proposed Option 1 – Grade Separation modal shift Etna Street / Showground 95% 95% 95% Av Road Permitted Back of Permitted Back of Av Delay Back of Av Delay Veh/h LoS DoS Delay Veh/h LoS DoS Veh/h LoS DoS movements Queue Movements Queue (s) Queue (s) (s) (m) (m) (m) AM Peak Showground Road (NB) L, Th, R 498 F 1.069 473 195.0 L, R 209 D 0.777 55 42.7 206 C 0.768 54 42.4 Etna Street (WB) L, Th, R 724 C 0.936 215 37.4 L, Th, R 724 B 0.628 53 18.6 713 B 0.619 52 18.5 Showground Road (SB) L, Th, R 579 C 0.859 130 29.1 L, R 341 C 0.771 60 41.8 336 C 0.758 58 41.5 Etna Street (EB) L, Th, R 582 D 0.923 182 44.1 L, Th, R 582 B 0.483 70 23.3 574 B 0.477 69 23.2 Total 2383 E 1.073 473 69.9 1856 B 0.777 70 27.0 1829 B 0.768 69 26.9 PM Peak Showground Road (NB) L, Th, R 382 F 1.005 258 131.8 L, R 189 D 0.732 61 45.9 186 D 0.787 56 43.4 Etna Street (WB) L, Th, R 921 F 1.031 571 102.3 L, Th, R 921 B 0.707 81 20.8 907 B 0.838 83 23.6 Showground Road (SB) L, Th, R 516 F 0.973 242 79.3 L, R 319 D 0.739 70 43.6 314 C 0.765 64 40.3 Etna Street (EB) L, Th, R 741 F 1.066 636 166.2 L, Th, R 741 B 0.639 101 27.9 730 B 0.650 90 25.4 Total 2560 F 1.068 636 120.5 2170 C 0.740 101 28.8 2137 B 0.838 90 28.4Source: AECOM, 2010 B-2011 May 2010
  • 105. Technical NoteTable 9: Performance of Etna Street / Showground Road Option 4 (2016) Proposed Option 4 – Grade Separation with Do-Nothing Scenario Proposed Option 4 – Grade Separation modal shift Etna Street / Showground 95% 95% 95% Av Road Permitted Back of Permitted Back of Av Delay Back of Av Delay Veh/h LoS DoS Delay Veh/h LoS DoS Veh/h LoS DoS movements Queue Movements Queue (s) Queue (s) (s) (m) (m) (m) AM Peak Showground Road (NB) L, Th, R 498 F 1.069 473 195.0 L, Th, R 498 E 0.916 257 69.2 491 F 0.935 251 72.5 Etna Street (WB) L, Th, R 724 C 0.936 215 37.4 L, Th, R 724 D 1.000 116 43.0 713 D 0.946 107 48.5 Showground Road (SB) L, Th, R 579 C 0.859 130 29.1 L, Th, R 579 D 1.000 121 55.5 570 D 1.000 121 52.2 Etna Street (EB) L, Th, R 582 D 0.923 182 44.1 L, Th, R 582 E 0.931 251 69.2 574 E 0.929 232 65.0 Total 2383 E 1.073 473 69.9 2,383 E 1.000 257 57.9 2,348 E 1.000 251 58.5 PM Peak Showground Road (NB) L, Th, R 382 F 1.005 258 131.8 L, Th, R 382 F 0.927 193 73.8 376 F 0.945 188 76.5 Etna Street (WB) L, Th, R 921 F 1.031 571 102.3 L, Th, R 921 C 1.000 135 42.2 907 C 0.950 124 39.3 Showground Road (SB) L, Th, R 516 F 0.973 242 79.3 L, Th, R 516 D 1.000 121 53.0 508 D 1.000 121 50.1 Etna Street (EB) L, Th, R 741 F 1.066 636 166.2 L, Th, R 741 E 0.938 309 61.9 730 E 0.941 289 60.0 Total 2560 F 1.068 636 120.5 2,560 D 1.001 309 54.8 2,521 D 1.000 289 53.0Source: AECOM, 2010Table 10: Performance of Etna Street / Mann Street (2016) Do-Nothing Scenario Proposed Layout Proposed Layout with modal shift 95% 95% 95% Av Etna Street / Mann Street Permitted Back of Permitted Back of Av Delay Back of Av Delay Veh/h LoS DoS Delay Veh/h LoS DoS Veh/h LoS DoS movements Queue Movements Queue (s) Queue (s) (s) (m) (m) (m) AM Peak Mann Street (NB) L, Th 401 C 0.873 104 40.0 L, Th 401 C 0.719 91 32.5 395 C 0.710 89 32.3 Etna Street (WB) L, Th, R 270 C 0.818 82 41.7 L, Th, R 270 C 0.561 51 35.8 267 C 0.554 51 35.8 Mann Street (SB) L, Th, R 901 D 0.994 222 55.3 L, Th, R 901 B 0.852 121 22.9 887 B 0.836 115 21.8 Etna Street (EB) L, Th, R 796 B 1.000 131 22.8 L, Th, R 796 B 0.382 70 18.7 784 B 0.376 69 18.6 Total 2368 C 0.999 222 40.3 2368 B 0.851 121 24.6 2333 B 0.836 115 24.1 PM Peak Mann Street (NB) L, Th 666 F 1.000 275 80.9 L, Th 666 C 0.916 189 42.2 656 C 0.840 173 34.6 Etna Street (WB) L, Th, R 243 D 0.827 75 42.5 L, Th, R 243 C 0.580 43 36.7 240 C 0.610 48 41.0 Mann Street (SB) L, Th, R 670 C 0.954 113 34.9 L, Th, R 670 B 0.895 94 26.5 660 B 0.827 87 23.6 Etna Street (EB) L, Th, R 1052 D 1.000 347 52.8 L, Th, R 1052 B 0.734 158 22.3 1036 B 0.731 173 24.5 Total 2631 D 1.000 347 54.4 2631 C 0.916 189 29.7 2592 C 0.840 173 28.4Source: AECOM, 2010 B-2111 May 2010
  • 106. Technical NoteTable 11: Performance of Showground Road / Donnison Street Intersection (2016) Do-Nothing Scenario Proposed Layout 95% 95% Showground Road / Back Av Permitted Permitted Back of Av Delay Donnison Street Veh/h LoS DoS of Delay Veh/h LoS DoS movements Movements Queue (s) Queu (s) (m) e (m) AM Peak Riou Street (NB) L, Th, R 367 A 0.403 24 11.2 L, Th, R 362 A 0.376 18 10.5 Donnison Street (WB) L, Th, R 536 A 0.672 61 14.3 L, Th, R 528 A 0.312 17 9.0 Riou Drive (SB) L, Th, R 458 A 0.559 41 10.9 L, Th, R 451 A 0.443 26 8.8 Donnison Street (EB) L, Th, R 102 A 0.135 7 12.0 L, Th, R 101 A 0.131 5 11.2 Total 1,463 A 0.674 61 12.3 1,442 A 0.443 26 9.5 PM Peak Riou Street (NB) L, Th, R 332 A 0.386 23 10.2 L, Th, R 327 A 0.213 10 9.5 Donnison Street (WB) L, Th, R 485 C 0.838 106 30.2 L, Th, R 478 A 0.489 34 13.1 Riou Drive (SB) L, Th, R 755 B 0.877 142 21.9 L, Th, R 744 A 0.632 53 10.1 Donnison Street (EB) L, Th, R 456 A 0.572 43 12.9 L, Th, R 449 A 0.551 33 11.0 Total 2,028 B 0.883 142 20.0 1,998 A 0.632 53 10.9Source: AECOM, 2010 B-2211 May 2010
  • 107. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMAppendix CTDM MeasuresK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 C
  • 108. Appendix C –TDMC.1 TDM – Detailed MeasuresC.1.1 Workplace Travel PlansIt is recommended that workplace travel plans be implemented within new and established companies andorganisations locating/located in Gosford.A workplace travel plan is typically a package of practical measures to encourage and enable staff and visitors toa particular building or company to choose alternatives to single-occupancy car-use, and promote greener,cleaner and healthier travel choices. In order for a travel plan to be successful, it should be tailored to suit theneeds of the particular organisation in question, and have the full backing of management and staff at all levels.Potential elements of workplace travel plans include: setting up a car sharing scheme; improving the local pedestrian environment; providing cycle facilities providing end of trip facilities (showers, changing rooms, lockers etc); offering payroll deductions for company purchased travel passes; negotiating improved public transport services; offering attractive flexible-working practices; marketing and awareness of alternative travel options available; informing visitors to a company of the transport options available; and restricting and/or charging for car parking.Although the implementation of a travel plan will inevitably involve costs in terms of both time and money, there isa wide range of benefits to be gained, including: reduced journey times and costs for employees; improved health and morale of workforce; enhanced company environmental image; avoidance of future parking and congestion charging; reduced demand for on-site parking; and redundant parking spaces can be put to more productive use.Organisations with travel plans also appear more responsible towards their employees, the local community andthe environment.To enforce the implementation of workplace travel plans for companies / organisations in Gosford it isrecommended that there be a requirement for workplace travel plans to accompany any development applicationfor change of use or occupation of a new building before planning consent can be granted. This requirementwould be an addition to the Gosford City’s planning control documents (LEP and DCP).As new developments will inevitably vary in nature and size, it is recommended that thresholds are set todetermine whether a development requires a travel plan with a development application. Thresholds can alsodetermine the type of travel plan required, be it a full travel plan or a travel plan statement, the latter aimed atdevelopments that are likely to generate only a small number of trips with a negligible impact. Guidelines on theapplication of policy relating to travel plans for new developments would need to be prepared.It is also recommended that Gosford Council implement a workplace travel plan for staff and visitors at theCouncil to demonstrate ‘leading by example’. C-1
  • 109. Examples of workplace travel plans have shown that significant results can be achieved with regards to reducingprivate car trips and increasing public transport, cycling and walking trips. Darebin City Council, Victoria,implemented a Green Travel Plan for Darebin Council employees in 2001 as part of an integrated travel plan forthe City of Darebin as a whole. The Green Travel Plan allowed the Council to ‘lead by example’ beforeencouraging the community or other businesses to change their travel behaviours. Results showed that between2001 and 2005, car driver as a primary mode of travel to work decreased from 80% of staff to 65% of staff. Therewas also an increase in the percentage of staff cycling and walking to work.C.1.2 Residential / Community Travel PlansResidential / community travel plans are recommended for large scale new developments being developed inGosford. Established residential areas in Gosford would also benefit from the implementation of a travel plantailored to their specific geography and location.A residential travel plan is a package of measures designed to reduce car use originating from new housing bysupporting alternative forms of transport and reducing the need to travel in the first place.They are an important tool to help deliver accessible, sustainable communities and offer clear benefits to all theparties involved – public, private and the community. They involve meeting the access needs of residents in anew way and require partnerships between developers, local authorities, local communities and new residents.When faced with a new development, local communities are often concerned about the level of traffic that may begenerated and parking problems that may arise. Residential travel plans can help overcome this by finding newways of addressing resident’s travel need and demonstrating how to influence their travel choices.Residential travel plans offer a range of benefits. For developers these include: enabling higher densities of housing development and therefore increased profit margins; and potentially reducing the need for expenditure on new transport infrastructure.For new occupiers the benefits include: better access to essential services and jobs; improved travel options; opportunity for a healthier lifestyle; and more vibrant communities to live in.Gosford City Council would also benefit from residential travel plans as they can help achieve a range ofobjectives including: residents’ needs for access to shops, schools, jobs, health facilities and recreational activities; reduce traffic generated by developments; create sustainable, vibrant local communities and promote healthy lifestyles; and address local issues about how to provide good access to and from sites by walking, cycling and public transport access.As with workplace travel plans it is recommended that there be a requirement for residential / community travelplans to accompany any development application for new residential developments before planning consent canbe granted. C-2
  • 110. C.1.3 School / College Travel PlansIt is recommended that schools within Gosford, both primary and secondary implement school travel plans.School travel plans put forward packages of measures to improve children’s safety on their journey to/fromschool and to reduce car use. They are also designed to assist pupils and parents in identifying healthy andsustainable transport options.School travel plans generally consist of the generic measures contained in workplace travel plans (cycling,walking, public transport strategies). Other measures that can be implemented to ensure safe and sustainabletravel to schools, and which can be incorporated in a school travel plan are: Safe route to school programs; and Walking buses.Safe routes to schools is a concept that increases the number of children who walk or cycle to school byremoving the barriers that currently prevent them from doing so. Those barriers include lack of infrastructure,unsafe infrastructure, lack of programs that promote walking and cycling through education/encouragementprograms aimed at children, parents and the community. Primary schools can also take part in the ‘Walk Safelyto School’ day each year which is where all primary school children are encouraged to walk and commute safelyto school.A walking school bus is another measure which supports the need to change travel choices within schools aswell as easing congestion, increasing safety and reducing pollution. A walking school bus is a group of primaryschool children who walk to and from school along a safe and enjoyable set route, accompanied by a minimum oftwo parent/driver supervisors per ‘bus’. One parent ‘drives’ at the front and the other parent supervises at therear.C.1.4 Gosford Hospital Travel PlanGosford hospital is the largest hospital on the Central Coast (with approximately 500 beds) and is currently beingredeveloped to include new facilities. It is recommended that a travel plan for the hospital be implemented andwould involve the same principles and measures defined for workplace travel plans.A package of practical measures would be implemented to encourage and enable staff and visitors to the hospitalto choose alternatives to single-occupancy car-use, and promote greener, cleaner and healthier travel choices.As well as this, a hospital travel plan can recommend measures that encourage sustainable delivery of medicalsupplies and servicing.It is recommended that a travel plan coordinator be appointed at the hospital to provide an initial point of contactfor staff, visitors, patients and the local authority and would play a key role in development, evolution andimplementation of the travel plan.C.1.5 Gosford car sharing schemeA car sharing scheme for Gosford would involve the city creating dedicated car sharing spaces at strategic on-street and off-street locations which would be available to selected car share operators. Residents join the carsharing scheme supported by Gosford City Council and can reserve cars online or over the phone for use at anytime day or night.A car sharing scheme addresses parking problems, reduces traffic congestion, provides a low cost alternative toresidents who only use a car occasionally and supports more sustainable transport within a city. Research showsthat one car share vehicle can reduce demand for parking in a city by replacing up to ten privately ownedvehicles parked and travelling on the roads.At present, the City of Sydney is trialling a city wide car sharing scheme and is working in conjunction with theprivately operated car sharing companies; Charter Drive, Flexicar and GoGet. C-3
  • 111. C.1.6 Marketing, communications and promotionMarketing, communications and promotion would be key to ensure the success of the travel behaviour changeprogram. It is recommended that a marketing and awareness campaign be developed to engage the city and tolet them know about the program and what it means for them. The following would be involved in the marketingand awareness campaign: Develop branding; Prepare information booklets and education; Improve public recognition; A communication strategy; Advertising campaigns; Implementation of community events in Gosford (i.e ‘give your car the day off’); and Promotion of national events (i.e. Walk to Work day and Ride to Work day).C.1.7 Active travel choices strategy – walking and cyclingThe travel behaviour change program would include the encouragement of active travel choices such as walkingand cycling. ‘Hard’ measures involving cycling and walking infrastructure are covered in the cycling and walkingstrategy, however the following ‘soft’ measures should be implemented as part of a travel behaviour changeprogram: Provision of cycling training; Preparation and promotion of walking and cycling maps; Implementation of signs for pedestrians and cyclists; and Promotion of ‘non car day’ events.C.1.8 Public transport promotionAs well as improvements recommended as part of the bus strategy, a travel behaviour change program caninvolve improving the level and accessibility of public transport information and marketing. This would includebetter information provided about services and fares and could include real time information. Improvements madeto public transport should also be promoted as part of a public transport marketing and information campaign. It isrecommended that an information booklet of all public transport options (routes, services and frequencies)available in Gosford is provided for all households in Gosford. C-4
  • 112. C.2 Travel Behaviour Change Program– Case StudiesTravel Behaviour Change Programs have been implemented in many towns and cities across the world toencourage residents and people who work there to choose to walk, cycle and use public transport more often andto use their cars less. The UK has many examples of towns and cities that have implemented successfulprograms such as Worcester, Peterborough, Darlington and Sutton.In 2004 the UK’s Department for Transport selected Darlington, Peterborough and Worcester to be ‘SustainableTravel Towns’. The purpose was to demonstrate the effectiveness of smarter travel choices initiatives in reducingcar use. The three towns all applied a package of measures to increase sustainable travel, including travelplanning, marketing and improved information. Widespread personalised travel planning was a major part of this.The Worcester project was branded Choose How You Move (CHYM) and comprised a range of initiativesincluding: Travel information - information on a specific CHYM section of Worcester City Council’s website, new public transport, walking and cycling maps and timetables. Marketing and promotion - Individualised Travel Marketing, public transport, car sharing, and walking and cycling marketing campaigns and events structured around an annual calendar linked to the seasons. Travel planning - workplace travel plans, school travel plans. Public transport - service improvements, regular timetable change dates, improved infrastructure and information at bus stops, new ticketing initiatives. Cycling - cycle loan scheme, Tour of Britain, Pedal in the Park and Dr Bike events, adult and child cycle training, development of new maps and leisure route information. Walking - walk to school week, walking buses, walk to work events and summer walking pack Other measures - car club, car sharing database for employers.Peterborough also implemented a holistic package of measures over 5 years to encourage greater use ofwalking, cycling, public transport and car sharing. The measures included: Individualised travel marketing – tailored travel information for households; Research and evaluation; Marketing and promotion – branding, adverts, competitions, local event participation, information leaflets and resources, maps, posters, flyers, press releases, campaigns and events; More cycling – city wide cycle map, rural cycle guidelines, cycle revolution festivals, bike week events, information leaflets, cycle maintenance classes, an e-newsletter, adult cycle training, infrastructure improvements, cycle parking provision, improved signage; Walking and safety – development of information materials on walking, coordination of walking promotions and events, advice on walking infrastructure for planning applications; Business travel planning – engaging with local businesses and delivering a support system to aid in the development of travel plans; Real time passenger information; Passenger information screens – installed at the local shopping centre; Interactive kiosk – installed in main bus station, enabling travellers to plan their journey by public transport then print out the details; Travel information centre – face to face help for customers; Interactive map – shows walking, cycling and bus routes as well as stop specific information; Integrated sustainable transport guide; Sustainable transport interchange information; Route branding; ‘Text and go’ – SMS text messaging service allowing users to find out the time and service number of the next 3 scheduled bus departures from their stop; Car sharing website – an online journey matching service; and School travel plans. C-5
  • 113. The London Borough of Sutton implemented a travel behaviour change programme called Smarter TravelSutton (STS). This was a three year initiative to test whether it would be possible to encourage residents andpeople who work in Sutton to choose to walk, cycle and use public transport more often and their cars a little less.Sutton’s residents, employees and visitors were all active participants in the programme. Measures implementedover the three years as part of the programme included: School travel planning; Workplace travel planning; Personal travel advice and information; Advertising, marketing and promotion; Car clubs; A car sharing scheme; and Cycle parking.All three case studies are good examples of travel behaviour change programmes that have influenced atown/city as a whole to become more sustainable in the way they travel. Each programme was subject to fundingprovision to deliver successful outcomes and included a strong marketing and branding campaign.Table C.1 indicates the result of the programmes and highlights what could potentially be achievable in Gosford ifa similar level of funding were to be provided and all aspects of this TMAP were considered including; the walkingand cycling strategy, public transport strategy, parking strategy, road network strategy, in conjunction with theoverarching TDM strategy and measures.Table C.1: Travel Behaviour Change Programmes Results Mode Shift Change (%) Time Area public transport Period car driver trips walking trips cycling trips trips Worcester 4 years -7% +12% +19% +20% (bus)Peterborough 5 years - 9% +14% +12% +35% (bus) Sutton 3 years -6% +3% +75% +16% (bus) Range 3-5 years -6% - -9% +3% - +14% +12% - +75% +16% - +35%Source: AECOM, 2010 and www.dft.gov.uk C-6
  • 114. Gosford City Centre Transport Management & Accessibility Plan AECOMAppendix DMode Choice ModelDevelopmentK:60154625_Gosford_TMAP8. Issued docs8.1 ReportsFINAL2010_1213 Final Report Rev 0.docxRevision 0 - 13 December 2010 D
  • 115. Appendix D - Mode Choice Model DevelopmentThe central theorem is that people make rational decisions about their mode of travel based on the relativeattractiveness of each mode. The introduction of transport and land-use measures will change the relativity andthereby affect mode choice. For example, public transport mode share will increase as a result of an increase inthe ‘cost’ of travel by car and/or a reduction in the ‘cost’ of public transport.The impact of various public transport service improvements were assessed with a binary logit model. This is astandard industry method of assessing mode choice, where the probability of using one mode is defined in termsof the difference in generalised cost between two alternatives, and in this case, car and public transport. Thebinary logit model formula is shown in Figure D.1 below.Figure D.1 Logit equation Pb = 1 / (1 + exp (- (Ccar + - Cpt))Where: Pb = Probability of choosing PT = Dispersion (scaling) parameter = Mode constant (in favour to the car mode) Ccar = Generalised cost of travelling by car Cpt = Generalised cost of travelling by PTCalibration is required to estimate the dispersion (scaling) parameter and the mode constant using the 2006Census JTW data and the generalised cost estimates for car and PT modes. The values of the parameters(dispersion parameter and mode constant ) are estimated using linear regression, as shown in Figure D.2below.Figure D.2 Parameter estimation Pb = 1 / (1 + exp (- (Ccar + - Cpt))Becomes: Ln (Pb/(1-Pb)) = - (Ccar - Cpt) -Plot: x-axis: Ccar-Cpt y-axis: Ln(Pb/(1-Pb))Then: is the slope is the interceptUsing linear regression, the estimated dispersion parameter ( ) is 0.035 and the estimated mode constant is -23minutes (i.e. 23 minutes in favour of the car mode). T-statistics for the parameters are 5.2 and -2.9 respectively,which indicates that the dispersion parameter is highly statistical significant. The mode constant, which is lessstatistical significant compared to the dispersion parameter, is then being adjusted to match the observed publictransport mode share for Gosford journey to work trips in 2006 (6.2%), which results to be -32 minutes (i.e. 32minutes in favour of the car mode).Therefore, the calibrated values for the dispersion parameter and mode constant are 0.035 and -32 minutesrespectively. These values are consistent with the values recommended in historic researches. The dispersionparameter and the mode constant, together with future year model assumptions (described in the next section),are then used to estimate the public transport mode share for future year baseline and option scenarios. D-1