Penn State Cooperative Extension Marcellus Education Fact Sheet
Marcellus Education Fact Sheet Marcellus Shale Gas Development: What Does It Mean for Pennsylvania Schools? Summary T his research brief discusses find- of water contamination in cases in ings from a survey of 940 school which district buildings relied on district superintendents, high well water. Respondents from some school principals, high school di- school districts, especially in areas rectors of curriculum and instruc- with high drilling activity, are con- tion, and directors of Career and cerned that Marcellus-related work- Technology Centers (CTCs) across force demands may increase dropout the 17 intermediate units located rates as students contemplate leaving within Pennsylvania’s Marcellus school to take advantage of emerging shale region. The survey data are employment opportunities. supplemented by data from inter- Respondents in areas with high views and focus groups with 50 drilling activity have reported sig- educational and community leaders nificantly tightened housing mar- across Pennsylvania’s northern tier kets, dramatic increases in housing in areas of intensive gas drilling. rental costs, and increased residen- The purpose of the research was to tial insecurity and homelessness. better understand the challenges Respondents report concerns about and opportunities associated with how this might affect recruitment Marcellus shale gas development as and retention of staff when district perceived by educational leaders. salaries can neither keep pace with We found that about one quar- rising local costs nor match gas- ter of school district respondents re- industry-related salaries. School dis- port making curricular adjustments trict respondents also report prob- in response to changing workforce lems with road congestion, damage, needs, although many report hav- and repair, issues that affect school ing insufficient information and bus routes and schedules as well as lack of coordination regarding how public safety. Respondents cite the best to meet the workforce develop- need for more information, greater ment needs of students. CTCs have resources, and increased commu- assumed a somewhat more robust nication and coordination between role in this regard. school districts, CTCs, and the gas While school district respon- industry to inform and enhance dents in areas with high drilling Marcellus-related workforce devel- activity report significant local opment. economic activity, they report that relatively little economic benefit Introduction has accrued back to schools. Some The Marcellus shale formation liesIn cooperation with the Pennsylvania districts have leased land to gas com- beneath New York’s southern tier,Association of Rural and Small Schools panies, although some respondents about two-thirds of Pennsylvania,(PARSS) expressed concern about the risks and parts of Ohio and West Virginia
(Figure 1). Long known to contain Figure 2. Marcellus wells drilled from January 2007 through November 2011. Source: PA DEP spud data.significant amounts of natural gas,until recently large-scale natural gas 4,500extraction from the Marcellus shalewas not technologically or econom- 4,000 Wells Drilledically feasible. In the early 2000s, however, 3,500advances in technology enabled 3,000drilling rigs to bore into deepshale layers and then drill laterally 2,500through the formation for as muchas a mile or more. Natural gas can 2,000then be recovered using a technique 1,500called hydraulic fracturing in whichlarge quantities of water, sand, or 1,000ceramic proppants and chemicalsare injected into the well at high 500pressure, causing the shale layersto break apart along fracture lines, 0while sand suspended in the fractur- 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011ing fluid holds the shale fracturesopen. The gas previously trappedwithin the shale then flows into the and limited drilling had begun a few Marcellus Gas Development,well and to the surface, where it is years before that. As of Novembermoved through pipelines to con- 2011, Pennsylvania Department Community Change, andsumer markets. of Environmental Protection data Implications for Schools As a consequence of these new showed that nearly 4,000 gas wells The rapid development of gasunconventional natural gas extrac- within the state had been drilled extraction from Pennsylvania’stion techniques, estimates of recov- in the Marcellus shale layer (Figure Marcellus shale has already haderable natural gas from Marcellus 2). As many as 60,000 or more may profound impacts in many com-shale rose from less than 2 trillion be drilled in the coming decades in munities. A recent analysis suggestscubic feet (TCF) to as much as 489 Pennsylvania (see Johnson 2010). that in 2009 as Marcellus drillingTCF (see Engelder 2009; Coleman Because of this, indications strongly activity was still in its early stages,et al), setting off a gas rush within suggest that Pennsylvania is experi- between 23,000 and 24,00 jobsPennsylvania’s Marcellus region in encing only the beginning stages of were created, with over $3 billionabout 2008, although permitting unconventional gas development. added to Pennsylvania’s economy (see Kelsey et al. 2011). EspeciallyFigure 1. Extent and thickness of Marcellus shale. Source: Marcellus Center for Outreach and Research. in places that have experienced long-term economic stagnation, gas industry-related job growth and unanticipated local revenues from leasing drilling rights have been welcomed by many residents and businesses. However, Marcellus shale gas development is accompanied by significant challenges as well. In this regard, while environmental concerns related to the impacts of unconventional gas extraction have arguably received the most media attention, natural resource “booms” also typically result in other types of community stress. These may include impacts on physical infra- structure such as roads and bridges, as well as social infrastructure, including human services, health care, housing, and schools. In this fact sheet we will look at local challenges specifically con- nected to how rapid unconventional gas development may directly affect
schools and how schools within Surveys were administered and associated buffer area. We clas-the Marcellus region of Pennsylva- in spring and summer 2011, from sified districts in area with highnia have responded to community which we received a 42 percent us- drilling activity as those that fellchange associated with unconven- able response rate. We supplement- into the top 20 percent with regardtional gas extraction. ed the survey administration with Marcellus wells drilled. We then What types of community interviews conducted with more compared school districts in areaschanges associated with unconven- than 50 educators, educational ad- with high drilling activity to alltional gas development can educa- ministrators, and county human other school districts within thetors and educational administrators service staff within counties heav- surveyed area of Pennsylvania’sexpect? What are the potential ily impacted by gas development in Marcellus region.school and district-level impacts? Pennsylvania’s northern tier. Unless Districts in areas with highWhat are the most appropriate ways otherwise noted, in this publica- drilling activity area, including theto prepare for and respond to com- tion we primarily discuss data from 10-mile buffer zone, were those inmunity change associated with school district respondents only. which 69 or more Marcellus wellsunconventional gas development? had been drilled. This included 61Understanding and managing the Findings school districts in the northern tieropportunities and risks associated In this report we focus on four and 35 school districts in south-with the growing Marcellus gas broad areas in which schools may western Pennsylvania.industry will be critical to ensur- see direct effects as a consequence During interviews in areas withing the long-term well-being of of Marcellus shale gas development: high drilling activity, we askedPennsylvania residents and com- school demographics; student out- school leaders what lessons theymunities, and schools will play im- comes and workforce development; had learned and what advice theyportant roles in helping to manage effects on local roads and transpor- might offer their counterparts inthese transitions. tation; broader community services other parts of the state regarding and infrastructure. We examine gas development and impacts onMethods and Research Goals these impacts in part by comparing schools and communities. We useThe data we draw from in this re- the perceptions of school district these interview data, in combina-port come from a survey sent to leaders in areas with high drilling tion with the survey data, to sug-superintendents, high school princi- activity to those in areas with lower gest what the implications are forpals, high school directors of curric- drilling activity. (Note: The CTC school leader practice as drillingulum and instruction, and directors data we use were not subclassified activity increases.of Career and Technology Centers by drilling activity levels because(CTCs). Our respondents were se- of the larger areas covered by CTCs Effects on School Demographicslected by identifying all Pennsylva- and the lower number of CTCs as One of the most pressing questionsnia school districts and career and compared with school districts.) Marcellus development poses fortechnology centers located within To classify school districts we schools is the extent to which gasthe 17 intermediate units (including used GIS techniques to calculate industry jobs will be accompanied1–11, 16–19, and 27–28) of the Mar- 10-mile buffer areas around the geo- by influxes of new populations. Ifcellus Shale region (Figure 3). This graphic area of each school district so, will this result in school enroll-resulted in a total sample popula- and then calculated the number of ment changes and/or increases?tion of 940 from 309 school districts wells drilled as of July 2011 within Based on our survey data, schooland 49 CTCs. each Pennsylvania school district personnel have reported relatively low impacts on enrollments. While about 25 percent of respondentsFigure 3. Map showing Pennsylvania school districts with Marcellus wells (surveyed area in gray). from areas with high drilling activ- ity reported major or substantial new in-migration to local areas, only about 4 percent of those same respondents reported school enroll- ment increases (Table 1). Pennsyl- vania Department of Education en- rollment data from academic years 2007–08 and 2010–11 likewise do not suggest significant differences in changes in total enrollment with regard to local drilling activity (data not shown here). Similarly, a relatively small per- centage of respondents from areas with high drilling activity report significant increases in English lan- guage learner (ELL) populations: less than 6 percent as compared to less
Table 1. Perceptions of effects of Marcellus development on local schools and communities: local and school Effects on Student Outcomes anddemographics. Workforce Development School district School district Advocates of Marcellus develop- respondents in areas respondents in ment note its job creation and with lower drilling areas with high activity (%) drilling activity (%) economic development potential,Respondents reporting major or substantial local effect on: especially in areas of the state that have long experienced economicNew people moving into the area 2.4 25.4 decline and outmigration. HowSchool enrollment increases 1.2 4.3 might schools and CTCs respondChanges in school population 1.2 4.2 in the areas of education, training,Increases in English language learner (ELL) populations 0.8 5.6 and workforce development? HowN= 294 78 might new economic opportunitiesthan 1 percent in districts located likely involve challenges in inte- affect student career and education-in areas with lower drilling activ- grating new students into school al aspirations?ity. This may be due to the influx of environments and accessing appro- Across all respondents, educa-workers from out of state who are priate school records, especially if tional and workforce developmentsingle or have left families behind. students are moving into local areas related to Marcellus development isIn some areas, minimal enrollment from out of state. highly salient. Nearly half of schoolchange may also be partially ac- district respondents in areas with Implications for School Leaders: lower drilling activity had reportedcounted for by the lack of housingopportunities. The likelihood of en- • New students are often home- seeing, hearing, or reading “a greatrollment increases are diminished if sick and may experience “culture deal” about Marcellus develop-local housing opportunities are lim- shock” in their new environment, ment, while about 70 percent ofited, as in the case in many of the especially if they arrive from out school district respondents in areassmaller, more rural districts where of state. Because of this, educators with high drilling activity and CTCMarcellus shale gas extraction is and administrators may consider directors responded similarly. Dif-taking place. special measures to introduce and ferences are more evident in imple- This does not mean, however, integrate new students into the menting workforce developmentthat enrollment change will not school environment and establish and/or curricular change—whileoccur as drilling activity increases relationships with parents who about 55 percent of CTC respon-and spreads across Pennsylvania. are new to the area. dents reported Marcellus-relatedRelatively stable total enrollment • Transfer of student records is im- workforce development and/ornumbers can hide significant stu- portant for the smooth transition curricular change, that percentagedent turnover occurring as a con- of services and student place- was far lower among school dis-sequence of economic insecurity, ment. One strategy is for school trict respondents (Table 2). This ishousing shortages, and rising rental districts to communicate with despite a substantial majority of re-prices. A northern tier school dis- gas companies that can then pass spondents overall predicting a largetrict administrator told us, “We’re information on to their workers effect of gas development on localseeing a lot more of the local popu- with families about what kinds economies and workforce.lation being more transient, [lo- of information schools need in Although one-third of schoolcal residents] who may be in the order to ensure a smooth registra- district respondents in areas withlower income bracket and can’t af- tion and transition for students. high drilling activity reported thatford housing, bouncing within the These include immunization re- most students were very aware ofschool district and also from school cords, academic records, individ- Marcellus-related job opportuni-district to school district looking ualized educational plans (IEPs), ties, almost two-thirds reported thatfor cheap rent.” In either instance, and other necessary records. they lacked sufficient informationenrollment change or increase may about workforce needs to make in-Table 2. School district and CTC administrator awareness of Marcellus development, and institutional response. School district respondents School district respondents in areas with lower drilling in areas with high drilling CTC respondents in activity (%) activity (%) all areas (%)Respondents reporting that:They have seen, heard or read a “great deal” about Marcellus development 45.1 71.8 66.7They have discussed curricular and/or workforce development change in 40.6 73.1 95.8response to Marcellus developmentCurricular and/or workforce development change in response to Marcellus 24.4 22.8 54.5development has been discussed and implemented within their district school orCTCRespondents agreeing or strongly agreeing that:Marcellus development will have a big effect on our local economy 51.9 82.4 77.8Marcellus development will have a big effect on our local workforce needs 59.3 82.4 91.3N= 294 78 24
Table 3. School district and CTC administrator perceptions of Marcellus development on local schools and communities: student outcomes and workforce development. School district respondents School district respondents in areas with lower drilling in areas with high drilling CTC respondents activity (%) activity (%) from all areas (%)Respondents agreeing or strongly agreeing that:Students seem very aware of Marcellus-related workforce opportunities 10.9 33.2 43.5We lack sufficient information about workforce needs connected to Marcellus- 76.8 61.4 41.6related jobs to justify changes in curriculaMaking investments of time and energy in workforce development and curricular 47.5 47.1 30.4change is risky because of how long Marcellus-related jobs will lastBalancing workforce development with core curricular requirements represents a 70.0 72.3 75.0significant challengeWorkforce development is a more appropriate role for CTCs than for high schools 35.3 47.2 87.5Financial constraints would make it difficult for my district/CTC to make 68.6 64.3 65.2curriculum changes in response to Marcellus shale natural gas developmentMost jobs connected to Marcellus development will not require a four-year 71.1 72.1 86.4college degree or moreLocal workforce demands connected to Marcellus-related jobs has increased the 11.0 17.4 4.8likelihood of students dropping out to enter the workforceStudents see postsecondary education as a way to acquire skills and 22.8 40.3 35.0qualifications necessary for Marcellus-related job opportunitiesNew Marcellus shale natural gas jobs are more likely to be filled by men than 67.7 83.6 81.8womenN= 294 78 24formed decisions about curricular future demand with little direction direct workforce needs will requirechanges that might meaningfully from the Workforce Investment relatively little postsecondary educa-address workforce needs (Table 3). Board or regional economic develop- tion or trade certifications (Marcel-About half of all school district ment agencies. There doesn’t seem lus Shale Education and Trainingrespondents expressed doubt regard- to be a very well-coordinated effort Center 2009). This led some inter-ing the longevity of Marcellus-relat- to ensure we prepare our students view and survey respondents toed jobs. Respondents also expressed for careers in the industry.” express concern about the possiblefrustration over a relative lack of This uncertainty was less effects on student educational aspi-communication between school dis- evident among respondents from rations and the transition to college.tricts, CTCs, and the gas industry, CTCs, although even CTC directors In part because most of theand disagreement over the appropri- expressed a need for more and better direct industry workforce needsate workforce development roles information to guide workforce de- require relatively limited training,of school districts, CTCs, and the velopment efforts. In an open-ended about 17 percent of respondentsgas industry itself. While almost 90 survey question about the most sig- in areas with high drilling activitypercent of CTC respondents agreed nificant challenges associated with believed that local opportunitiesor strongly agreed that workforce Marcellus development, CTC direc- might actually increase dropoutdevelopment was a more appropri- tors wrote that significant challeng- rates as students leave school forate role for CTCs than high schools, es included the “lack of information industry jobs. This concern wasless than half of school district re- about the workforce needs and the reiterated in the interviews, withspondents responded similarly. industry in general,” “identifying some respondents identifying a One survey respondent re- the employers and what skills they “credibility gap” between the infor-lated, “Schools lack workplace skill need employees to have so we can mation schools were able to provideknowledge. What skills does the gas adapt our curriculum to meet those students about workforce require-industry require? Are the skills tech- needs,” and “providing timely cur- ments, the workforce requirementsnical in nature, or are they looking riculum and training.” Across all stated by industry representatives,for well-rounded general education respondents, financial constraints and “common knowledge” withinskills? Do the companies expect to and the need to address core cur- local communities about whohire highly qualified individuals who ricular requirements were identified might be eligible for work. Simi-know the tasks, or do they provide as impediments to devising and of- larly, most respondents did not be-the technical training?” fering Marcellus-related workforce lieve students were looking toward Another wrote, “In relation to development. postsecondary education as a meanseducational programming changes Further, while many educators of gaining skills and credentials forspecific to the needs of the Mar- see student preparation for postsec- Marcellus-related jobs.cellus industry, little seems to be ondary education as part of their Despite uncertainty and a per-coming our way (K–12) in terms of mission, almost three-quarters of re- ceived lack of information, inter-specific information on modifying spondents overall believe that most views with educational leaders ineducational programming. STEM jobs connected to the Marcellus Pennsylvania’s northern tier sug-initiatives are not specific simply industry will not require a four-year gest that not only have Marcellus-to this industry….The county CTC college degree. This is consistent related workforce needs createdis exploring educational opportuni- with a recent report suggesting that new opportunities for young peopleties to modify programming to meet about three-quarters of the industry’s exiting secondary school, but that
these opportunities have made students about industry-related vastly increased travel time for lo-CTC programming more attractive workforce opportunities. cal residents, and in other cases itto students. A principal from a • A common perception is that has directly interfered with schoolnorthern tier district explained that Marcellus industry jobs heavily bus routes and otherwise hinderedMarcellus-related job opportunities favor men. Therefore, a need ex- travel to and from school for staffhad largely removed the stigma pre- ists for information about work and students. There have also beenviously associated with vocational opportunities for women within public safety concerns associatededucation. “(The students) know the industry and industry-related with road accidents and the pres-that they’re only going to be held employment. ence of heavy truck traffic whileback by how hard they’re willing to school buses load and unload.work.” A strong perception, how- • Budgetary constraints may Over 63 percent of respondentsever, also exists that opportunities significantly limit workforce from areas with high drilling activ-are strongly gendered and jobs are development efforts by school ity reported significantly increasedmore likely to be filled by men than districts and CTCs. Dovetailing traffic congestion and the increaseswomen, raising questions about the Marcellus-related workforce de- in big truck traffic. This comparesequity of opportunity and how to velopment with core curricular with about 12 percent for respon-best provide information and train- requirements may represent an dents from less affected areas. In in-ing to women regarding Marcellus- important opportunity to en- terviews, respondents repeatedly de-related employment. hance these workforce develop- scribed challenges associated with ment efforts. roads, traffic, transportation, andImplications for School Leaders public safety. Many school leaders• Educators need accurate and up- Effects on Local Roads and told us that the initial experiences to-date information about indus- Transportation the gas industry had with road dam- try workforce needs, both short While shallow gas drilling has taken age would likely lead to more proac- and long range, to effectively ad- place in Pennsylvania for decades, tive practices regarding road repairs vise students regarding workforce unconventional gas extraction is and improvements. Nonetheless, preparation and educational and a far more industrially intensive disruption to school bus routes and training requirements. Educators activity because of its scale and the public safety concerns were fre- and guidance staff also need infor- materials used. Typically, a well quently noted. mation regarding the longevity of pad site covers approximately 3–5 workforce needs. As much as 98 acres, with access roads built to the Implications for School Leaders percent of direct workforce needs site for heavy equipment. A stan- • Before gas development begins, of the gas industry may be asso- dard Marcellus well pad with seven identify roads in the district that ciated with the initial build-out well heads can require thousands may be most heavily affected phase connected to drilling and of tanker truck and heavy equip- and/or damaged by heavy truck pipeline construction (Marcel- ment trips for building, drilling, and traffic. Advocate for the improve- lus Shale Education and Training hydraulic fracturing. Much of the ment of those roads by gas com- Center 2009). Educators and guid- traffic is associated with the 3–5 panies prior to heavy use of those ance counselors need information million gallons of water required roads by heavy trucks associated regarding workforce demand and per well, all of which needs to be with the gas industry. how to communicate this effec- transported onto the site, and much • Make efforts to establish produc- tively to students to best inform of which subsequently needs to be tive working relationships early educational and career planning. taken off site and treated as waste- on with gas companies operating Educators should be aware of the water (see National Park Service within the local area and ensure potential impacts of Marcellus 2009). that open lines of communica- development on post-secondary This can result in significant tion are established early. This is transitions and dropouts. physical impacts on the roads them- especially critical with regard to• More effective communication selves. In many areas of the state school bus transportation routes between school districts, CTCs where Marcellus drilling has rapidly and bus route schedules so that, and the gas industry would help expanded, local roads have not been if possible, heavy truck traffic to streamline workforce devel- able to withstand the heavy truck can be scheduled to avoid roads opment efforts, clarify roles of traffic and in some instances roads and times of day when school school districts and CTCs in (including those used by school bus buses are picking up and drop- workforce development, and re- routes) have become temporarily ping off students. duce duplication of efforts. impassable due to damage and re- pair. Repaired roads can also result• Educators should take advan- in new hazards when road beds are Effects on Broader Community tage of opportunities to draw built up to accommodate heavier Services and Infrastructure upon former students (male vehicles if road shoulders are not Many communities within Pennsyl- and female) working with gas also improved and built up to avoid vania’s Marcellus region have seen companies in a variety of differ- steep drop-offs at the road edge. a dramatic increase in economic ent capacities to give presenta- Congestion and road damage activity, not only as a consequence tions and/or speak with current and/or repair has, in some cases, of direct drilling efforts, but also in
services and retail sectors (see Kelsey respondents in areas with high drill- In interviews, respondents de-et al., 2011; PA Dept. of Labor and ing activity reported major or sub- scribed local rents increasing by asIndustry 2011; Ward and Kelsey stantial local problems with water much as three- or fourfold. This has2011). Key counties with heavy de- and/or environmental quality issues led to short-term residential stopgapvelopment activity have experienced associated with the gas industry. solutions, including “couch surfing”pronounced drops in unemployment This compared to about 7 percent or “doubling up” with local friendsrates. Survey data suggest the ways in areas with lower drilling activity or family. New forms of homeless-in which active gas industry devel- (Table 4). ness have emerged in many districtsopment has affected local economies Other than road congestion where homelessness previously hadthrough job and wealth creation and and damage, the most significant not been experienced, includingbusiness start-ups. community impact reported by among students from gas worker In most cases, however, local educators concerned housing costs families living in campers and mo-economic development has fewer and availability, especially in rural bile homes because of local hous-direct and immediate effects on areas with limited housing stock, ing shortages. Housing shortagesschools. In Pennsylvania, subsur- and strains on local public services. and increased costs also have raisedface property is not subject to prop- Housing impacts are likely to be questions for school districts regard-erty tax, and there is no severance especially felt within smaller com- ing the recruitment and retentionor extraction tax on the production munities with limited pre-existing of teachers and other district staff,of mineral resources. Recent pro- housing stock, and felt by renters especially under circumstances inposals for an impact fee do not in- and others at the economic margins, which district budgets are not ableclude provisions that would funnel including the unemployed and/or to provide wages commensurateresources directly back to schools disabled, those relying on govern- with increased housing costs.(see Costanzo and Kelsey 2011; Ja- ment assistance and the workingcobson 2010). poor (Williamson and Kolb 2011). Implications for School Leaders Respondents report that prop- As Table 4 shows, while respon- • Housing will likely play a veryerty taxes, from which schools re- dents in areas with high drilling ac- significant role in the demo-ceive local funding, have not been tivity describe pronounced econom- graphic effects of Marcellus de-significantly affected. In a number ic activity, including job and wealth velopment. This may affect notof instances school districts have creation and economic growth, only only the families of students andearned revenue from leasing land 5 percent note any real increase in local resident more broadly butto gas companies. In interviews, local tax revenues (despite noting also the ability of school districtshowever, many educators expressed increased property values). How- to recruit and retain staff andconcern about the possibility of ever, nearly half of respondents teachers if affordable and ad-contamination or methane migra- report increased rents, and over one- equate housing is not available.tion into well water in instances third report housing shortages. Overin which school districts were not a fifth noted the displacement of • School district personnel shoulddependent on municipal water and low- and fixed-income residents and keep close track of enrollmentsewer systems. Over 38 percent of strains on public services. and student demographic changes as well as changes in student needs. These changing conditionsTable 4. Perceptions of effects of Marcellus development on local schools and communities: community should be communicated to leg-services and infrastructure. islators and public policy mak- School district School district ers to ensure the well-being of respondents in areas respondents in residents within Pennsylvania’s with lower drilling areas with high Marcellus communities. activity (%) drilling activity (%) • Schools dependent on well waterRespondents agreeing or strongly agreeing that: should test water and get reliableMy school district may lose employees to the natural gas 7.4 20.9industry or industry-related jobs baseline data before the onset of significant local drilling activ-Reporting agreeing or strongly agreeing on the following: ity. This should be completed byRoad congestion and/or wear and tear 11.6 63.4 third-party chain-of-custody test- ing by certified labs. If a districtIncreases in rental costs 4.2 45.4 leases property, water monitoringStrains on local public services 3.0 43.6 should be included as part of theWater and/or environmental quality problems 7.0 38.3 lease agreement.Housing shortages 4.0 35.9Job creation 6.0 33.8 • School district personnel shouldIncreases in property values 5.7 29.7 have accurate and up-to-date in-Displacement of low and fixed income residents 1.2 22.6 formation regarding available so-Business start-ups 3.3 21.6 cial services that may be utilizedIncreases in local tax revenues 1.2 4.9 by families and children within the district, especially those whoN= 294 78 are new or newly displaced.