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Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
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Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
Romania's post cold war international relations
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Romania's post cold war international relations

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This work’s research examines the international relations of Romania after the 89’ Revolution, within the changing parameters in the Romania’s near shore as well the new paradigms of International …

This work’s research examines the international relations of Romania after the 89’ Revolution, within the changing parameters in the Romania’s near shore as well the new paradigms of International Relations appeared at the end of the eighties and the dawn of the 21st century. Focusing on the ‘major forces’ (geopolitics, country’s history…) likewise ‘variable forces’ (foreign policy, domestic policy, sociology…), this work identified three pillars: the powerful impact of the 'Others', an in-between situation and the complexity of Romania’ borderland as well its crossroad situation. These pillars underline the Romanian international relations actions and impel the Romanian foreign policy decisions. It is pointed out that Romania’s case study represented the Central and Eastern European Countries’ (CEECs) path and contingencies, likewise the politico-ideological transformation of the military alliance as well the European Union enlargement strategy adaptation in the Post-Cold War Era interdependence. In addition, this work allows validating some theories in different fields as Foreign Policy Change, International Relations, Geopolitics, Interdependence...
Over its history despite the geopolitical and domestic changes, Romania's main options in the international relations remained unchanged relying on system of alliance thru balancing or bandwagoning likewise International Organizations to guaranty the country’ peace and freedom. In addition, from a constant in-between situation associated to a complex borderland context, the country will move regularly to a crossroad situation. Besides, after restructuring the country’s internal situation, its alliances and its bilateral relations, Romania took an active role towards the Balkans and the Wider Black Sea. With its new status, Romania is becoming the ‘Nato's aircraft carrier’ and practically the EU’s voice at the southeast European frontiers with a new role custom designed in the post-Yalta international system.

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  • 1. Académie de ParisÉcole des Hautes Études InternationalesCentre d’Études Diplomatiques et Stratégiques Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations By Marc Bonnemains A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in International Relations and Diplomacy Under the supervision of Professor Dr. Jacques Barrat, Thesis Director Paris, 2010
  • 2. To the Graduate Council: I am submitting herewith a thesis written by Marc Bonnemainsentitled “Romanians Post-Cold War International Relations”. I haveexamined the final copy of this thesis for form and content andrecommend that it be accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirementsfor the degree of Doctor of Philisophy in International Relations andDiplomacy. ______________________________ Prof. Dr. Jacques Barrat, Thesis director We have read this thesis and recommend its acceptance: _____________________________ Emmanuel Caulier, Doctor in International Law Accepted for the Council: ______________________________ Mikaël Strauss, Doctor in International Relations and Diplomacy
  • 3. Statement of Permission to Use In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirementsfor the degree of Doctor of Philisophy in International Relation andDiplomacy at The Centre d’Études Diplomatiques et Stratégiques, Iagree that the Library shall make it available to borrowers under rulesof the Library. Brief quotations from this thesis are allowable withoutspecial permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of thesource is made. Permission for extensive quotation from or reproduction of thisthesis may be granted by my major professor or in his absence, by theHead of Interlibrary Services when, in the opinion of either, theproposed use of the material is for scholarly purposes. Any copying oruse of the material in this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowedwithout my written permission. Signature Date: July 18, 2010
  • 4. Copyright © 2010Marc BonnemainsAll Rights Reserved
  • 5. This page is left intentionaltly blank
  • 6. DedicationDedication To all the persons I love, in particular to my family.Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy iRomanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 7. Dedication This page is left intentionally blank.ii Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 8. AcknowledgmentsAcknowledgments Even if a thesis is a personal work, it involves a lot of personsaround, especially by their interactions which permit you to run yourproject until the end and to refine the meander of the initial idea untilits draft. First, I would like to express my sincere thanks to my thesisdirector under whom I realise this work, Jacques Barrat, Professor atthe Panthéon-Assas Paris II University and at the Joint DefenceCollege (Collège interarmées de défense) and former diplomat.Despite his very busy schedules, he gave me part of its valuable timeto discuss about the subject of this thesis, provided me guidance andadvices and suggested me some valuable references for my work. Iwould like to express my sincere thanks to the Academic Director atthe ‘Centre d’Étude Diplomatique et Stratégique’ (CEDS), ProfessorFouad Nohra, Doctor in Political Sciences, as well the professorEmanuel Caulier, former Academic Director at the CEDS. To all friends, which it will be too long to name all of them hereand who helped me by their interaction and discussion to refine myreflexion in the complexion of this thesis. During my thesis’ researches, I have become indebted to manypeople for their help in the research and the consultation of thenecessary documents: the librarians of the Sciences-Po library inParis and the special access conditions, the librarians of the ‘InstitutEuropeen des Hautes Études Internationales’ (IEHEI) in Nice, as wellthus of the University library in Bucharest. I would like to name few people as Anca Gabriela Scurtu,student in Master of Art in American Studies at the University ofBucharest and Miruna Luana Ionescu, student at the Faculty ofpsychology and Educational Science at the University Alexandru IoanCuza in Iasi for their assistance in documentation research,bibliography preparation and verification. I am also very grateful toAlina Coman for her assistance in reviewing my thesis in Englishlanguage.Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy iiiRomanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 9. Acknowledgments And lastly, special thanks must go to Madalina Vlasceanu forher support, her critical point of view, her listening, her interaction allalong the accomplishment of this work.iv Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 10. AbstractAbstract This work’s research examines the international relations ofRomania after the 89’ Revolution, within the changing parameters inthe Romania’s near shore as well the new paradigms of InternationalRelations appeared at the end of the eighties and the dawn of the21st century. Focusing on the ‘major forces’ (geopolitics, country’shistory…) likewise ‘variable forces’ (foreign policy, domestic policy,sociology…), this work identified three pillars: the powerful impact ofthe Others, an in-between situation and the complexity of Romania’borderland as well its crossroad situation. These pillars underline theRomanian international relations actions and impel the Romanianforeign policy decisions. It is pointed out that Romania’s case studyrepresented the Central and Eastern European Countries’ (CEECs)path and contingencies, likewise the politico-ideologicaltransformation of the military alliance as well the European Unionenlargement strategy adaptation in the Post-Cold War Erainterdependence. In addition, this work allows validating sometheories in different fields as Foreign Policy Change, InternationalRelations, Geopolitics, Interdependence... Over its history despite the geopolitical and domestic changes,Romanias main options in the international relations remainedunchanged relying on system of alliance thru balancing orbandwagoning likewise International Organizations to guaranty thecountry’ peace and freedom. In addition, from a constant in-betweensituation associated to a complex borderland context, the country willmove regularly to a crossroad situation. Besides, after restructuringthe country’s internal situation, its alliances and its bilateral relations,Romania took an active role towards the Balkans and the Wider BlackSea. With its new status, Romania is becoming the ‘Natos aircraftcarrier’ and practically the EU’s voice at the southeast Europeanfrontiers with a new role custom designed in the post-Yaltainternational system. Key Words: Romania, International Relations, Foreign Policy,Post-Cold War, European Union (EU), North Atlantic TreatyOrganization (NATO), Black Sea, Interdependence.Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy vRomanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 11. Abstract Ce travail de recherche examine les relations internationales dela Roumanie après la Révolution de 89, dans le contexte desbouleversements survenues à la proximité géographique de laRoumanie et au travers des nouveaux paradigmes des RelationsInternationales misent en place à la fin de années quatre-vingt et audébut du 21e siècle. En mettant l’accent sur les « forces majeures »(la géopolitique, l’histoire...) ainsi que sur les « forces variables » (lapolitique étrangère, la politique intérieure, la sociologie ...), ce travaila identifié trois piliers : le puissant impact des « autres », unesituation d’entre-deux et la complexité de sa situation de frontièreainsi que sa situation de carrefour. Ces piliers sous-tendent lesactions de la Roumanie dans ses relations internationales etinfluencent les décisions de sa politique étrangère. On soulignera quelétude de cas de la Roumanie représente bien le chemin chaotique etles péripéties des Pays de l’Europe Centrale et Orientales (PECO), demême que la transformation politico-idéologique de lAllianceAtlantique, ainsi que ladaptation de la stratégie délargissement delUnion Européenne dans linterdépendance de laprès-guerre froide.En outre, ce travail permet de valider certaines théories dansdifférents domaines comme le changement en politique étrangère, lesrelations internationales, la géopolitique, linterdépendance ... Au cours de son histoire, en dépit des changementsgéopolitiques et nationaux, les principales options de la Roumaniedans les relations internationales restent inchangées, sappuyant surle système dalliance par le biais du « balancing » (équilibrage) ou du« bandwagoning » (suivisme), mais également au travers desorganisations internationales pour garantir la paix et la liberté dupays. En outre, à partir dune constante situation d’entre-deuxassociés à un contexte complexe de frontières, le pays va se placerrégulièrement dans une situation de carrefour. Dailleurs, après larestructuration interne du pays, de ses alliances et de ses relationsbilatérales, la Roumanie a pris un rôle actif envers les Balkans et lagrande région de la mer Noire. Avec son nouveau statut, la Roumaniedevient le « porte-avions » de lOTAN et pratiquement la voix de lUEà la frontière du sud-est Européen, comme un nouveau rôle conçu surmesure dans le système international post-Yalta. Mots clés : Roumanie, Relations Internationales, Politiqueétrangère, Après guerre froide, Union Européenne (UE), Organisationdu Traité de l’Atlantique Nord (OTAN), Mer Noire, Interdépendance.vi Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 12. PrefacePreface In the events of the late 80s and the disappearance of the IronCurtain, as well as changes at the dawn of the 21st century, whichcreated new paradigms in international relations, make the periodfrom 1989 to 2009 an interesting subject to study. After spending several years in the early 90s in Eastern Europeand in particular in Romania, I have seen the scale of changes, thecountrys wealth and its particular path as the chaotic return to theWest. Under these circumstances, it seemed interesting to me to dealwith the topic of international relations of Romania after the 1989Revolution, to understand and assess more accurately the progressmade by the country over the past twenty years. Moreover, I wantedto find out why this path was so special and if the Romania’sinternational relations in this particular period brought some changesor if there was a constant continuity in these relations. This essay about a unique case in the field of contemporaryhistory has posed several obstacles in its treatment. First, theavailability of primary sources which are not always accessible due totheir classification and their release to the public only after theopening of states archives. Second, the plurality and the multiplicityof information drown you in a huge amount of information not alwayspertinent. Third, the need to give time on time in order to stand backfrom the immediacy of history and to put into perspective variousinformation, oftentimes in contradictory relation to the presentmoment. In addition, this issue benefits from very little coverage as wellsome questions were partially treated or even never. Romanianinternational relations since the 1989 Revolution have been treatedshortly in a partial way, on the one hand, thru several topics notreferring directly to Romania, but implying it indirectly, on the otherhand, by studying only one aspect of its international relations, suchas the domestic policy, the Romanian foreign policy over a givenperiod. This study is important because it allows through the Romania’scase study to explain some options taken in international relations ofthe country, the way of its implementation among its historicaldimension and the questioning of why and how the political class didthis choice and took specific orientations. In addition, it permits toDoctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy viiRomanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 13. Prefaceshow that this case is representative of a whole Eastern Europeregion at a historic turning point in contemporary history. This study explains the geopolitical context and its involvementin a series of specific regions (the Balkans and Wide Black Sea) andthe role played in the past, present and future by Romania in theEuropean Union and North Atlantic construction and orientation, aswell as vis-à-vis its near and far neighbors.viii Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 14. Brief Table of ContentsBrief Table of Contents Dedication i Acknowledgments iii Abstract v Preface vii Brief Table of Contents ix List of Figures xi List of Tables xiii List of Acronyms and Abbreviations xiv I Introduction 1 I.1 Subject and Issue of Research 3 I.2 Methodology,ConceptsandtheCorpusofSources 9 I.3 Thesis Plan 29 II Romania and the International Context 31 II.1 Romania’s Situation 31 II.2 The Post-Cold War International Situation 38 II.3 The Paradigm’s Change 45 II.4 The 21st Century 52Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy ixRomanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 15. Brief Table of Contents III Change into Continuity 55 III.1 Controversial Period 59 III.2 Necessary Rupture 101 III.3 The Comeback 115 III.4 Wind of Change 143 III.5 Partial Conclusion 179 IV From Isolation to Interdependence 185 IV.1 The Global Situation 187 IV.2 The Security: North Association Treaty Organization 197 IV.3 The European Union as a Western Dream 257 IV.4 The Neighborliness 349 IV.5 Partial Conclusion 425 V Romania, a Crossroad 438 V.1 The Others and the Impact on Romania 440 V.2 Romania In-between 474 V.3 From Borderland to Crossroad 508 V.4 Partial Conclusion 539 VI Global Conclusion 545 Bibliography 551 Table of Contents 689 Appendix 705x Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 16. List of FiguresList of Figures Figure 1: A Model of Foreign Policy Change. 195 Figure 2: Europe in 1993. 261 Figure 3: Romania in 19th century. 262 Figure 4: The European Union in 2008. 267 Figure 5: EU Neighboring Countries. 342 Figure 6: European Access to Russian and Caspian Crude. 345 Figure 7: Nabucco Gas Pipeline Project and Gas Supply Sources for Nabucco. 346 Figure 8: Romania and its Neighborgs. 351 Figure 9: The Dobroja region. 353 Figure 10: Transylvania. 356 Figure 11: The dismemberment of the Kingdom of Hungary. 357 Figure 12: Northern Transylvania Annexed to Hungary During WWII. 358 Figure 13: The Székely Land Issues. 366 Figure 14: The Principality of Moldavia in 1483. 369 Figure 15: The Bessarabia. 371 Figure 16: The Greater Romania 1918-1940. 372 Figure 17: Romania after the World War II. 373 Figure 18: The Republic of Moldova. 374Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy xiRomanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 17. List of Figures Figure 19: Old and New Territories on the Romanian-Ukrainian Border. 393 Figure 20: Ship Channels in the Lower Danube Delta. 396 Figure 21: The Snakes Island. 399 Figure 22: Maritime Delimitation in the Black Sea. 401 Figure 23: Romania under Michael the Brave’s reign in the sixeteenth century. 469xii Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 18. List of TablesList of Tables Table 1: Minorities in Romania in 1930. 76 Table 2: Romania Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) and rank – 2001-2008. 168 Table 3: Member state preferences on enlargement. 271 Table 4: The Impact of Foreign Policy Orientation Between Romania and Ukraine. 405 Table 5: The Impact of External Factors for Romania and Ukraine. 407Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy xiiiRomanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 19. List of Acronyms and AbbreviationsList of Acronyms and Abbreviations9/11 September 11, 2001ACT Anti-Corruption Trust of Southern AfricaANP Annual National ProgrammeBBC British Broadcasting CorporationBoP Balance of PowerBSEC Black Sea Economic CooperationBSER Black Sea Euro-RegionBSS Black Sea SynergyCDR Democratic ConventionCEDS Centre d’Etude Diplomatique et StratégiqueCEEC Central and Eastern European CountryCEI Central European InitiativeCEFTA Central European Free Trade AreaCFE Conventional Force in EuropeCFSP Common Foreign and Security PolicyCHDGM Committee of History of the Second World WarCIA Central Intelligence AgencyCIO Chairperson-in-OfficeCIS Commonwealth of Independent Statesxiv Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 20. List of Acronyms and AbbreviationsCMEA Council for Mutual Economic AssistanceCNRS French National Center for Scientific ResearchCOMECON Council for Mutual Economic AssistanceCPI Corruption Perceptions IndexCSAT SupremeCouncilofNationalDefence- (ConsiliuluiSupremdeApărareałării)CSCE Conference on Security and Cooperation in EuropeCVM Cooperation and Verification MechanismDCP Danube Co-operation ProcessDEF Danube Envitonment FormDISAM Defense Institute of Security Assistance ManagementEAPC Euro-Atlantic Partnership CouncilEBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and DevelopmentEC European CommunityEC-CMEA European Communities - Council for Mutual Economic AssistanceECSC European Steel and Coal CommunityEEA European Economic AreaEEAS European External Action ServiceEEC European Economic CommunityEIA Environmental Investigation AgencyEMU European Economic and Monetary UnionENP European Neighborhood PolicyENPI European Neighborhood and Partnership InstrumentşEPA Environmental Protection AgencyDoctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy xvRomanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 21. List of Acronyms and AbbreviationsESDI European Security and Defense IdentityEU European UnionEUPM European Union Police MissionFDI Foreign Direct InvestmentGATT General Agreement on Tariffs and TradeGDR German Democratic RepublicGMF German Marshal Fund of the United StatesGRECO Council of Europe Group of States Against CorruptionIAAE International Agency of Atomic EnergyIBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and DevelopmentICC International Criminal CourtICJ International Court of JusticeICR Romanian Cultural InstituteIGC InterGovernmental ConferenceIGO Intergovernmental OrganizationIHTP Institute of History of the Present timeIICCR Institute for the Investigation of Communist Crimes in RomaniaIMAS Institute for Marketing and Public Opinion PollsIMF International Monetary FundIO International OrganizationIPP Institute for Public PolicyIPTF International Police Task ForceIR International Relation”xvi Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 22. List of Acronyms and AbbreviationsIRSI Romanian Institute of International Studies “Nicolae Titulescu”ISAF International Security Assistance ForceJTFE Joint Task Force EastKGB Committee for State Security -(KomityetGosudarstvennoyBezopasnosty)MAP Membership Action PlanMARSOC U.S. Marine Corps Forces Special Operations CommandMASSR Moldovan Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicşMDG Millenium Development GoalMDGR Millennium Development Goals Country ReportMEP Members of European ParliamentMFA Ministry of Foreign AffairsMFN Most-Favoured-NationMINUSTAH United Nations Stabilization Mission in HaitiMLA Basic Multilateral AgreementMONUA United Nations Mission of Observers in AngolaMSSR Moldovan Soviet Socialist RepublicMURM Unionist Movement of the Republic of MoldovaNAA North Atlantic AssemblyNAC North Atlantic CouncilNACC North Atlantic Cooperation CouncilNACS National Anti-Corruption StrategyNAM Non-Aligned MovementNAS National Anti-corruption StrategyDoctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy xviiRomanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 23. List of Acronyms and AbbreviationsNATO North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationNED National Endowment for DemocracyNGO Non-Governmental OrganizationNIEO New International Economic OrderNPAA National Programme for the Adoption of the AcquisNPAR National Program for Accession of RomaniaNRF NATO Response ForceNSF National Salvation FrontOECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOIF Organisation Internationale de la FrancophonieOLAF EUs European Anti Fraud OfficeOPA Operation Per AcquisitionOSCE Organization for Security and Co-operation in EuropeOUA Organisation of African UnityPACE Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of EuropePCC Political Consultative CommitteePD Democratic PartyPDSR Party of Social-Democracy in RomaniaPfP Partnership for PeacePHARE Poland and Hungary: Assistance for Restructuring their EconomiesPLO Palestine Liberation OrganizationPNA National Anti-Corruption Prosecution OfficePNA Plan for Preparation of Accessionxviii Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 24. List of Acronyms and AbbreviationsPNAR National Program for Accession of Romania to the European UnionPNL National Liberal PartyPNłCD Christian-Democratic National Peasants PartyPRC People’s Republic of ChinaPRM Greater Romania PartyPSD Social Democratic Party of RomaniaPSE Pact of Stability in EuropePSI Proliferation Security InitiativePUNR Party of Romanian National UnityRCP Romania Communist PartyRM Republic of MoldovaROMRRF UN rapid-reaction force in MONUARSI Romanian Security IntelligenceşSACEUR Supreme Allied Commander EuropeSCND Supreme Council of National DefenseSDN Société des NationsSECI Southeast European Cooperative InitiativeSEECAP South-Eastern Europe Common Assessment Paper on Regional Security Challenges and OpportunitiesSEED Support for East European DemocraciesSFRY Socialist Federal Republic of YugoslaviaSIDA Swedish International Development Cooperation AgencySIPRI Stockholm International Peace Research InstituteDoctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy xixRomanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 25. List of Acronyms and AbbreviationsSPC Political Committee at Senior LevelSPC R Political Committee at Senior Level ReinforcedSPSEE Stability Pact for South-Eastern EuropeSSNR The National Security Strategy of RomaniaTCA Trade and Cooperation AgreementsTDA U.S. Trade and Development AgencyTI Transparency InternationalTIC Informational Communication and TechnologyTRACECA Transport Corridor Europe – Caucasus – AsiaUDMR Democratic Union of Hungarians in RomaniaUN United NationsUNAMA United Nations Assistance Mission in AfghanistanUNAMIR UN Assistance Mission for RwandaUNAVEM United Nations Angola Verification MissionUNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and DevelopmentUNDP United Nations Development ProgrammeUNECE United Nations Economic Commission for EuropeUNESCO Organisation des Nations unies pour l’éucation, la science et la cultureUNIDIR United Nations Institute for Disarmament ResearchUNIKOM United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation MissionUNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and CrimeUNMEE United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and EritreaUNMIBH United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovinaxx Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 26. List of Acronyms and AbbreviationsUNMIK United Nations Interim Administration Mission in KosovoUNMIL United Nations Mission in LiberiaUNMIN United Nations Mission in NepalUNMIS United Nations Mission in the SudanUNMIT United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-LesteUNOCI United Nations Operation in Côte d’IvoireUNOMIG United Nations Observer Mission in GeorgiaUNOMUR United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-RwandaUNOSOM United Nations Operation in SomaliaUNSC United Nations Security CouncilUS United StatesUSAID U.S. Agency for International DevelopmentUSSR Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsWEU Western European UnionWTO World Trade OrganizationWWF World Wildlife FundDoctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy xxiRomanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 27. IntroductionI Introduction Due to the fall of the ‘Iron Curtain’, the collapse of the existinginternational relations system and the 1989 Revolution in Romania,we want to explain Romania’s international relations in this new localand international context. We chose to study Romania’s international relations, due to thegeographical position of the country, its future potential role played inthe North Alliance Treaty Organisation and its future possible role inthe European Union. This country has a very rich historicalbackground and historical relations with European states, especiallyFrance and Germany likewise other Eastern countries (the Republic ofMoldova, Russia) and countries on Asiatic continent (Turkey).Romania was and continues to be in a paradoxically situation likebeing in a shadow and in the same time involved on the internationalscene. The way the country acted during some international majorevents trigger will help us to better understand and to explain howand why Romania acted in the way it did. We decided to cover the period from the 89’s Revolution untilnowadays in order to have a complete view of the Romania’s Post-Cold War international relations covering a period less than twentyyears and to fill a gap in knowledge on a poorly and partial studiedtopic. In our point of view all this period has a logical aggregate thatgives the possibility to better clarify the Romania’s internationalrelations achievements and motivations. In order to illustrate this, weexplored this precise period, which is characterised by some majorinternational events and change shift of presidents in the country. Inother words, this historical period is representative for our study ofthe Romania’s evolution with the political and military changes. In thesame time, the Romania’s important objectives cover internationalrelations’ activities until the European Union accession in 2007,without neglecting the North Atlantic Treaty Organization accession in2004. We consider that some special past events are enoughimportant to create a logical end of the period studied, covering fromthe 89’s Revolution to 2008. Events held in 2008, consist in theorganization of the NATO summit in April, the end of Radio FreeEurope in Romania in September and the strong implication ofRomania as a potential regional leader toward the Black Sea and theBalkans. For us, the closing of Radio Free Europe for Romania puts anDoctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy 1Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 28. Introductionend to a period of history started during the Cold War as a tool forthe liberation of Eastern European country from the Sovietdomination until the restoration of democracy and freedom. Theorganization of the NATO Summit indicates the full Romania’sparticipation in the Western democratic institutions. The diplomaticactions and the Romania’s initiative give a potential leadership forRomania in the NATO and EU concerning the South-Eastern bordersof the Union and the military Alliance. We will explain the particular acting pillars of the Romanianinternational relations, the subject of the research and the generalcontext added to it. More precisely, we will describe ourunderstanding in the international relations field, the choice oftheories and the different implications according to our case study. Inaddition, we will set the limits of our study. Within the framework ofour research, we will present the different sources used with theiradvantages and their limits. We will also announce our thesis planelaboration with its different sections.2 Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 29. IntroductionI.1 Subject and Issue of Research I.1.1 Subject of Research The upheaval of the eighties provoked by the ‘perestroika’1,introduced in 1985 by the Soviet leader Mikhail SergeyevichGorbachev, after his election as General Secretary of the CommunistParty, followed by the opening of the Austria-Hungarian border onMay 2, 19892 and by the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 19893,has been regarded as the opening point of the East by the totaldisappearance of the Iron Curtain. As Moreau wrote, It all starts in an almost alleviating way: as of August 1989, East Germans cross the border clandestinely (…) On November 9, 1989, the inter-German border is opened; it is the end of the Wall. During this same month, Bulgaria engages in a reorganization process and Czechoslovakia enters democracy. In December, in Romania, the regime of Ceausescu disappears in blood. In one autumn, the Eastern European socialist block disappeared. The East-West system in Europe lived; …4 These steps marked the beginning of the end of the Cold War,which really ended when “the Soviet Union lowered its flag over theKremlin on December 25 […] 1991, when the Russian Federation flagtook its place”5. Even if the Cold War was not officially over – an 1 ‘Perestroika’ is the Russian term for the economic reforms introduced inJune 1987, by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Its literal meaning is‘restructuring’, referring to the restructuring of the Soviet economy 2 Schreiber, Thomas. Hongrie : 1956 / 2006 [online]. (Hungary: 1956 /2006). Diploweb, la revue géopolitique, Oct. 2006. Paris: Pierre Verluise, 2006.[cited 15 April 2008]. Hypertext Markup Language. Available from:<http://www.diploweb.com/forum/hongrie06103.htm>. 3 ___. 1989, chute du mur: la fin dune époque [online]. (1989, fall of thewall: the one time end). Deutschaland ONLINE, 26 July 2004. s.l.: FrankfurterSocietäts-Druckerei GmbH, 2006a. [cited 16 April 208]. Hypertext MarkupLanguage. Available from: <http://www.magazine-deutschland.de/issue/Essays_4-04_Mauerfall_FRA_F1.php?&lang=deu>. 4 Moreau Defarges, Philippe. Relations Internationales - 2. Questionsmondiales (International Relations - 2 World Questions). 6e ed. 2 vols. Vol. 2.Paris: Editions du Seuil, 2004. (Essais). p. 37. Translated by Marc Bonnemains 5 ___. The End of the Cold War [online]. 2005k, 2005. The Cold WarInternational History Project. [cited 16 April 2008]. Hypertext Markup Language.Available from:<http://coldwarfiles.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=units.details&thisunit=17>.Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy 3Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 30. Introductionissue of dialectic or experts - after December 1989, we witness acomplete collapse of the satellite countries of the Soviet Union, withthe bankruptcy of their communist system, their economy and thetotal reorientation of these Eastern European states. Albert Legaultwrote in 1991, Annus mirabilis, ‘the time of all the ruptures’, ‘the year of the gigantic upheavals’, here are the many expressions that each and every one of us can find in the large pages of the current status quo in relation to these events. The ruptures are deep. First of all, it is the old order established after the Second World War which collapses. For some, the United States won the Cold War; for others, it is a victory of the West and the ‘end of history’. Unquestionably, it is the beginning of a new history…6 As Fred Halliday7 commented it, the fall of the Berlin wallrepresented “the end of the inter-state conflict that has dominatedthe world since 1945 and of the Soviet-US nuclear confrontation”.8 Ifthe end of the Cold War made necessary a fundamental change, itwas also the disintegration of Yugoslavia, the peace process in theMiddle East and the end of the apartheid in Southern Africa thatbrought a fundamental revision not only within the internationalsystem, but also for all the international actors that had to re-examine their international relations and their foreign policiesaccording to the latest events. The wave of change has stake out allthe countries: the Soviet Union, the United States, the WesternEuropean States and Eastern European countries. Romania could nothave escaped from this transformation, which was materialized thruthe Revolution of 1989, leading to the fall and execution of thedictator Nicolae Ceausescu. The international relations were renderedchaotic and created a new dimension by removing the East-Westconfrontation, a disruption on the international plan and a change inthe world confrontation with the United States as the worlds onlysuperpower. 6 Legault, Albert (dir.). Les six mois qui ont ébranlé le monde (Six monthswhich shook the world). Centre québécois de relations Internationales, Presses delUniversité du Québec, 1991. p. Preface. Translated by Marc Bonnemains 7 Halliday Fred is a British academic and a leading expert in internationalrelations. He was professor of International Relations at the London School ofEconomics and Political Science (LSE) and a member of the Centre for the Study ofHuman Rights. Today is a research professor at the Barcelona Institute forInternational Studies (IBEI). He argued that the Soviet and Communist periodswere detrimental for international relations and profoundly undemocratic. 8 Halliday, Fred. The End of the Cold War and International Relations: SomeAnalytic and Theoretical Conclusions. In Booth, Ken and Smith Steve (Eds.),International Relations Theory Today. Cambridge, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd,1997. p. 41.4 Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 31. Introduction The end of the Cold War, the break-up of different space in theBalkans and in the former Soviet Union defined a new strategicallyposition for Romania and brought new neighbors and challenges. Withnew neighbors in the South-west (Serbia, Montenegro and Kosovo),in the North-east (Moldova and Ukraine) as the violent uprising of the89’s Revolution create new security and foreign policy questions. All that came to add to the spheres of instability in the nineties:the Balkans and the post-Soviet instability followed by the Russianweakness on the world scene. Moreover, there was the internationalcontext of the years 2000, with particular emphasis on the UnitedStates on September 11, 2001 called 9/11, and with the fight againstterrorism and rogue states, which followed, as well as the questionson the supply of energy sources. Within this new international contextand challenges, we will put Romania’s international relations inparallel with those of the Eastern European states and with the waythey adapted their foreign policy to the new world challenges. Inother words, we will study the Romanian international relations sincethe 1989 Revolution, with the proclamation of the “Communiqué forthe country” issued by the National Salvation Front Council onDecember 22nd9, until the years 2008 within the NATO Summitorganized in Bucharest in 2008. I.1.2 Issue of Research Since the 1989 Revolution, within the new internationalcontext, Romanian international relations goals had to be redefined,with particular emphasis on the necessary redevelopment of itsinternational relations and redefinition of its foreign policy. Thequestion is – which were Romania’s new international relations goalsand, in particular, the direction of the Romanian foreign policy afterthe 1989 Revolution, thru the North Atlantic Treaty Organizationmembership obtained in March 2004, thru the accession to theEuropean Union in January 2007 and to the organization of the NATOSummit in April 2008? After the 1989 Revolution and the set-up of the new provisionalgovernment, how did the Romanian foreign policy change? With theloss of Romania’s influence in the eighties and the change of years 9 Sava, Constantin and Monac Constantin. RevoluŃia română din decembrie1989 retrăită prin documente şi mărturii (The Romanian Revolution of December1989, revived through document and testimonies). BucuresŃi: Editura Axioma Edit,2001. Translated by Marc BonnemainsDoctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy 5Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 32. Introduction1989-1991 on the world scene, what was Romania’s strategy for itsrepositioning as an influential actor in international relations? DidRomania have a true strategy to establish a specific foreign policy orwas the Romanian foreign policy imposed by the choices made? Howwas the change made and implemented? Was it an interactionbetween the external actors and the internal actors of Romania? Dowe have some invariable factors existing in the country, independentfrom the international situation or the change of government? Do wehave any variable factors? Why did Romania seek, immediately after1989, to get closer to NATO and Europe? Is there any continuity, withsome nuances, of the Romanian international relations from 1989 tothe entry in the European Union, going thru various periods beforethe First World War, the interwar period, the communist period andafter the 1989 Revolution? Which have been the big steps of theRomanian international relations and foreign policy since 1989? Whywas the Romania’s transformation slower than the one of otherEastern European countries? What is Romania’s current position onthe international chessboard? This issue benefits from very little coverage and some of thequestions were never asked or very quickly answered. If Romania’sInternational Relations have been largely covered for previousperiod10 as in modern period11, Romanian international relations sincethe 1989 Revolution have been treated in a partial way; on the onehand, thru several topics not referring directly to Romania, butimplying it indirectly, such as: the enlargement of NATO,12 theenlargement of the European Union,13 the Black Sea area…14; on theother hand, by studying only one aspect of it all, such as thedomestic policy, the Romanian foreign policy over a given period of 10 Lache, Ştefan România în relaŃiile internaŃionale, 1939-2006. Bucureşti:Editura FundaŃiei România de Mâine, 2007. 11 CârŃână, Iulian. RelaŃiile internaŃionale ale României în epoca modernă.Bucureşti: Cartea Universitară, 2006. 12 Alamoreanu, Adriana. La Roumanie et lOTAN. Plaidoyer pour un avenircommun (Romania and NATO. Plea for a common future). Disertation (Master),Institut Européen des Hautes Etudes Internationales, Université de Nice - Sophia-Antipolis, 1996. 13 Pasidea, Oana. Lélargissement de lUnion Européenne : Incidences enmatière de sécurité et de défense des PECO (The widening of the European Union:Incidences safety defense of the PECO). Disertation (Master), Centre Internationalde Formation Européenne, Institut Européen des Hautes Etudes Internationales,2001. 14 Corduban, Cristina. La région de la Mer Noire dans le contexte delélargissement de lUnion Européenne [online]. (The area of the Black Sea in thecontext of the widening of the European Union) Ibid. (Diplôme européen), 2004.[cited 23 Jan. 2007]. Portable Document Format. Available from:<http://www.iehei.org/bibliotheque/memoires/CORDUBAN.pdf>.6 Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 33. Introductiontime - 1989 to 199415, from 1989 to 199316, after 199217, after200118…- or by treating only an aspect of this foreign policy, such asthe actors. No books, theses or articles cover the entire period ofPost-Cold War Romanian international relations, going from the 1989Revolution to nowadays, i.e. the NATO Summit in Bucharest in 2008. There is only one recent work, a thesis that approaches theanalysis of the foreign policy, which covers part of this subject until2006. The thesis was released in 2007 and entitled The RomanianForeign Policy, 1990-2006. Actors, Processes and Results.19 Thisthesis presents the factors that influenced the strategic decisions ofthe Romanian foreign policy thru the method of foreign policyanalysis, focused on the analysis of the actors. As we want to fill a gap in knowledge, this study of the Post-Cold War period, from 1989 Romanian Revolution to 2008, will bringthe following clarifications: First, the gap in knowledge requires thorough coverage;moreover, all studies were not made by taking into account theentirety of international relations, from the above-mentioned period,within the theories of the 21st century. 15 Georgescu, Alina-Alexandra. Romanian Foreign Policy Change: FromIsolation to Dependence (1989-1994) [online]. Paper presented at the EFPU -Research student conference on European foreign policy on 2 July 2004. London:London School of Economics – Departement of Foreign International Relations. p.15. [cited 17 Dec. 2007]. Microsoft Word Document. Available from:<http://wwww.lse.ac.uk/Depts/intrel/EFPC/Papers/Georgescu.doc>. 16 Torcatoriu, Bogdan. Contribution à une analyse critique de la politiqueétrangère de la Roumanie entre 1989 et 1993 (Contribution to an analysiscriticizes of the foreign politics of Romania between 1989 and 1993). Disertation(Diplôme), Centre Européen des Hautes Etudes Internationales, Institu Européendes Hautes Etudes Internationales, 1993. 17 Spinant, Daniela. La politique étrangère roumaine après 1992 : lareconstruction de la crédibilité (The Romanian foreign politics after 1992: therebuilding of credibility). Disertation (Master), Institut Européen des Hautes EtudesInternationales, Université de Nice - Sophia-Antipolis, 1996. 18 Pelinescu, Marilena. Politica externa a Romaniei dupa 11 septembrie 2001[online]. (Romanian Foreign Policy after September 2001). Disertation (Licence),Departamentul de Relatii Internationale si Integrare Europeana, Scoala Nationalade Stiinte Politici si Administrative, 2007. [cited 5 Sep. 2007]. Microsoft WordDocument. Available from: <http://www.e-referate.ro/referate/Politica_externa_a_Romaniei_dupa_11_sep.2001_%5Bwww.e-referate.ro%5D_%5BIstorie%5D_%5B2007-07-06%5D.zip>. 19 Ivan, Ruxandra. La politique étrangère roumaine, 1990-2006. Acteurs,processus et résultats (The Romanian foreign Politics, 1990-2006. Actors, Processand Result). Thesis (PhD), Faculté des sciences sociales, politiques et économiques- Sciences politiques, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 2007.Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy 7Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 34. Introduction Secondly, we want to specify in detail what one knows in ageneral way, and to fulfill the lack of explanations related toRomania’s way of acting; in addition, we will discuss what and whyRomanians took this course of action and these decisions. We will doa different reading, covering not only the foreign policy, but also theRomanian international relations. We will bring a global vision to seewhether the Romanian international relations show continuity ordiscontinuity with the country’s past foreign policy behavior. However, Romania became a member of the North AtlanticTreaty Organization in 2004 and of the European Union on January1st, 2007. The understanding of its international relations, within itsforeign policy will bring the comprehension of the European foreignpolicy regarding the strong and weak points of the Romanian foreignpolicy. In addition, as an Alliance member, the foreign policy ofRomania can interfere with neither NATO’s strategy nor goals. It isnecessary to consider this, as Romania is today in the Alliance and inthe European Union. Indeed, within the European context, anyforeign policy issues of any of the states becomes or will become inthe long term an issue, but also any abilities or strong outcomes willbecome a strength for the Alliance nor the European Union and forthese member states. This analyse is also important, in order tobetter understand Romania’s foreign policy and political actions.Today, not all assumptions on the major reasons of Romania’sbehavior, as a country, within the international relations and theimplementation of Romania’s foreign policy were explained. By now,no scholar could identify a theory that is able to explain Romania’sactions at the international level.8 Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 35. IntroductionI.2 Methodology, Concepts and the Corpus of Sources I.2.1 Methodology The thesis will cover the field of International Relations20 (IR).However, more precisely, it will be in the area of the History ofInternational Relations in the twentieth and twentieth-first centuries,covering a recent period of time through the case study of Romania.Case study is a research methodology but also a research strategy,an empirical inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real-life context.21 Theories will provide a blueprint for research andestablish propositions as “a hypothetical story about why acts,events, structure and thoughts occur”22 before starting fieldwork. Our topic could be treated by different researches approaches23,as quantitative or qualitative approaches. Quantitative approachedwill require to identifying certain variables in relation with thequestion treated, to isolate them and then to see their effects on thequestion being investigated. In order to do it, it will be necessary tobuild a measurement scale to be able to compare all results, and tocarry out experimental subject to obtain these measurements. Withthese measurements, it will be possible to compare the questionstudying to many other experimental subjects. However, becausedata about other experimental subjects in the same field of researchdo not necessary exist and because the measurement tool has tohave a scale and certain limits that cannot permit to take intoaccount factors outside of the scale created, this method will not beadapted to our research topic. 20 We will write International Relations, with ‘I’ and ‘R’ caps, when we willspeak about the Discipline. Further details will be given when we will speak aboutthe topics. 21 To see : Stake, Robert E. The Art of Case Study Research. ThousandOaks: SAGE Publications, 1995. 22 Sutton and Straw, 1995 cited in Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research:Design and Methods. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, 2003. (AppliedSocial Research Methods Series). p. 29. 23 Singleton, Royce and Straits Bruce C. Approaches to social research. 3rded. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1999.Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy 9Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 36. Introduction In opposite, qualitative approached will permit to conduce theresearch with a more flexible and open-ended perspective. Qualitativeresearch can be described as “the non-numerical examination andinterpretation of observations, for the purpose of discoveringunderlying meanings and patterns of relationships”.24 This approachedthat could use different methods as interviews, participant-observation, archive, document collection, document analysis, have amore flexible path that might permit to cash unexpected outcomes.As we focus on a study concerning Romania after the 89’ Revolution,the qualitative approach is chosen to give better results in theresearch. I.2.2 Concepts I.2.2.1 International Relations Definitions By the term ‘international’, we understand ‘between nations’, aphrase built at the end of 18th century by Jeremy Bentham25, anEnglish jurist, philosopher, legal and social reformer. For James N.Rosenau the ‘International Relations’ represents a generic concept for a vast array of activities, ideas, and goods that do or can cross national boundaries, international relations (IR) embraces social, cultural, economic, and political exchanges that occur in ad hoc as well as institutionalized contexts.26 The above-mentioned definition means that “the study of theInternational Relations analyzes and explains the relations between 24 Babbie, Earl R. The Practice of Social Research. 3rd ed. Belmont, CA:Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1983. (Practice of Social Research). p. 537. 25 Viner, Jacob. Studies in the Theory of International Trade [online]. NewYork: Harper and Brothers, 1965. [cited 21 May 2008]. Hypertext MarkupLanguage. Available from: <http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/1414>. 26 Rosenau, James N. International Relations [online]. Krieger, Joel (Ed.),The Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World. 2nd ed. Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press. Bibliotheque Sciences Po, 2001. [cited 16 May 2008]. HypertextMarkup Language. Available from: <<https://acces-distant.sciences-po.fr:443/http/www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t121.e0257>>.10 Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 37. Introductionthe political communities organized in a territory, i.e. between thestates”.27 Nevertheless, we would rather choose this less restrictivedefinition by Daniel Colard28, who says that the study of the international relations includes the peaceful or quarrelsome relationship between states, the role of the international organizations, the influence of the transnational forces and the whole exchanges or activities which transgress the states’ borders (italic in original text).29 The question is how to study this discipline? InternationalRelations have so many different theories, such as realism, neo-realism, liberalism, neo-liberalism, Marxism orthodoxy, Englishschool, constructivism, neo-Marxism, critical theory, post-modernism,feminism …, that no one can agree to completely and everyone canexplain everything in a different way. If [s]peakers perceive events through very biased or ideological national positions, the concepts of objectivity or ‘pure fact’ are at the very least random. There is no reason to believe that the situation is very different for specialists in the International relations.30 Canadian Robert Cox wrote that a “[t]heory is always forsomeone and, for some purpose”.31 As proved, the exercise done byAlex Macleod and Dan O’Meara in their book on the ‘Iraqi War’, every 27 Renouvin, Pierre and Duroselle Jean-Baptiste. Introduction à lhistoire desrelations internationales (Introduction to the history of the international relations).4e ed. Paris: Armand Colin, 1997. (Collection Agora). p. 1. Translated by MarcBonnemains 28 Colard Daniel is professor in Law at the Franche-Conté University and anInternational Relations expert. He wrote many books and articles on internationalpolitical questions in many publications. 29 Colard, Daniel. Les relations internationales de 1945 à nos jours(International relations from 1945 to our days). 8e ed. Paris: Armand Colin, 1999.(Collection U. Série Droit). p. 5. Translated by Marc Bonnemains 30 Macleod, Alex (dir.) and Omeara Dan (dir.). Théorie des relationsinternationales.Contestations et résistances. (Theory of International Relations.Contestation and Resistance). Outremont, QC: Athéna éditions and CEPES, 2007. p.vii. Translated by Marc Bonnemains 31 Cox, Robert W. Social Forces, States and World Orders : BeyondInternational Relations Theory. In Keohane, Robert Owen (ed.) (Ed.), Neorealismand Its Critics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986. p. 207.Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy 11Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 38. Introductionsituation can be explained and given a meaning with any theory.32 In2003, Randall Schweller underlined that: There is no unifying, grand theory of international relations (IR), and there is little hope of ever constructing one. I am not even sure what such a theory would look like.33 Being a ‘crossroads discipline’, “the international relations arenot a science”34 as Philippe Moreau Defarges said. It appears thatInternational theory is a “[c]rossroads discipline associatinggeography, history, economy, cultural data, politics and evenpsychology, this field draws its unity from its field of analysis: humandecisions, their more or less foreseeable consequences, theirinteractions.”35 In order to analyze Romania’s international relations, it iscompulsory to take into account other disciplines in our thesis, suchas geopolitical study, history, sociology and foreign policy. Toreinforce this idea, we join Moreau Defarges saying that “sovereignstates are only historical constructions […] they are in perpetualtransformation. Moreover, these states are taken in vaster flows,which contribute to their construction or destruction.”36 We add thatinternational relations are relations cannot be dissociated and areestablished between states themselves. These relations imposeagreements, rules, limitations, and various movements of goods,people, and ideas. It is the action of the states “in the center of theinternational relations”, the general framework in which we will fithere. Within the framework of the state, we will take in account theinterest of the state itself, its initiatives, its government’s actions,decisions, intentions, as well as personal interests, powers, capacitiesand safety. To explain the Romanian international relations, we need tounderstand two simultaneous forces: the ‘major forces’ which createdthe framework of the state and determined it’s ‘character’, and the 32 Macleod, Alex (dir.) and Omeara Dan (dir.). Théorie des relationsinternationales.Contestations et résistances. (Theory of International Relations.Contestation and Resistance). Outremont, QC: Athéna éditions and CEPES, 2007.Translated by Marc Bonnemains 33 Schweller, Randall L. The Progressiveness of Neoclassical Realism. InElman, Colin and Elman Miriam Fenduis (Eds.), Progress in International RelationsTheory: Appraising the Field. Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press, 2003. p. 311. 34 Moreau Defarges, Philippe. Relations Internationales - 2. Questionsmondiales (International Relations - 2 World Questions). 6e ed. 2 vols. Vol. 2.Paris: Editions du Seuil, 2004. (Essais). p. 53. Translated by Marc Bonnemains 35 Ibid. Translated by Marc Bonnemains 36 Ibid. p. 55. Translated by Marc Bonnemains12 Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 39. Introduction‘variable forces’ which changed in time according to thecircumstances. Pierre Renouvin understands by ‘major forces’37, the elementshaving shaped the state and having created a way of doing, a mannerof being. These ‘major forces’, such as geography, history,demography, economical forces, nationalism, and natural resourcesare studied, in addition to other scientific fields, such as geopoliticsand history. Because the ‘majors forces’ are invariable, we would liketo introduce a second concept called ‘variable forces’, in order tocorrectly draw all the different forces in actions in the stateinternational relations. This new concept, ‘variable forces’, adapts theshift about the local and international variation across situation andtime. We explain the ‘variable forces’, as non-permanent elementschanging in time such as government, political leaders, nation’s chiefexecutive, crisis, ideological goals, economical prosperity as wellinternational situation and can be studied by analyzing mainly thestate’s foreign policy. I.2.2.1.1 Major Forces – Geopolitics Geopolitics, recognized by us as a ‘major force’, was defined byancient and modern historians such as Herodotus, Thucydides,Montesquieu38, Henri Thomas Buckle, Hippolyte Taine and Heinrichvon Treitschke. We can underline that, for a long time, the study ofgeopolitics had been unfashionable, largely due to its historicalassociation with fascism. It was developed in an attempt to justifyGerman aspirations to ‘Lebensraum’39 (living space) in the periodbetween the two world wars. Several definitions have been drafted by 37 Renouvin, Pierre. Première Partie - Les forces profondes (First Part. Thedeap forces). In Renouvin, Pierre and Duroselle Jean-Baptiste (Eds.), Introduction àlhistoire des relations internationales. 4e ed. Paris: Armand Colin, 1997. (CollectionAgora). Translated by Marc Bonnemains 38 More exacly: Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brède et deMontesquieu 39 ‘Lebensraum’ is a German word usually translated as ‘vital space’. It is aconcept that refers to the idea of territory sufficient to, first, ensure the survival ofa people and, second, foster its growth. This territory is available in the ‘cleaning’as the Nazi ‘Final Solution’ or the conquest, most often by the war. This idea is generally known for being one of the main justifications for theNazi expansionist policies of Germany during the Second World War. However, it isnot considered as a ‘Nazi idea’ because it is, like many other nationalist political (forexample, the American Manifest Destiny), a simple explanation of expansionism.Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy 13Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 40. Introductiondifferent scholars as Kejllén40, Demangeon41, Ancel42, Lorot43, Lorotand Thual44, Chauprade and Thual45, Barret and Charvet46, Vidal De LaBlanche47, Moreau Defarges48, Levy and Lussault49, Lacoste50 andFabre51. However, each definition deals with a specific orientation andideology. In order to draft a comprehensive definition of the term‘geopolitics’, we will start by retaining three definitions. First,according to the Unabridged Hutchinson Encyclopaedia: “Geopoliticsis the study of the relationship between geographical factors and thepolitical aspects of states”.52 Emmanuel Fabre tries to give the mostcomplete definition based on a compilation of scholars’ definition, asfollows: Geopolitics is the study of the territorial stakes mobilizing different rival powers (state powers, but also intra and inter-state). It is knowledge (science?) of conflicts, which result from the more or less violent expression of contradictory representations of a territory. It is the practical and 40 Kjellén, Rudolf. Der Staat als Lebensform (The State as a Living Form).Berlin-Grunewald: Kurt Vowinckel Verlag, 1924. 41 Demangeon, Albert. Géographie Politique (Political Geography). Annalesde Géographie, 1932. 42 Ancel, Jacques. Géopolitique (Geopolitics). Paris: Delagrave, 1936. 43 Lorot, Pascal. Histoire de la géopolitique. Paris: Economica, 1995. 44 Lorot, Pascal and Thual François. La géopolitique. Paris: Montchrestein,1997. 45 Chauprade, Aymeric and Thual François. Dictionnaire de géopolitique :états, concepts, auteurs. Paris: Ellipses, 1998. 46 Barret, Christain and Charvet Jean-Paul. Dictionnaire de géographiehumaine. Paris: Liris, 2000. 47 Vidal de la Blanche, Paul. La France de lest. Paris: La Découverte, 2000. 48 Moreau Defarges, Philipe. Introduction à la géopolitique. Paris: Seuil,1994. 49 Lévy, Jacques (dir) and Lussault Michel (dir). Dictionnaire de lagéographie et de lespace des sociétés. Paris: Belin, 2003. 50 Lacoste, Yves (dir.). Dictionnaire de géopolitique. Paris: Flamarion, 1993. 51 Fabre, Emmanuel. De la géopolitique. Le point de vue des dictionnaires degéopolitique [online]. (About geopolitics, from geopolitical dictionaries). Cybergo.european journal of geography, 22 June 2007, Vol. Epistemology, History,Teaching, Article 259: Cybergo, 2004. [cited 10 Feb. 2004]. HyperText MarkupLanguage. Available from: <http://www.cybergeo.eu/index3901.html>. 52 ___. Geopolitic [online]. The Unabridged Hutchinson Encyclopedia.Research Machines plc, 2004c. [cited 18 May 2008]. Hypertext Markup Language.Available from: <http://encyclopedia.farlex.com/Geopolitic>.14 Doctor of Philosophy in International Relation and Diplomacy Romanias Post-Cold War International Relations
  • 41. Introduction operational knowledge based on a scientific method of analysis that relies on multiple scales of time and space.53 As we can notice, the two definitions resumed relationsbetween states and territories. However, the scholar AymericChauprade introduces very well the human aspect of the relationsbetween states. He says: “Geopolitics is the study of the will forpower applied to the situations of the physical and humangeography”.54 He specifies, in addition, that in geopolitics, “the poweris the product of both the force of the actors and of the geographicallocation”.55 For Chauprade “geopolitics analysis aims at understandingthe deep psychology of the states, considered, deep down, as beings;beings characterized by the constant features of their personality, butalso by the fact that they face a changing environment during theirlife.”56 This last definition will be a better match for our study and willmeet the ‘major forces’ of Renouvin. If the study of International Relations is related to events,crises, changes and rupture, geopolitics underlines the continuity,which finds its stable character in geographical characteristics. Theforeign policy of several states often seems constant, whateverhappens and irrespective of the ideological changes or inversions,because the geographical environment is stable in time and hasconstant historical weight. To be partly compelled from the ideologicalanalysis of international relations, Chauprade started, in hisintroduction to the geopolitical analysis, by saying that the logic of the geographical map is higher than philosophy, the ideological idealism, or merely the economic logics. […] ideology plays a part, not as a major reason, but as an instrument of propaganda, of maneuver, of foreign politics.57 53 Fabre, Emmanuel. De la géopolitique. Le point de vue des dictionnaires degéopolitique [online]. (About geopolitics, from geopolitical dictionaries). Cybergo.european journal of geography, 22 June 2007, Vol. Epistemology, History,Teaching, Article 259: Cybergo, 2004. [cited 10 Feb. 2004]. HyperText MarkupLanguage. Available from: <http://www.cybergeo.eu/index3901.html>. 54 Chauprade, Aymeric. Introduction à l’analyse géopolitique. Paris: EllipsesEditions Marketing S.A., 1999. p.