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Functional and Content Words
 

Functional and Content Words

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    Functional and Content Words Functional and Content Words Presentation Transcript

    • Resource Person: Sir Khalil Ahmad Presented by:- Maqsood Ahmad ID# 090418002 (MSc AL) University of Management and Technology Johar Town. Lahore.
    • Topic:-
      • Why can’t
      • we draw a sharp line
      • between
      • content words
      • and
      • function words ?
    • Criteria for Word Classes
      • We use a combination of three criteria for determining the word class of a word:
      • The meaning of the word
      • The form or `shape' of the word
      • The position or environment of the word in a sentence
    • What is a function word?
      • Little semantic content of its own
      • Indicates a grammatical relationship .
      • No identifiable meaning
      • closed-class word
      • such as preposition, conjunction or article
      • Different names for function words:
      • Function words
      • Grammatical words
      • Auto semantic words
      • Little lexical meaning
      • Have ambiguous meaning
      • For example:
      • This is a boy.
      • This boy is running.
      • Serve to express grammatical relationships with other words
      • within a sentence
      • Specify the attitude or mood of the speaker
    • Function words:
      • The following is a list considered to be function words:
      • Articles: the, a.
      • Pronouns: he, him, she, her, etc.
      • Conjunctions: and, that, when, while, although, or
      • Interjections: sometimes called "filled pauses", uninflected
      • Modal verbs : can, must, will, should, ought, need, used
      • Auxiliary verbs: be (is, am, are), have, got, do
      • Particles: if, then, well, however, thus, no, not, nor, as etc.
      • Expletives: take the place of sentences, among other functions.
      • Pro-sentences: yes, okay, etc.
      • Prepositions: of, at, in, without, between
      • Pronouns: he, they, anybody, it, one
      • Determiners: the, a, that, my, more, much, either, neither
    • More fine-grained distinction
      • All grammatical morphology is “functional”
      • Bound morphemes:
      • Derivation affixes: -er. -ly, -ment etc.
      • Inflectional affixes:
      • Free morphemes:
    • What is a content word?
      • Not function word
      • open class word
      • lexical word
      • Uninflected stems are content “words”
    • Content words
      • Nouns: John, room, answer
      • Full verbs: search, grow, hold, have
      • Adjectives: happy, new, large, grey
      • Adverbs: really, completely, very, also, enough
      • Numerals: one, thousand, first
      • Interjections: eh, ugh, phew, well
      • Yes/No answers: yes, no (as answers)
    • Differences between content and function words
      • The class of function words is closed.
      • Do not easily add new words to this set.
      • English has 300 closed class words.
      • The class of content words is open.
      • New words are being added in every language
    • Differences between content and function words
      • Content words obey the minimal word constraint but function words do not.
      • Little function words: I, the, a, it, of, etc…
      • No open class words are this little!
      • Function words are acquired later than content words.
      • Question is:
      • Can we draw a sharp line between
      • content words
      • and
      • function words ?
      • Answer is:
      • NO.
      • Because, The same lexical word
      • can function
      • either content or function word
      • depending on its function in an utterance.
      • For example:
      • "I have come to see you"
      • "have" is a function word (auxiliary verb)
      • "I have three apples"
      • "have" is a content word (full verb)
      • Example:
      • "One has one's principles"
      • "one" is a function word (pronoun)
      • "I have one apple"
      • "one" is a content word (numeral)
      • Example:
      • "I have no more money"
      • "no" is a function word (a negative particle)
      • "No. I am not coming"
      • "no" is a content word (Yes/No answer)
      • Numerals are a subclass of nouns:
      • like nouns, they can take determiners
      • the two of us,
      • the first of many
      • They can even have numerals as determiners before them
      • Example,
      • “ five twos are ten”
      • twos is a plural noun
      • It has the determiner five before it.
      • Considerable overlap between the
      • determiner class and the
      • subclass of pronouns . Many words can be both:
      • Example:
      • Pronoun
      • This is a very boring book
      • That's an excellent film
      • Determiner
      • That film is excellent
      • This book is very boring
      • Determiners function in much the same way
      • as nouns and they can be replaced by nouns.
      • This is a very boring book Ivanhoe is a very boring book
      • That 's an excellent film Witness is an excellent film
      • On the other hand, when these words are determiners, they cannot be replaced by nouns :
      • This book is very boring Ivanhoe book is very boring
      • That film is excellent Witness film is excellent
      • Personal pronouns (I, you, he, etc) cannot be determiners. This is also true for possessive pronouns (mine, yours, his/hers, ours, and theirs).
      • These pronouns do have corresponding forms which are determiners:
      • Possessive Pronoun Determiner
      • The white car is mine. My car is white.
      • Yours is the blue coat. Your coat is blue.
      • The car in the garage is his/hers. His/her car is in the garage.
      • David's house is big but ours is bigger. Our house is bigger than David's.
      • Theirs is the house on the left. Their house is on the left.
      • Stressed words carry the meaning or the sense behind the sentence
      • For this reason they are called “Content Words”
      • They carry the content of the sentence
      • Unstressed words tend to be smaller words
      • Have more of a grammatical significance
      • They help the sentence “function” syntactically
      • For this reason they are called “Function Words”
      • Sometimes “Function Words” are referred to as “Structure Words”
      • For example:
      • I am talking to the clever students .
      • You’re sitting on the desk
      • but you aren’t listening to me.
      • Example 2:
      • “ No!” screamed David angrily
      • as he wiped away the tears from his face
      • and ran into his bedroom.
      • “ What’s your name and how are you today ?”
      • No w
      • Questions please
      • Thank
      • Have a good day
      • you