No Sacrifice In Vain Pp
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No Sacrifice In Vain Pp

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A Powerpoint presentation detailing American resistance to intervene militarily on behalf of the French at Dien Bien Phu in 1954.

A Powerpoint presentation detailing American resistance to intervene militarily on behalf of the French at Dien Bien Phu in 1954.

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No Sacrifice In Vain Pp No Sacrifice In Vain Pp Presentation Transcript

  • “No Sacrifice in Vain”Red China, Great Britain, the French Union and American Intervention at Dien Bien Phu
    Joseph Marchwinski
  • Background
    Indochina
    French Union
    Associated States
    Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam
    United States
    President Truman
    1950
    Eisenhower
    Operation Castor
    General Henri Navarre
    Dien Bien Phu
    November, 1953
    The Siege
    March – May, 1954
    Geneva
    Partition
    Elections
    Enter America
  • Historiography
    Melanie Billings-Yun
    Decision Against War: Eisenhower and Dien Bien Phu, 1954
    Ike’s three conditions (1954)
    John R. Nordell
    The Undetected Enemy: French and American Miscalculations at Dien Bien Phu, 1953
    American support for Operation Castor (1953)
    Mark Atwood Lawrence
    Assuming the Burden: Europe and the American Commitment to War in Vietnam
    Truman’s decision (1950)
    Lawrence and Frederick Logevall
    The First Vietnam War: Colonial Conflict and Cold War Crisis
    “The Same Struggle for Liberty”
  • Primary Sources
    President Dwight D. Eisenhower “Ike”
    The Papers of Dwight D. Eisenhower - The President: The Middle Way, Vol. XV.
    Louis Galambos and Daun Van Lee
    Ike’s Letters to a Friend 1941 – 1958
    Robert Griffith
    “Swede” Hazlett
    The Council on Foreign Relations
    The US in World Affairs 1954
    Richard P. Stebbins
  • Thesis
    Question
    Why did the United States refuse to directly intervene on behalf of their French allies at Dien Bien Phu?
    Thesis
    My primary documents indicate broader American national security interests, the limits of its Cold War hegemony and the importance of domestic core values to US foreign policy.
    National Security Lens
    Red China
    American fears of escalation – after Korea
    Hegemonic Lens
    Great Britain
    The ability of the United Kingdom to resist backing the US
    Core Values Lens
    France
    The contradictions of military defeatism, domestic disunity and colonialism
  • National Security: Red China
    “No More Chinas”
    1949
    “No More Koreas”
    1950 – 1953
    Ike’s Dilemma
    Avoid confrontation and resist communism
    “United Action”
    SEATO
    National Security Interests
    Asian land war with China
    Chinese backing of Viet Minh
    The “buffer”
    “Do more harm than good”
  • Hegemony: Great Britain
    Post-WWII American hegemony
    Political
    Military
    Economic
    But was it limited?
    Churchill’s Britain
    “Special Relationship”
    UK interests – “You and Me”
    The Empire
    Hong Kong
    Malay
    The Commonwealth
    Australia
    New Zealand
    Japan
    Markets
    Raw materials
    Final Analysis
    Britain believed its national interests were best served outside of “United Action”
    “Frightened”
    The House of Commons
  • Core Values: the French Union
    Military Prowess
    American fighting man
    “No substitute for victory”
    French fighting man
    Heroic but defeatist?
    Lacking support
    Domestic Unity
    American people
    1950s consensus
    French government
    Political weakness
    European Colonialism
    Self-determination and Democracy
    Principles common to both France and US
    French imperial rule
    Regressive
    Resistance to internationalization
  • Conclusion
    Dien Bien Phu
    May 7, 1954
    10,000 casualties
    esprit de corps
    Operation Vulture
    Geneva
    May 8, 1954
    North and South
    Ike’s three conditions precluded intervention
    Congressional backing
    Fully independent Vietnam
    Concert of nations
    Why?
    National Security threat posed by Red China
    Limits of US hegemony as seen in the successful resistance of the UK
    Clashing core values between the French war effort and American ideals