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  • 1. Final Research Project Urdu LanguageCourse title: - SyntaxResource person: - Nazir Ahmad Malik Sb.Submitted by: - Maqsood AhmadID # 12011084006Programme: - M. Phil (Applied Linguistics) University of Management and Technology Johar Town Lahore, Pakistan
  • 2. Introduction: -Urdu is an Indo European language of Indo Aryan family. That is widely spoken in south Asia. Itis a national language as well as lingua francaof Pakistan and one of the official languages ofIndia. It is written in a modified PersoArabic script from right to left. It has a strong influence ofArabic and Persian along with some borrowing from Turkish and English. Urdu is an SOVlanguage having fairly free word-order. It is closely related to Hindi as both originated from thedialect of Delhi region called khariboli (Masica, 1991).Hindi uses Devanagariwhile Urdu uses anextended form of the Persian script, in the Nasta`liq style.One of the main differences betweenUrdu and Hindi is that Urdu has borrowed a good deal of loanwords from Persian and Arabicwhile Hindi has drawn its vocabulary from Sanskrit and other languages. Urdu has alsoborrowed words from English and other languages; those are spoken alongside in Pakistan.Both modern Hindi and Urdu developed from New Indo Aryan vernaculars spoken in north Indiaaround the eleventh to fourteenth centuries. With the influx of Turkic and Persian speakingpeoples in the Muslim courts and armies, first under the Delhi sultanate (1192–1526) and laterunder the Mughals, Persian and Turkic words began to enter the language. Urdu began todifferentiate from the common spoken language of the area as the Zabaan-e-Urdu-e-Mualla(language of the royal camp) which developed in Delhi after the Mughal court shifted there fromAgra in 1648. Modern Urdu was first referred to as "Urdu" by the poet Mashafi (1750–1824)toward the end of the eighteenth century. Since then, Urdu and Hindi have increasinglydifferentiated over time because of both natural linguistic change and conscious attempts toshape the languages in particular by the use of quite different scripts. As the Mughal Empiredeclined, an effort was made to exclude Sanskrit words from Urdu and to increasinglyPersianizethe language. Later in the nineteenth century as Hindi and Urdu came increasingly tobe associated with religion, attempts were made to Sanskritize Hindi. Similar language planningefforts continue in the twenty first century, resulting in the present situation.Urdu grammar differs from English grammar in various ways. Urdu has grammatical gender andall Urdu nouns are masculine or feminine. Some Urdu adjectives change according to the genderof the noun they modify, while others do not. There are no definite articles in Urdu language.Like English, Urdu has transitive verbs and intransitive verbs but the difference plays a muchmore significant role in Urdu. Its also interesting to note that Urdu uses postpositions rather thanprepositions. Many people who have studied languages stop using them and as a result theyforget what they have learned.Gender system in Urdu language: -Gendersystemis linguistically defined as a system of noun classes. Urdu has a gender systemwhich has only two genders, Masculine and Feminine. Masculine is called "Muzekker" andFeminine is called "Mones" or "Muennis". There is no neutral gender but there are several words
  • 3. which can take either gender. Hindi Urdu distinguishes two genders, two numbers, and threecases of direct, oblique, and vocative. Nouns may be further divided into declensionalsubtypes.Type I has characteristic terminations in the direct singular whiletype IIdoes not. Analternative assessment of this division would be that of respectively "marked and unmarked"nouns. Most nouns are identified based on post-positions. Nouns are inflectedin number andcase. They can be singular or plural. They also inflect on gender.The Urdu POS tagger Centre forResearch on Urdu Language Processing CRULP tagsetthat successfully identifies four variationsof nouns: noun (e.g., ‫ل ڑک ا‬ladkaboy), combined noun (‫ب زاُزا ست‬bara-i-rastdirect), prepositionalnoun (‫ ,اً در‬andar, inside), and proper noun.Masculine Nouns: Nouns ending in (aa)are normally masculineDadaa: GrandfatherAbaa: FatherBakraa: Male GoatFeminine Nouns: Nouns ending in (ii)are normally feminineDadii: grandmotherBachii: girlKursi: chairThere may be some exceptions to these rules. Friend or dost could be a girlfriend or boyfriendalthough the other part of the sentence may disclose the gender.It is also possible to make a nounout of a verb. All verbs are normally masculine where used as infinitives. Some endings may beused to derive a noun from them.1. „Hat and waat may be used to make a feminine noun of a verbMuskaraana: muskrarahat2. Pan may be used to make a masculine noun of a given verbIn Urdu, all male human beings, male animals and those animals and plants which are perceivedto be "masculine" are masculine. All female human beings, female animals and those animalsand plants which are perceived to be "feminine" are feminine. Things, inanimate articles andabstract nouns are also either masculine or feminine according to convention, which must belearnt by heart by Urdu speakers. The ending of a word, if a vowel, usually helps in this genderclassification. Words if they end in ā, are normally masculine. If a word ends in ī or in, it isnormally feminine.Urdu is a weakly inflected language. Relationship of a noun in a sentence is usually shown bypostpositions.Urdu language has three cases for nouns. The direct case is used for nouns notfollowed by any postpositions, typically for the subject case. The oblique case is used for any
  • 4. noun that is followed by a postposition. Some nouns have a separate vocative case and somepeople nasalize the case ending of the vocative plural case too. Urdu has a singular andpluralnumber system. They may not be shown distinctly in all declinations.Gender of the nouns in Urdu is partly semantic, partly phonological and partly arbitrary forwhich no rules can be given to a learner to find out the gender of the noun concerned. The genderof Urdu nouns at present is a result of many historical developments.How to tell GENDER in Urdu: -There are some pointers to recognize gender in Urdu nouns. A lot of them are dependent onreading the Urdu script but it might be a little tougher in Hindi. Regular letters are used hereinstead of IPA so everyone can follow. In vowels "e" is the schwa sound (the upside down e/ə/), é is a as in "late", while "ê" is e as in "let"/. Urdu has TWO genders: the Masculine is called ,lartuen on si erehT ."sinneuM" ro "senoM" ‫ هًْ ث‬dellac si eninimeF eht dna "rekkezuM" ‫هذك ز‬however there are several words which can take either gender.THE MASCULINE GENDER: "JINS É MUZEKKER": -All Male namesFeroz (fêroz), Shehzad (šêzad), Umer (Umer), Ali (elî), Elyas (ilyas), Ahmed (êmed) etc.All nouns referring to Profession or dispositions, when referring to a male, irrespective of theendings:Danişmend- rîzeV,(trepxe) ‫ّ -داً شو ٌد‬kişA (cirelc)ْٓ ‫هْل‬îvluaM ,(nairatnemailrap‫-سٗ ز‬(relevart) ,‫(, ه ساف ز‬revol)‫ ,عا شق‬Bağî‫( ٓغاب‬traitor) etc.Nouns ending with a consonant followed by an Alifex: Lerka - adreF ,(yob) ‫ -ل ڑك ا‬aratiS ,(worromot) ‫ك ت-ف زدا‬attuK ,(ratS) ‫ س تارا‬arîH ,(god) ‫ُ ٘زا -ا‬(Gem).Nouns ending with a "ha" (ٍ) (pronounced -a) (i.e. all Farsi words ending with -é)Becca-assiQ ,(dlihc) َ‫-ب چ‬adreP ,(elat) َ‫-ق ص‬argA ,(leiv) ٍ‫ -پ زد‬eht erehw ytic eht ni sa) ٍ‫آگ ز‬TajMahal is), Derya‫( ٍٕرد‬river) etc.Nouns ending with an (nasalized N, as "n" in the French name "Chopin":Ex: Kûan-naveraK ,(llew) ‫- ك ٌْاں‬natsikaP ,(navaraC) ‫-ك ارّاں‬nazoriF ,(natsikaP) ‫-پ اك س تاں‬nadjiV,(esiouqruT) ‫ّج–ف زّساں‬Nouns ending with "û" and "o"Ex: Alû -ْ ‫( آل‬potato), Bhalû‫( ّلاٍب‬teddy bear), Pêhlû- ,(tcepsa) ْ‫پ ہ ل‬Jadû - .cte (cigam) ّ‫جاد‬Important exceptions: Arzû-ûbšuX ,(deen ,erised) ّ‫( آرس‬ecnargarf) ْ‫خ ش ب‬Nouns ending with the suffix "-penn":
  • 5. Pagelpenn -anpE,(ytinasni fo etats) ‫پ اگ ل پي‬penn - ,(gnoleb fo gnileef) ‫اپ ٌاپ ي‬Bechpenn‫(ىپچب‬childhood)Most nouns (borrowed from Arabic) which begin with the prefix "M-" of locality:Ex: Mekann‫( ىاكم‬House), Meqam‫( ماقم‬locality),Meşrik‫( قرشم‬East), Megrib‫( برغم‬West)Important exceptions: Mesjid‫( دجسم‬mosque), Mehfil‫( لفحم‬party), Menzil‫(لسىم‬destination),Mejlis‫(سلجم‬The Parliament/ or meeting)Nouns ending with the suffix "-istan" (including country names -- this can be included incategory (d) as well since "-ann" can be nasalized in proper speech):Ex: Gulistan‫( ىاتسلگ‬Garden), Hindustan ٍ‫( ىاتسدى‬India), Régistan‫(ىاتسگٕر‬Desert),Kohistan‫(ىاتسٍّك‬Mountain-Range)THE FEMININE "JINS É MUENNIS": -All female names:Shenaz (şênaz), Ayesha (Aişa), Maliha (Melîha), Feryal, Mehreen (Mêhrîn), Shaheen (şahîn) etc.And all professions OR dispositions when referring to a female, irrespective of endings:VeziréAzem- arişmeH ,(retsiniM emirP) ‫(, -ّسٗ زعاظن‬ralohcS)َ‫عال و‬amilA ,(retsis) ٍ‫ہو ش ٘ز‬Ranî‫(ٕىار‬Queen), Maulvainn‫( ىئاّلّم‬Cleric), Pailit .cte (toliP) ‫پ ائ لٹ‬All nouns ending in "-î" or "-îya" - with the exception of nationality (which could be either):Ex: şadî‫( شٓدا‬wedding), LerkîٓayiriC ,(daerb) ٔ ‫ رّٹ‬itoR ,(yrots) ٔ ً‫ك ہا‬înaheK ,(lrig) ‫چڑٗ ا ل ڑك‬(Bird) etc.All nouns ending in "-t" or "-et" or "-at"Ex: Halet‫( تلاح‬condition), Behişt‫(تشہب‬paradise), Jennet ‫( تىج‬heaven), Lanet‫( تىعل‬curse),šohret‫(ترٍش‬fame) şenaxt‫( تخاىش‬identity), reftar .cte (deeps) ‫رف ت‬Two important exceptions: Vektّ‫(تق‬time), and şerbet (eciuj) ‫شزب ت‬All nouns ending in "-gî"Ex: Zindegî‫( ٓگدىس‬Life), Bendegî‫( ٓگدىب‬Slave-hood), şaistegî (ecneuqole) ٔ‫شائ س ت گ‬All nouns ending in "-iş"Ex: Lerziş‫(شسرل‬trembling), Leğziş‫(شسغل‬faux-pas), Maliş‫(شلام‬massage), Verzişّ‫شسر‬(excercise), Daniş‫( شىاد‬knowledge) etc.Abstract nouns formed by dropping "-na" in verbs, such as in:"Mar" from "Marna" (to hit) -- Uskî mar khanaasannnehîn (to bear his beatings is not easy),"Lén-Déna" from "Léna and Déna" (to take and to give) –Uskîléndénxerabhê. (His transactionsare faulty.) etc.These rules are fairly regular but there are still a few exceptions. Moreover there are words thatlack all markers and for those a learner simply have to learn the gender, such as "kelem" (pen) is
  • 6. fem., "gher" (house) is masc., "kitab" (book) is fem. and "şaul" (shawl) is fem etc. Lastly, usuallythe same rules, as above, apply to English words used in Urdu. "Country" is feminine as it endswith the "-î" sound, "méri country yéhê" (rule: (j)), "méra radio" (rule: (e)), méra shoe (rule :(e)),"mérî varnish (rule: (j)) etc. I am surprised that the genders of Arabic loanwords are different inUrdu, such as “kitab” or “qissa”.Structural methods for Urdu gender system: -Structural methods can be used to teach the gender system of Urdu nouns. Urdu nouns haveconcord with adjectives (only with “aa” ending adjectives and that too have some exemptions),verbs and complements (subject complements or object complements).For example:AdjectivesVohacchaalarkaa h „he is a good boy.‟Vohacchiilarkii h „she is a good girl.‟Vohacchiikitab h „it is a good book.‟VerbsLarkaaaayaa „the boy came.‟Larkiiaayii „the girl came‟Kitaabaayii „the book came‟ComplementsLarkaagandaa h „the boy is dirty.‟Larkiigandii h „the girl is dirty.‟Kitaabgandii h „the book is dirty.‟ Obviously kitaab is feminine.By the usage one can learn the gender system and in due course one is accustomed with theusage to such an extent that acchaakitaab sounds odd to his/her ears and he/she say or writeonly acchiikitaab. This is exactly how Urdu is acquired as first language.Prof. V.I. Subramanian and Dr. ParameswaranPillai (1976) suggested that the plural forms canbe introduced first to the students. In Urdu masculine and feminine nouns have clear cut differentplural markers and hence by seeing the plural forms one can easily say whether the noun aremasculine or feminine. In Urdu plural markers for masculine nouns are aa and ee.For example:Singular pluralGhar house gharGharaa pot ghareeMotii pearl motiiUstad teacher aasaatiza
  • 7. Daakuu robber daakuuKitaab book kitaabeeRut season ruteenBahuu daughter in law bahueenMaalaa garland malaaeeLaarkii girl larkiaanChirya sparrow chiriyanIt is clear from this example that by seeing the singular form one cannot say which gender itbelongs to, while by seeing the plural form one can immediately say that the particular nounbelongs to masculine or feminine.Derived nouns:The gender of a derived noun can be decided easily on the basis of their suffixes. Some suffixesmake only feminine, while others make only masculine.For example:Some suffixes making masculine nounsExamplePan butchpan „childhood‟Paa burhaapaa „old age‟Some suffixes making feminine nouns.ExampleTaa sundartaa „beauty‟Aayii bhalaayii „goodness‟An jalan „burning‟ „jealousyOnce a derived noun is introduced, it can be said that all the nouns with the particular suffix areonly of the particular gender.Urdu Sentence Building: -The neutral order of the words in an Urdu sentence is SOV (Subject, Object and Verb). If thepostpositions are properly attached with nouns, the word order in Urdu becomes freer than inEnglish but not as free as in Latin or Sanskrit. Altering the word order serves to shift theemphasis of the sentence elsewhere. If the subject is a noun, the adjective may come before thenoun (in the attributive position) or between the noun and the verb (in the predicative positionbut only if the main verb is/hoːnaː/ (to be). If the subject is a pronoun, the adjective comes inthe predicative position. The space between the subject and the verb may be filled by adverbs,instrumental phrase, dative phrase, locative phrase, etc. The interrogative particles normallycome right before the word it is asking about. The word order, unlike in English, need not bereversed in a question. Yes/no questions can be formed by placing the interrogative pronoun
  • 8. /kjaː/ at the very beginning of the sentence. Question tag can be formed by placing the negativeparticle/nə/ at the end of the sentence. It often indicates making a polite request. The negativeparticle otherwise normally comes before the verb. Certain particles stress the word that followsthem immediately. For example/hiː/ (only), /bʱiː/ (also), /, /, /bʱər/, etcFor meaningful sentences, the various units of the sentence must have proximity with each other;otherwise the sentence would become ludicrous. For example if the noun is a genitive phrase theattributive adjective must come immediately before that component it wishes to quality and notnecessarily before the entire phrase.Noun, adjective and adverb phrases are common in Urdu. The head of the phrase normallycomes after the phrase‟s compliment. In a noun phrase, the possessed item comes after thepossessor. Embedded clausesare also common. For adjective clauses whether the clause isrestrictive or non-restrictive, the embedded clause is joined with the main clause by „j‟ beginningrelative pronouns (e.g. jo, jahān, jaise, etc.) and never by the corresponding, interrogativepronouns as it happens in English. Subordinate noun clauses are often linked by the conjunction/ki/ lit., that, of Persian origin.Compound sentences are usually linked by conjunctions such as /ɔːr/and, /jaː/or, /leːkin/but,/islijeː/therefore, /vərnaː/otherwise, etc. Sometimes double conjunctions are also used whereverneeded./nə/ /nə/neither…nor.Agreement: -Tiwari ([1966] 2004) lists the following rules of agreement: Between the subject and the verb: 1. If the subject is not attached with a postposition then the verb must agree in person, gender and number with the subject. Suffices to say that according to the condition, the verb is not affected even if the places of the subject and the object are reversed. e.g. (peacock, masc. sing.) (Peahen, fem. sing.) 2. If honor is to be expressed for the subject then the verb is conjugated in the plural number even if the subject is singular. The same is the case for the honorific 2nd person pronoun. 3. If the subject of the sentence consists of several words in the same gender, number and person linked with and, then the verb is in the plural form of the same gender as the subjects but if such words point to a single idea then the verb will be in singular. e.g.(dog, masc. sing.), (wolf, masc. sing.). 4. If the subject consists of multiple words of different genders but all singular then the verb will be in the masculine plural form.
  • 9. 5. If the subject consists of multiple words of different genders and different numbers then the verb will be in the plural form but of the gender of the last subject. e.g. (prince) (princesses) 6. If the gender of the subject is unknown, the verb is in masculine. e.g. (someone) Between the object and the verb: 1. If the subject is attached with any postposition (includes the accusative case for pronouns), then the verb does not agree with the subject. The verb rather agrees with the gender and the number of the object. This kind of phenomenon is called split ergativity. e.g. (dog, masc. sing.) (Breads, fem. plur.) (aunt) (Newspaper, masc. sing.) 2. It is compulsory in prec. that the object must not have any postposition. If the object also has a postposition (includes the accusative case for pronouns) then the verb will not agree with anything but simply come in the 3rd person masculine singular form (bread, fem. sing). 3. The postposition (ne) is used if and only if the verb is in one of the perfective forms.Urdu CasesForm with Morphological Effect with Examples: -Ergative‫( ً ے‬ne) Oblique + ne ‫(ک ٘ تاپ دُاال ی نے‬Ali ne kitab)pada, Ali read a book)Accusativeْ ‫( ک‬ko) Oblique + ko‫(ک ٘ تاب دٗ اال ی کو‬Ali kokitabdiya) Gave the book to Ali)Dative‫( ک ْ, ک ے‬ko,ke) Oblique + (ko, ke) Similar to accusativeInstrumental‫( سے‬se) Oblique + se ‫(ل کِاق لم سے‬qlam se likha wrote with a pen)Genitive ٔ ‫ ک ا ,ک ے,ک‬Oblique + (ka, ke, ki) ‫(ک ٘ تاب ِےال ی کا‬ka, ke, ki) (Ali kakitabhai(the bookis Ali’s)Locative‫ , ه ٘ں,پ ز ,ت ک ,ت لے‬Oblique + (main,par, ‫( ک ٘ تاب ِےت لکگ ھرم یے‬main, par, tak, tale,talak) Ghar maintak, tale, talak) kitabhai,the bookis in the house)Vocative ‫( آے‬ae) ae + Oblique or modified ‫ س ٌْ !ل ڑک و‬form of Oblique (larkho! suno boyslisten!)Nouns have nine cases: nominative, oblique, ergative, accusative, dative,instrumental,genitive,locative, and vocative. All nine cases are identifiedbased on the clitic information. Each case isprogrammed as a ruleand applied over each word token identified as a noun by the POS tagger.There are two genders in Urdu: masculine and feminine. In the above discussion genders areidentified in nouns based on letter endings. For each of therows in the above lines,caseinformation is marked based on the clitics.
  • 10. AdjectivesHumayoun[2007] account for two types of inflections in adjectives, onetype of adjective inflectsin case, number, and gender and the other inflects indegree (positive, comparative, andsuperlative). Gender information is takeninto account to mark the first type of inflection inadjectives. No inflections areassociated with the masculine form of adjectives if they do not endwith ‫( ا‬alif),for example, ‫( خْب صْرت‬khoobsurat∼beautiful). Feminine forms generally endwith‫( ی‬choti ye), for example, ‫( س لطاً ی‬sultani∼monarchic). Masculine formsend with ‫( ا‬alif) or ‫ے‬(bari ye), for example, ‫( ہ زاب ِزا‬harabara∼magnificent).In order to identify degree inflections, thephrase used before the adjectiveplays an important role.  Singular Masculine Pluralnominative/Singular oblique – if last letter isnouns ending with ((‫ ے‬bari ye) e.g. ‫ل ڑک ے‬boys‫ ))ا‬alif, ٍ choti he, ‫ ع‬aen) Plural oblique – if last letter is ((‫ّں‬un) e.g. ‫ل ڑک ْں‬Plural vocative – if last letter is (( ّva) e.g. ْ ‫ل ڑک‬  Singular Masculine Plural nominative/Singular oblique – last occurrencenouns ending with of ((‫ ا‬alif) replaced by(( ‫ ی‬choti ye)((‫اں‬an, aN) Plural oblique/Plural vocative – last occurrence of ((‫ ا‬alif)replaced by (( ‫ّں‬un) e.g. ‫ ک ٌْاں‬to ‫( ک ٌْٗ ں‬well to wells)  Singular Feminine Plural nominative added ((‫اں‬an)nouns ending with Plural vocative added (ّ va)‫ ))ی‬choti ye, y) Plural oblique added (( ‫ّں‬un)e.g. ‫ ل ڑک ی‬to ‫(ل ڑک ٘اں‬girl to girls)  Singular Feminine Plural nominative – ends with ( yyeN)nouns ending with Plural vocative - ends with (( vao) or(( ‫اں‬an)‫ ))ا‬alif,( ‫اں‬an, ( ‫ّں‬on) Plural oblique – added(( one.g. ‫ هاں‬to ‫( ٗ ں‬mother to mothers)  Singular Feminine Plural nominative – ends with (‫ ں‬nun gunna)nouns ending with Plural vocative – ends with ((ّ va)‫ )ٗ ا‬ya) Plural oblique – ends with (ّ) ‫ ں‬un)e.g. ‫ گ ڈٗ ا‬to ‫(گ ڈٗ اں‬doll to dolls)  Singular Feminine Plural nominative – ends with ((‫ٗ ں‬yye)nouns not ending with Plural oblique – ends with (ّ) ‫ ں‬un)‫ ))ا‬alif, ‫ ں‬nun gunna, Plural oblique – ends with ((ّ va)ّ vao, on, wN) e.g. ّ‫جْر‬wife  Singular Masculine Plural nominative – added ((‫ات‬at)nouns ending with Plural vocative – added ((ّ va) ‫ ))ى‬nun, ‫ار‬ar) Plural oblique – ends with ( ّ)‫ ں‬un)/(( ‫ات‬at)e.g. ‫ اح ساى‬to ْ ً‫(اح سا‬favour to favours)
  • 11.  Singular Feminine Plural nominative – added (( ‫ٗ ں‬yye)nouns ending with Plural vocative – ends with (( ّ va)‫ )ت‬te) Plural oblique – ends with ( ّ)‫ ں‬un)e.g. ‫ هح بت‬to ‫(هح ب ت ٘ں‬love to love)Intensifiers as affix phrases.  However, if the word is preceded by phrases like(bohot se, thodazyada etc.) then the degree is comparative. Affix phrases suchas (sab se, bohotzyada etc.) determine the superlative form of the word. Therules that help tomark these inflections are applied on the JJ (adjective) taggedwords only.VerbsHumayoun[2007] consider tense, mood, aspect, gender, and number inflectionsof verbs and therules take all of these factors into account. Here only the tense information is considered. Verbsare also categorized as transitive, intransitive, and causative verbs.The POS tagset which areused has two infinitive tags for verbs: VBI and VBLI.Present Verbs and Light verbs followed by Auxiliary verbs ending with ((‫,ہ ی ,ہ ے‬‫“ہ ا‬ha/hey/hey” indicate present tense. But the tense of such words can alsoindicate future basedon the actual auxiliary verbs that follow them. Hence,verbs are first checked for present tenseand later followed by the onesmentioned below. e.g. padte hey (will study), pad rahe hey (arestudying)Future Auxiliary verbs like ‫“ )) ا)گ ,گ ی,,گ ے‬ga”/“gi”/“ge” preceded by ( (( ‫/ہ ٘ي‬‫“ہ ْں‬ho”/“hon” indicate future tense with their respective gender informationbeingmasculine/feminine/masculine e.g. baarish ho gi (it will rain)Past The past tense of a verb is indicated by the presence of adverbs likeٖ ‫“ ))ں ہ ْ /ى ہ‬ho/hon”followed by aspectual auxiliary verbs ending with ((‫“ )ی‬ye”.Also the presence of tense auxiliaryverbs like ((‫“_ت ِا /ت ِی تت‬tha/thi/they”indicates activity of the past.e.g. padtithi (was ‫/ت‬studying)Imperfective Light verbs or verbs like (‫“ )ّت ا ہ /ہ ْت ے /ہ ْت ی‬hota/hote/hotey”and‫“ ))الت ا/الت ے/الت ی‬lata/late/latey” indicate imperfective tense.e.gkitablatey they (wasgetting the book)Perfective Auxiliary verbs like ( ‫“ )ہ ْا /ہ ْئ ے ت تت‬hua/hui/hue” indicate events of thepast but ‫/ت‬give a transition to either the present or the future. Such wordsindicate perfective tense.e.g.woghussahua (he got angry)1 Most infinitive verbs that end with “nna” indicate either infinitive transitive orintransitiveverbs with words that end with “nne” to be oblique. e.g. banna (become)
  • 12. 2 Most infinitive verbs that end with “nana” indicate infinitive direct causative and“nane”indicate oblique direct causative. e.g. banana (to make, to become)3 Most infinitive verbs that end with “wana” indicate infinitive indirect causativeand “wane”oblique indirect causative.e.g. banwana (to get done)VBI is used to indicate the infinitive form of verbs and VBLI to indicate theinfinitive form oflight verbs: These two tags play a very important role inmarking infinitive inflections for verbs.PronounsPronouns inflect in number, person, gender, and case. But these inflections arenot regular andsometimes may show no inflections. Hence developing generalizedrules for pronoun inflectionsis difficult. But Humayoun [2007] havecompiled case by case rules to handle pronoun inflectionsbased on the mostcommon pronouns.Personal pronouns such as (ٍّ/ ‫“ )ه ٘ں /ہ ن /ت ْ /ت ن /آپ /ٗ ے‬mein/hum/tu/tum/ap/ye/wo” are knownto inflect in case and number. Clearly, words like “mein, meand hum”we indicate first personwith “mein” being first person singular andhum first person plural. Pronouns like “tu” you and“tum”you are second personwith “tu” indicating a very casual relation and “tum” a familiarrelation. “ap” you is second person indicating a respectful relation. “ye”him or this indicatesthird person near relation and “wo”him or that indicates third person distantrelation. Caseinflections for each of these pronouns are determined based onthe word endings and casemarkers that follow. The details can be found inHumayoun [2006]. Person information for thesepronouns playsa very significant role in anaphoric resolution.Conclusion: -With the help of above discussion it is concluded that the gender system of every language has agreat influence on each and every native speaker and if someone uses even a single prepositionor postposition wrongly, the native speaker will catch it at once.Urdu is a national language as well as lingua francaof Pakistan. Urdu grammar differs fromEnglish grammar in various ways. Urdu has grammatical gender and all Urdu nouns aremasculine or feminine. There are no definite articles in Urdu language. Like English, Urdu hastransitive verbs and intransitive verbs but the difference plays a much more significant role inUrdu. Its also interesting to note that Urdu uses postpositions rather than prepositions.Urdu has agender system which has only two genders, Masculine and Feminine. Masculine is called"Muzekker" and Feminine is called "Mones" or "Muennis". There is no neutral gender but thereare several words which can take either gender.Urdu distinguishes two genders, two numbers,and three cases of direct, oblique, and vocative.
  • 13. In Urdu, all male human beings, male animals and those animals and plants which are perceivedto be "masculine" are masculine. All female human beings, female animals and those animalsand plants which are perceived to be "feminine" are feminine. Things, inanimate articles andabstract nouns are also either masculine or feminine according to convention, which must belearnt by heart by Urdu speakers.REFERENCES: -ADAFRE, S. F. AND RIJKE, M. 2006. Finding similar sentences across multiple languages inWikipedia. In Proceedings of the Conference of the European Chapter of ACL Workshop on NewText-Wikis and Blogs and Other Dynamic Text Sources (ACL’06).AGI, ˇ Z., DOVEDAN, Z., AND TADI, M. 2008. Improving part-of-speech tagging accuracy forCroatian by morphological analysis.Informatica 32, 445–451.AHMAD, Z., ORAKZAI, J. K., SHAMSHER, I., AND ADNAN, A. 2007. Urdu nastaleeq characterrecognition. In Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology(WASET’07). Vol. 26.AHMED, T. 2009. Roman to Urdu transliteration using word list. In Proceedings of the Conferenceof Language and Technology (CLT’09).AHN, D., JIJKOUN, V., MISHNE, G., MULLER, K., RIJKE, M., AND SCHLOBACH, S. 2004. UsingWikipedia at the TREC QA track.InProceedings of the Text Retrieval Conference (TREC’04).AL-ONAIZAN, Y. AND KNIGHT, K. 2002.Machine transliteration of names in Arabic text.InProceedings of the ACL Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages (CASL’02).ALI, A. R. AND IJAZ, M. 2009.English to Urdu transliteration system. In Proceedings of theConference of Language and Technology (CLT’09).AROONMANAKUL, W. 2002. Collocation and Thai word segmentation. In Proceedings ofInternational Workshop on Spanish Language Processing and Language Technologies and InternationalCommittee for the Co-ordination and Standardisation of Speech Databases and Assessment Techniques(SNLP-COCOSDA’07).AVINESH, P. AND KARTHIK, G. 2007.Part of speech tagging and chunking using conditional randomfields and transformation-based learning.InProceedings of the Workshop on Shallow Parsing for SouthAsian Languages (IJCAI’07).21–24.AWASTHI, P., RAO, D., AND RAVINDRAN, B. 2006. Part of speech tagging and chunking with HMMand CRF. In Proceedings of the NLPAI Machine Learning Competition.BABYCH, B. AND HARTLEY, A. 2003.Improving machine translation quality with automatic namedentity recognition. In Proceedings of Workshop on Machine Translation and other Language TechnologyTools (EAMT/EACL’03). 1–8.ACMTransactions on Asian Language Information Processing, Vol. 9, No. 4, Article 15, Pub.date:December 2010.BAIDSY, F., HIRSCHBERG, J., AND FILATOVA, E. 2008. An unsupervised approach to biographyproduction using Wikipedia. In Proceedings of the 46th Annual Meeting of the Association forComputational Linguistics (ACL’08).BHARATI, A., SANGAL, R., CHAITANYA, V., KULKARNI, A., SHARMA, D.M., ANDRAMAKRISHNAMACHARYULU,K. V. 2002. AnnCorra: building tree-banks in Indian languages. In Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop onAsian Language Resources and International Standardization of the Association of ComputationalLinguistics (ALR’02). 12, 1–8.BHARATI, A., SHARMA, D. M., BAI, L., SANGAL, R., AND IIIT, H. 2006.AnnCorra: Annotatingcorpora guidelines for POS and chunk annotation for Indian language. Tech. rep. LanguageTechnologies Research Centre, IIIT, Hyderabad.BHATT, R., NARASIMHAN, B., PALMER, M., RAMBOW, O., SHARMA, D. M., AND XIA, F. 2009.
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