Polar Tundra Tropical·Temperature is extremely ·Regions have harsh ·Regions have a warmlow and there is a little wins and low winter climate all year round.rain or snowfall. temperatures, averaging There are two·Most of the plants cant from -30ºC to -20ºC. seasons, dry and wet.grow up. · The temperature rises ·Temperatures tend to·Many polar animals can to around 17ºC during between 21ºC and 30ºC.life there and keep warm the summer. ·Grasslands in tropicalby a thick layer of fur or ·Tough, low-growing land regions are mostly madefat. plants such as linchers up of scattered trees and are examples of tundra tall grasses. vegetation.
Mediterranean Continental Equatorial Desert·Areas are warm ·This areas as ·Regions have a ·Climates are very dry,and wet in winter, the central constantly hot with less than 250mmbut dry in summer. parts of Asia and wet climate. of rainfall per year.·Their climate is and North ·The ·Temperatures in theinfluence by America have temperature hottest deserts may becurrents of air. not summers never drops over 38ºC.Some·In this climate and cold winter. below around become much coolergrow a lot of citrus ·North 17ºC, creating in winter.fruits. And their American ideal growing ·Some of the mainlythick skins prevent prairies have conditions for plants of the desert arethem from dying every hot huge numbers for example; Cactis.during the summer. summer. of plants.
In mountains areas, temperatures drop asheight above sea level (altitude) increases,producing different climates and vegetation atdifferent altitudes. Trees can’t survive on high mountainslopes because this is little soil, and theground may be frozen and blasted by harsh,icy winds. The direction which a mountains faces(called its aspect) also effects its climate. If one side of a mountain receives moresunlight than the other, more vegetation maygrow there. Small, low growing plants as moss andlichens grow on the high mountainside.
In coastal areas, the land and sea gain and lose heat at different ratesduring the day and night. The air create a mild, wet climate. This is known as a coastal or maritime climate. DURING THE DAY: - land warms up more quickly. - warm air cools, then sinks again. - cooler air from above the sea moves in to replace the warm air. DURING THE NIGHT: - sea cools more slowly. -warm air rises: cooler air moves out, air cools and sinks.
Cities tend to be warmer than the areas surrounding them. This is concrete absorbs more heat than vegetation. It also holdson to heat for longer, making nights warmer in cities than in thecountryside. The ground beneath a city also tends to be drier, as roads andpavements prevent water from draining into the soil beneath.
Weather is what the forecasters on the TV news predict each day.They tell people about the temperature, cloudiness, humidity, andwhether a storm is likely in the next few days. That’s weather! It is themix of events that happens each day in our atmosphere. Weather isnot the same everywhere. It may be hot and sunny in one part of theworld, but freezing and snowy in another.Climate is the average weather in a place over many years. While theweather can change in just a few hours, climate takes hundreds,thousands, even millions of years to change.
Identify five factors that affect climate and explain how each affects climate.
Observation: predictable patterns of ecosystem distribution across Earth
How does latitude affect climate?As latitude ________, the average increases decreases annual temperature _________. Temperature 0° Latitude 90°
How does closeness to a large body of water affect climate? moderates Water __________ the temperature. Cooler Warmer_______ summers. _______ winters. Cities A & B are located at the same latitude. City B is closer to a large body of water. Its temperature line is flatter (moderated).
The leeward sides of the Adirondacks & Catskills receive much less precipitationThe windward sides of the Adirondacks & Catskillsreceive a great deal more precipitation
How does the Orographic Effect affect climate? cool, moistWindward Side: ___________ warm, dryLeeward Side: _____________
Page 14 of the ESRTsWe live in the troposphere. Temperature decreases with elevation.
During summer, temperature is strongly controlled by elevation -- cold at thehigher reaches of the Alaska and Brooks Ranges, and warmer in the lowlands.
How does elevation affect climate? increasesAs elevation _________, the average annual temperature __________. decreases Temperature Elevation
How do ocean currents affect climate?Warm Currents: warmer climate Cold Currents: cooler climate