Application Profiles for Subject Domains


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Preliminary discusses why and how application profiles should be build for different subject domains and different vocabulary structures, based on FRSAD model. Presented at the Joint meeting of LLD XG and DCMI Architecture Forum.

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  • The main focus of the model is intellectual property and rights management, but it also overlaps significantly with FRBR. The basic entities are defined as:
    Percept: an entity which is perceived directly with at least one of the five senses.
    Being: an entity which has characteristics of animate life; anything which lives and dies
    Thing: an entity without the characteristics of animate life
    Concept: an entity which cannot be perceived directly through the mode of one of the five senses; and abstract entity, a notion or idea; an abstract noun; an unobservable proposition which exists independently of time and space
    Relation: the interaction of percepts and/or concepts; a connection between two or more entities
    Event: a dynamic relation involving two or more entities; something that happens; a relation through which an attribute of an entity is changed, added or removed
    Situation: a static relation involving two or more entities; something that continues to be the case; a relation in which the attributes of entities remain unchanged
    OpenCYC chart:
  • “These are the first people that a country writes to when it changes itsname, I'm told. So in terms of provenance, this is the mostauthoritative. It's not ideal since it does not deal with intra-countryconcepts. Also it's a bit "design-y" for my tastes. When I asked aboutthis they said they had not envisaged other types of user wanting makereference to this material.
    If one wants to define a set of reference ontologies to use which are asstandard as possible then I'd suggest that this should be used forreasons of provenance. I'm in the process of trying to integrate the EDMCouncil Semantics Repository upper ontology terms into this, for thatreason, and replacing the "holding" terms we currently use, which youare welcome to look at on under "GlobalTerms/Geographical".The intra-country terms are more problematic, and I'm also looking forwhat is the "most definitive" ontology for such terms, i.e. withprovenance from a standards or governing body. The recognised authorityon countries and country components is ISO 3166 at but unfortunately that simplyitemises the various intra-country components without attempting tocreate common concepts (e.g. a federal province is a common concept,whether a given federation calls it a State, a Province, a Canton orwhatever, subject to different legal nuances of course).”
    Mike Bennett <>3/27 via "[ontolog-forum]" <>
  • The Guidelines for Dublin Core Application Profiles document provides a framework for the content and structure of any Dublin Core Application Profile (DCAP). The document explains the key components of a Dublin Core Application Profile and walks through the process of developing a profile. According to these guidelines, “[a] DCAP is a document (or set of documents) that specifies and describes the metadata used in a particular application. To accomplish this, a profile:
    describes what a community wants to accomplish with its application (Functional Requirements);
    characterizes the types of things described by the metadata and their relationships (Domain Model);
    enumerates the metadata terms to be used and the rules for their use (Description Set Profile and Usage Guidelines); and
    defines the machine syntax that will be used to encode the data (Syntax Guidelines and Data Formats)” (Coyle and Baker, 2009).
  • A SKOS concept scheme can be viewed as an aggregation of one or more SKOS concepts.
    Semantic relationships (links) between those concepts may also be viewed as part of a concept scheme.
    The series of numbers, captions and accompanying instructions or notes that constitute the core of a classification scheme. For the Library of Congress Classification, the schedules are designated from A-Z with one, two, or three letters denoting the class or subclass within the schedule. In the Dewey Decimal Classification the schedules are designated by the series of DDC numbers 001-999.
  • This is why nomen (in general) has to be an entity, not an attribute of thema.
    In a particular implementation the relationship between a thema and nomen can be compressed into the nomen becoming an attribute of thema
  • Image source:
  • •Group 1 entities are defined as the products of intellectual or artistic endeavors: work, expression, manifestation, and item
    •Group 2 entities are actors, those who are responsible for the intellectual or artistic content, the physical production and dissemination, or the custodianship, of Group 1 entities: person, corporate body
    •Group 3 entities are the subjects of works, intellectual or artistic endeavor
  • Application Profiles for Subject Domains

    1. 1. APPLICATION PROFILES [based on FRSAD model] FOR SUBJECT DOMAINS Marcia Zeng, Gordon Dunsire, Maja Zumer
    2. 2. Questions to be discussed 1. Why APs are needed for subject authority data? 2. How formally (or informally) can this style of “application profile” be defined? 3. In what ways are application profiles for subject domains different from APs for descriptive metadata?
    3. 3. FRSAD Conceptual Model Thema = “any entity used as a subject of a work". NOMEN = any sign or sequence of signs (alphanumeric characters, symbols, sound, etc.) that a thema is known by, referred to or addressed as. Note: in a given controlled vocabulary and within a domain, a nomen should be an appellation of only one thema.
    4. 4. 1. Why APs are needed? Cologne, July 20. 2010 4 a. thema types Depending on the implementation, themas can be categorised in various ways, even in the same discipline/subject domain
    5. 5. concept objectobject event place Group 3 entities “thing” Suggested Upper Merged Ontology
    6. 6. Health/ Medical UMLS  Entities  Physical Object  Organism  Anatomical Structure  Manufactured Object  Substance  Conceptual Entity  Idea or Concept  Finding  Organism Attribute  Intellectual Product  Language  Occupation or Discipline  Organization  Group Attribute  Group  Events  Activity  Phenomenon or The Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) oAnatomical Entity oNon-physical anatomical entity oPhysical anatomical entity oAttribute Entity oCell morphology oCell shape type oCell surface feature oConcept name oMiscellaneous term oOrgan part phenotype oPhysical attribute relationship oPhysical state oStructural relationship value oDimensional Entity oLine International Classification of Diseases (IDC) • DISEASES AND INJURIES • PROCEDURES •+ EXTERNAL CAUSES OF INJURY AND POISONING •+FACTORS INFLUENCING HEALTH STATUS AND CONTACT
    7. 7. The situation is just like this: Andy Corbett, James Reid, David Medyckyj-Scott, Cressida Chappell (Universities of Edinburgh and Essex): Geo-Crosswalk: A gazetteer service and server for the UK. JCDL2002 NKOS Workshop July 18, 2002, Portland, Oregon.
    8. 8. (cont.) 1. Why APs are needed? b) thema- to - thema relationships General relationships between themas (applicable to all types)  Hierarchical  Partitive  Generic  Instance  Polyhierarchical  Associative (=other) Other thema-to-thema relationships are implementation-dependent
    9. 9. Area types: • Groups • Territories Data associated to areas: • Names (multilingual) • International codes • Coordinates • DBPedia ID • Currency names and codes • Adjectives of nationality • Basic statistical data Relations: • Groups membership • Land borders • Historic changes: predecessor, successor, valid since, valid until FAO Country Profiles -- The Geopolitical Ontology Geograph y ADL Digital Gazetteer Relationships between entries Inherently spatial  Containment  Overlap  Proximity  Directional Explicitly stated  PartOf  AdministrativePartOf  AdministrativePartitionMember Of  AdministrativeSeatOf  ConventionallyQualifiedBy  SubfeatureOf  GeophysicalPartitionMemberOf
    10. 10. Page 10 terms (preferred & non-preferred) notations terms of pre-coordinated strings category labels (w or w/t notations) terms or identifiers terms … … • thesauri: • classification schemes: • subject heading systems: • taxonomies: • ontologies: • picklists: • … … themas represented by: Nomens in different types of KOS
    11. 11. 2. How formally (or informally) can this style of application profile be defined? 11 Functional Requirements* Domain Model* Description Set Profile* Usage Guidelines Encoding syntax guidelines *mandatory
    12. 12. (cont.) 2. How formally (or informally) can this style of application profile be defined?  Functional Requirements* (describes what a community wants to accomplish with its application)  vocab control for retrieval, organizing/categorizing, navigation, reasoning, provenance … DCAP FRSAD-AP
    13. 13. (cont.) 2. How formally (or informally) can this style of application profile be defined?  FRSAD is a general model;  Need more specific ones for  different types (e.g. classification vs. thesaurus vs. subject headings)  different subject domains (e.g., medical vs. consumer health)  DCAP FRSAD-AP
    14. 14. E.g., What are the basic entities in a classification system? thema : class nomen: notation themas : class . including built classes[1] . memberInClass[2] . . . nomens: notation caption nameOfMember-inScopeNote index term … … ‘546.663’ @ ddc class@ddcclass@ddc ‘546.66’ @ ddc has nomen has nomen has super class ‘*Mercury’ @ en has caption ‘Group 12’ @ en has caption or A notation has its semantic value and an ordinal value
    15. 15. e.g., How to describe the orders/sequences of coordinatee.g., How to describe the orders/sequences of coordinate classes (not just hierarchical relationships)classes (not just hierarchical relationships) Semantically meaningful orders in a classification system Classes are arranged according to • stages in a process (e.g., brewing processes, packaging of product processes); • time or evolutionary sequence (e.g., ancient Greek sculptures, paleontology, stars); • degree of complexity (e.g., geometric figures), • size (e.g., town, cities, metropolis, and other administrative unites) •According to Literary Warrant principle (e.g., arrange literature according to publication amount) •According to User Warrant principle (e.g., arrange services and products according to popularity) 15
    16. 16.  Description Set Profile*  (enumerates the metadata terms to be used)  Properties of entities  APs may need specific attributes and/or values, e.g., for notation & caption  [other questions] DCAP (cont.) FRSAD-AP (cont.) (cont.) 2. How formally (or informally) can this style of application profile be defined?
    17. 17. Nomen general attributes (include but not limited to) Page 17  Type of nomen (identifier, controlled name, …)*  Scheme (LCSH, DDC, UDC, ULAN, ISO 8601…)  Reference Source of nomen (Encyclopedia Britannica…)  Representation of nomen (alphanumeric, sound, visual,...)  Language of nomen (English, Japanese, Slovenian,…)  Script of nomen (Cyrillic, Thai, Chinese-simplified,…)  Script conversion (Pinyin, ISO 3601, Romanisation of Japanese…)  Form of nomen (full name, abbreviation, formula…)  Time of validity of nomen (until xxxx, after xxxx, from… to …)  Audience (English-speaking users, scientists, children …)  Status of nomen (provisional, accepted, official,...) *note: examples of attribute values in parenthesis
    18. 18. Example: Notations -- Rules  Classification numbers may be built according to rules  Example from DDC: 821.008 Collections of English poetry is built with 82 (following the instruction at 820.1-828 Subdivisions of English literature) plus 100 (following the instruction at T3B--1001-T3B--1009 Standard subdivisions; collections; history, description, critical appraisal) plus 8 Collections of literary texts from the add table at T3B--1-T3B--8 Specific forms. 821 English poetry 821.008 English poetry--collections 821.00803543 Love--poetry--English literature--collections, . . . 821.0080355 English poetry--social themes--collections, . . . 821.008036 English poetry--nature--collections, . . . 821.0080382 English poetry--religious themes--collections, . . . 821.009 English poetry--history and criticism 821.04 English poetry--lyric poetry, . . . 821.0708 Humorous poetry--English literature--collections, . . . Source: One Zero or Two? Dewey Blog. September 28, 2006 18
    19. 19. General Nomen relationships 19  Partitive  Equivalence Equivalence can be specified further, e.g.:  Replaces/is replaced by  Has variant form/is variant form  Has derivation/is derived from  Has acronym/is acronym  Has abbreviation/is abbreviation  Has transliterated form/is transliteration APs may need more specific relationships, e.g., for notation & caption
    20. 20.  Usage Guidelines  Encoding syntax guidelines  Usage Guidelines  Recommendation: e.g., SKOS & extensions; MADS, BS8723-5, ISO25964, … DCAP (cont.) FRSAD-AP (cont.) (cont.) 2. How formally (or informally) can this style of application profile be defined?
    21. 21. 3. In what ways are application profiles for subject domains different from APs for descriptive metadata? Descriptive metadata Subject domain vocabularies
    22. 22. 3. In what ways are application profiles for subject domains different from APs for descriptive metadata? Descriptive metadata Subject domain vocabularies Describing a thema -- what a concept is about -- where it belongs to Serious sameAs issue -- senior@schemaA =? senior@schemaB -- sunflower@mesh =? sunflower@aat Integrity rely on the domain model and properties around a thema and a nomen
    23. 23. Questions to be discussed 1. Why APs are needed for subject authority data? 2. How formally (or informally) can this style of “application profile” be defined? 3. In what ways are application profiles for subject domains different from APs for descriptive metadata?
    24. 24. 24 FRSAD’s relation to FRBRFRSAD’s relation to FRBR