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The cognitive neuroscience of creativity

The cognitive neuroscience of creativity

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920 the cognitive neuroscience of creativity 920 the cognitive neuroscience of creativity Presentation Transcript

  • The cognitive neuroscience of creativity 創造力的認知神經科學 Reporter : March Sep 20, 2010 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 2004, 11 (6) [3.06]
  • 有四項創造力的基本類型,每一個藉著一個有特色的神經線路混合調度。 ( 深思熟慮 / 自然產出;認知程序 / 情緒引發 )
  • Making creative cognition an integral part of cognitive science and thus neuroscience. The view has been expressed that “any theory on creativity must be consistent and integrated with contemporary understanding of brain function” If we are to further our understanding of the generative capacity of the human brain, a broader neuroscientific approach must be taken .
  • BRIEF OUTLINE OF FUNCTIONAL NEUROANATOMY The brain has developed two different types of neural systems On the one hand, the emotional brain is designed to attach a value tag to the incoming information that allows the person to evaluate the biological significance of a given event. ( 杏仁體 ) On the other hand, a separate and parallel line of information processing that is devoid of any salient information is designed to perform detailed feature analysis. ( 海馬迴 )
  • PREFRONTAL CORTEX FUNCTION AND CREATIVITY The TOP neurons are devoted primarily to perception and long-term memory. The prefrontal cortex is not a single unit. It is functionally divided into ventromedial (VMPFC) and dorsolateral (DLPFC) aspects. The VMPFC is heavily connected to the amygdala and cingulate cortex .( 杏仁體 ) The DLPFC is also heavily interconnected with the TOP regions, ( 海馬迴 ) Research has implicated the DLPFC in working memory , directed attention, and temporal integration . Cognitive research has shown that working memory is severely limited in capacity, either in storage, or processing, or both. ( 但其損傷也不影響個性和情緒的改變 )
  • The framework of creativity outlined in this article proposes that there are two types of processing modes, deliberate and spontaneous , that can give rise to creative thoughts.
  • The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) _color, number, or shape When the examiner changes the sorting rule, patients are required to adapt to the new rule. Patients with DLPFC damage show perseverative errors in this task, continuing to sort according to the old rule even in the face of obvious discrepancy. This is frequently interpreted as a failure of working memory because relevant past behavior is required to perform the task successfully.
  • Given that perseveration to old information is anathema to creative thinking , it is evident that a fully operational prefrontal cortex enables cognition that is necessary for creative ability. Creativity is the epitome of cognitive flexibility.
  • Given that perseveration to old information is anathema to creative thinking , it is evident that a fully operational prefrontal cortex enables cognition that is necessary for creative ability. Creativity is the epitome of cognitive flexibility. (The frontal lobe provides for cognitive flexibility and freedom, and releases us from the slavery of direct environmental triggers or the memory stored in the TOP.)
  • In conclusion, creativity requires cognitive abilities, such as working memory, sustained attention, cognitive flexibility, and judgment of propriety, that are typically ascribed to the prefrontal cortex. (has been stressed by other investigators)
  • TYPES OF CREATIVITY This is compatible with the theory that creativity is essentially a Darwinian process. Considering the definition of creativity, it is proposed that there are four basic types of creativity: Novelty production can occur in emotional structures or in cognitive structures , and crossing the type of information with the two modes of processing ( deliberate or spontaneous ) yields the four basic types.
  • “ Final common pathway” First, to evaluate the appropriateness of a novel thought, one has to become conscious of it. ( 評估新穎想法的適當性 ) Second, insights are only the first step in converting novel combinations of information into creative work. ( 以洞察力組合資料為新穎結構 ) Third, the prefrontal cortex must implement the expression of the insight. the prefrontal cortex orchestrates action in accordance with internal goals . ( 將其推行至美學或科學的目標 )
  • In art as well as science, the expression of a creative insight requires a high level of skill, knowledge , and/or technique that depends upon continuous problem solving . Great works of art or science such as Picasso’s Guernica or Einstein’s theory of relativity are the result of goal-directed behaviors that took months or years to mature.
  • Processing Modes ( 處理模態 ) _spontaneous and deliberate A number of researchers have pointed out that creative insights are marked by sudden realizations that tend to occur in a mental state that is characterized by defocused attention. Other researchers have argued the opposite view— Creativity is the result of deliberate and methodical problem solving . Has been suggested that creative insights can occur in both processing modes (Finke, 1996).
  • Watson and Crick’s discovery of DNA to Edison’s inventions and Bach’s Brandenburg Concertos, it is abundantly clear that creative work can also be the result of laborious trial and error . To the conscious brain, the unconscious brain appears to be a parallel processor. ( 腦可能具有意識與無意識之平行處理器 )
  • Watson and Crick’s discovery of DNA to Edison’s inventions and Bach’s Brandenburg Concertos, it is abundantly clear that creative work can also be the result of laborious trial and error . To the conscious brain, the unconscious brain appears to be a parallel processor. ( 腦可能具有意識與無意識之平行處理器 ) Several lines of evidence corroborate the notion that deliberate insights are qualitatively different from spontaneous insights. ( 深思熟慮的洞察力性質上不同於自然的洞察力 )
  • Watson and Crick’s discovery of DNA to Edison’s inventions and Bach’s Brandenburg Concertos, it is abundantly clear that creative work can also be the result of laborious trial and error . To the conscious brain, the unconscious brain appears to be a parallel processor. ( 腦可能具有意識與無意識之平行處理器 ) Several lines of evidence corroborate the notion that deliberate insights are qualitatively different from spontaneous insights. ( 深思熟慮的洞察力性質上不同於自然的洞察力 ) Given the evidence that the prefrontal cortex houses a person’s cultural values and belief system ( 前額葉腦皮層收納一個人的文化價值和信念系統 )
  • Thus, while the deliberate mode allows the thinker to direct cerebral capacities to a particular problem, it has the disadvantage of limiting the solution space. 當深思熟慮的模態讓思考者將腦的能力集中於一個特別問題時, 它會有限制解決方案空間的缺點。 Creativity due to spontaneous insights is presumed to be qualitatively different because it is not initiated by prefrontal database searches that are limited to preconceived mental paradigms, as well as quantitatively because information is not subject to the capacity limit. ( 自然的處理模態是創造力與洞察力直覺的基本機制。 ) 與深思熟慮的處理模態相反,創造力來自然的洞察力, 因前額葉的資料庫搜尋不被限制於先考慮心智的範例, 也不受資料處理能力量化限制而是追求品質。
  • Additional evidence that prefrontal activation provides the basis for the qualitative difference between the two modes of processing comes from altered states of consciousness. 額外證據: 「前額葉的活動為處理這兩個模態性質上的不同提供基礎」 其來自意識狀態的改變。
  • Dreaming might be regarded as the most extreme form of the spontaneous processing mode and can give rise to insights that are difficult to come by during normal waking consciousness. 做夢可能被視為極端形式的自然的處理模態, 而且能引出難以在叫醒意識常態期間取得的洞察力。 Dreaming is regarded by many as the mental state with the most creative potential. 做夢被多數視為大腦心智最有創造力潛能的階段。 Dreams rarely conform to societal values and conventional wisdom. 夢很少地遵照社會的價值和主流看法。
  • Dreaming might be regarded as the most extreme form of the spontaneous processing mode and can give rise to insights that are difficult to come by during normal waking consciousness. 做夢可能被視為極端形式的自然的處理模態, 而且能引出難以在叫醒意識常態期間取得的洞察力。 Dreaming is regarded by many as the mental state with the most creative potential. 做夢被多數視為大腦心智最有創造力潛能的階段。 Dreams rarely conform to societal values and conventional wisdom. 夢很少地遵照社會的價值和主流看法。 Daydreaming is also an altered state of consciousness attributable to prefrontal cortex down regulation, albeit not as profound as dreaming (Dietrich, 2003) 白日夢可歸於對前額葉的外皮層意識狀態被改變,雖然不是像做夢那樣深。
  • Again, it should be explicitly clear that no suggestion is made here that creative insights are exclusively of one particular type. Description of Basic Types
  • Deliberate mode–cognitive structures (Domain specific 領域特性 ) *Prototypical examples of deliberate/cognitive creativity are the methodical piecing together of the structure of DNA and Edison’s systematic approach to inventing. ( 結構與系統性方法 ) *That expertise alone does not constitute creativity , quality must also depend on how “nimble” ( 敏捷 )the prefrontal cortex is. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Deliberate mode–emotional structures (Person’s norms and value 個人的準則和價值 ) It would appear that this type of insight is independent of domain-specific knowledge, since emotional experiences are universal. ( 不受領域特性控制,因為情緒經驗是宇宙性的 )
  • Spontaneous mode–cognitive structures (Expertise 專長 ) *This type of insight has its origin in TOP areas during associative unconscious thinking. ( 無意識的思考 ) *They are often described as mysterious and indicated by such metaphors as “ being hit by a ton of bricks,” or the proverbial light bulb turning on.( 如同被磚頭打到 ) *Newton is said to have thought of gravity while watching a falling apple( 牛頓 ) *Einstein thought of relativity while imagining himself riding on a beam of light( 愛因斯坦 ) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Spontaneous mode–emotional structures (Specific skills 特定技能 ) It is perhaps the mechanism that results in what is referred to as a revelation, an epiphany, or a religious experience. ( 它也許是被稱為揭露,或一個靈光乍現,或一種宗教性的經驗造成的機制。 )
  • RECONCEPTUALIZING CONTROVERSIES IN CREATIVITY RESEARCH ( 重新定義在創造力研究的爭論 ) 1.Creativity and Knowledge First, it is imperative to recognize that knowledge and creativity recruit different brain circuits. By proposing that creative insights based on emotional computations are universal, and thus independent of formal knowledge, the relationship between knowledge and creativity can be refined even further. 根植於情感上為基礎的有創造力的洞察力是宇宙性的, 這是獨立於正式知識之外,知識和創造力之間的關係須更進一步被精煉。 The more formal knowledge is required for truly innovative work within it. 知識在真正的創新工作裡面是被需要的。 (Picasso’s work is not based on any historic, military, or other knowledge that can be acquired by formal education. It is based on understanding human suffering) 畢卡索的工作不以任何的歷史性、軍事、或其他的能因正式的教育所獲得的知識為基礎。它以理解痛苦、 正義和恐懼為同理心。
  • RECONCEPTUALIZING CONTROVERSIES IN CREATIVITY RESEARCH ( 重新定義在創造力研究的爭論 ) 2.Age and Creativity Simonton (1997) has convincingly demonstrated that “ creative productivity is a function of career age, not chronological age” For instance, mathematicians peak on average at 26.5 years of career age, while historians peak at 38.5 (Simonton, 1997). Because prefrontal-dependent mental functions do not significantly decline until old age. ( 前額葉的腦功能不會隨著老化而下降 )
  • DIRECTIONS IN FUTURE RESEARCH and CONCLUSIONS The framework suggests that future tests would benefit from the intentional incorporation of cognitive processes that are associated with specific brain areas. ( 認知程序與特定的腦區域結合 ) By distinguishing among several types of creativity, the framework permits the dissociation of factors such as knowledge, domain, and age, and systematizes the relationship of each of these influences to the creative process. ( 允許各種因素的分解與並組織起彼此影響力的關係 )