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Types of solids

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  • 1. TYPES OF SOLIDSTwo types (based upon atomic arrangement, bindingenergy, physical & chemical properties):1. Crystalline2. Amorphous
  • 2. Crystalline solids The building constituents arrange themselves in regularmanner throughout the entire three dimensional network. Existence of crystalline lattice. A crystalline lattice is a solid figure which has a definitegeometrical shape, with flat faces and sharp edges. Incompressible orderly arranged units. Definite sharp melting point. Anisotropy. Definite geometry. Give x-ray diffraction bands. Examples: NaCl, CsCl, etc.
  • 3. AMORPHOUS SOLIDS Derived from Greek word ‘Omorphe’ meaningshapeless. No regular but haphazard arrangement of atoms ormolecules. Also considered as non-crystalline solids or super-cooled liquids. No sharp m.p. Isotropic. No definite geometrical shape. Do not give x-ray diffraction bands. Examples: glass, rubber, plastics.
  • 4. Types of crystal structures Ionic crystals Covalent crystals Molecular crystals Metallic crystals
  • 5. Ionic crystals Lattice points are occupied by positive and negative ions. Hard and brittle solids. High m.p due to very strong electrostatic forces of attraction. Poor conductors of electricity in solid state but good inmolten state. Packing of spheres depends upon:a) presence of charged species present.b) difference in the size of anions and cations. Two types: AB types. AB2 types.
  • 6. Covalent crystals Lattice points are occupied by neutral atoms. Atoms are held together by covalent bonds Hard solids. High m.p. Poor conductors of electricity. Two common examples: diamond & graphite.
  • 7. Molecular crystals Lattice points are occupied by neutral molecules. The molecules are held together by Vander Waal’s forces. Very soft solids. Low m.p. Poor conductors of electricity.
  • 8. Metallic crystals Lattice points are occupied by positive metal ionssurrounded by a sea of mobile e-. Soft to very hard. Metals have high tensile strength. Good conductors of electricity. Malleable and ductile. Bonding electrons in metals remain delocalized overthe entire crystal. High density.

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