Whether or not Computer Assisted Language Teaching
(CALT) offers wide range of accessories to ESL teachers to
exploit language teaching, such as:
A) CALT (Computer Assisted Language Teaching)
offers a wide range of possibilities; such as motivation,
critical thinking, learners’ autonomy, mixed-ability class,
interactivity and cross-cultural exposure.
B) CALT empowers the learners to be in charge of their
Resource person: - Sir Muhammad Shaban
Presented by: - Maqsood Ahmad
ID No: - 090418002
Program: - MSC (applied Linguistics)
University of Management and Technology
Johar Town, Lahore, Pakistan
The Internet is a technological development that has the potential to change not only the way
society retains and accesses knowledge but also to transform and restructure traditional models
of higher education, particularly the delivery and interaction in and with course materials and
associated resources. Utilising the Internet to deliver eLearning initiatives has created
expectations both in the business market and in higher education institutions. Indeed, eLearning
has enabled universities to expand on their current geographical reach, to capitalize on new
prospective students and to establish themselves as global educational providers. This paper
examines the issues, “Whether or not Computer Assisted Language teaching (CALT) offers
wide range of accessories to ESL teachers to exploit language teaching. Data was searched from
the internet and qualitative method was adopted to analyze the data. During the analyses focus
was on the implementation of eLearning into higher education, including the structure and
delivery of higher education, the implications to both students and teachers and the global impact
In modernized areas of the world, almost every aspect of people’s lives is affected in some way
by computers. The development of information Technology has permeated the application of
computers in the learning process, which is generally known as Computer Assisted Learning
(CAL). A computer as a medium or a tool is used for the sake of facilitating people in learning a
language. It is powerless and totally dependent on the users. It is an intermediary and merely a
part of the entire learning process.
Computer Assisted Language Teaching (CALT) is an approach in which computer technology is
used as an aid to presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually
including a substantial interactive element. CALT studies the role and the use of Information and
Communication Technologies in second or foreign language teaching. It includes a wide range of
activities spanning materials and courseware development pedagogical practice and research.
Typical CALL programs present a stimulus to which the learner must respond. The stimulus may
be presented in any combination of text, still images, sound, and motion video. The learner
responds by typing at the keyboard, pointing and clicking with the mouse, or speaking into a
microphone. The computer offers feedback indicating, whether the learner’s response is right or
wrong and in the more sophisticated CALL programs, attempting to analyse the learner’s
response and to pinpoint errors. Branching to help and remedial activities is a common feature of
Computers have been a feature of teaching of Modern Foreign Languages since the 1960s in
higher education and since the early 1980s in secondary education. Early CALT favoured an
approach that drew heavily on practices associated with programmed instruction. This was
reflected in the term Computer Assisted Language Instruction (CALI) which originated in the
USA and was in common use until the early 1980s when CALT became the dominant term.
Throughout the 1980s CALT widened its scope, embracing the communicative approach and a
range of new technologies especially multimedia and communications technology.
For many years foreign language teachers have used the computer to provide supplemental
exercises. In recent years advances in computer technology have motivated teachers to reassess
the computer and consider it a valuable part of daily foreign language learning. Innovative
software programs, authoring capabilities, compact disk technology and elaborate computer
networks are providing teachers with new methods of incorporating culture, grammar, and real
language use in the classroom while students gain access to audio, visual, and textual
information about the language and the culture of its speakers.
Strengths of Computer: -
Interactivity is a crucial strength of the new technology. The computer is interactive, by virtue of
the fact that user can gain control over learning and therefore becomes an active participant in
the learning process. Interactivity also allows the instant feedback from the computer. The
interactivity of the computer makes it especially suited for implementing learner centered
Multimedia should be considered truly revolutionary for language pedagogy. The new
technology really shines in its presentation of form and meaning. The sound and graphic
capabilities of the computer not only have improved presentation. They have also made possible
what conventional textbooks cannot do. Digitized audio has made possible the modeling of
pronunciation. The teaching of characters’ stroke order and direction has taken a giant step
forward from the cumbersome representation on paper to the animated demonstration formerly
achievable only with a human instructor. Still or animated graphics for illustrating meanings and
speech production may both educate and entertain.
Random and rapid access allows the instant retrieval of vocabulary and grammar explanations. It
also contributes to easy learner control and recycling of materials. The computer’s ability to store
and manipulate data also makes it possible to keep scores, log errors and track learner
performance. The consistency and patience of computer is not only crucial for learning by
association and repeated exposure, without the possible ill effects of an over bearing human
teacher, patient and interactive computer can provide a very user friendly and learner centered
In addition to the above mentioned general characteristics digital speech technology in particular
has enabled the graphic display of the relevant acoustic properties of speech such as amplitude,
pitch level and frequency composition.
Weaknesses of Computer: -
Educators and syllabus designers must be very critical of software programs that they are using
in their teaching contexts. A program may look very good the first few times but perhaps it does
not have sufficient dynamic visual qualities to assure that it will be effective in teaching the
target material. Users may quickly tire of the spinning characters, lights and whistles. The
content and methodology of the program has to be the principal rationale in choosing a CALT
Discussion: - CALT offers a wide range of possibilities; such as,
Many educators indicate that the current computer technology has many advantages for second
language teaching. The following advantages are stated by many experts:
Interest and motivation: - Classical language teaching in classroom can be monotonous, boring,
and even frustrating and students can loose interest and motivation in learning. CALT
programmers can provide student ways to learn English through computer games, animated
graphics, and problem solving techniques which can make drills more interesting (Ravichandran
2000). CALT allows learners to have non sequential learning habit. They can decide on their
own which skills to develop and which course to use as well as the speed and level by their own
A compatible learning style: - Students have different style of learning and an incompatible
style for students will cause serious conflicts to them. CALT can provide an exciting “fast” drill
for one student and “slow” for another. The time flexibility of using computer enables students to
choose appropriate timing for learning. Winter (1997) in Kiliçkaya (2007) stressed the
importance of flexible learning. Learning anywhere, anytime, anyhow, and anything you want
which is very true for the web based instruction and CALT. Learners are given a chance to study
and review the materials as many times they want without limited time.
Immediate feedback: - Students receive maximum benefit from feedback only if it is given
immediately. A delayed positive feedback will reduce the encouragement and reinforcement and
a delayed negative feedback affect the crucial knowledge a student must master. CALT can give
instant feedback and help the students ward off his misconception at the very first stage. Brown
(1997) in Kiliçkaya (2007) listed the advantages of CALT as giving immediate feedback,
allowing students at their own pace and causing less frustration among students.
Error analysis: - Computer database can be used by teacher to classify and differentiate the type
of general error and error on account of the influence of the first language. A computer can
analyze the specific mistakes that students made and can react in different way from the usual
teacher which make students able to make self correction and understand the principle behind the
correct solution. (Ravichandran, 2007)
Guided and repetitive practice: - Students have freedom of expression within certain bounds that
programmers create such as grammar, vocabulary etc. They can repeat the course they want to
master as many as they wish. According to Ikeda (1999) in Kiliçkaya (2007) drill type CALL
materials are suitable for repetitive practices which enable students to learn concepts and key
elements in a subject area.
Pre-determined to process syllabus:- Computer enhances the learning process from a pre-
determined syllabus to an emerging or process syllabus. For example a monotonous paper
exercise of “fill in the blanks” type can be made more exciting on the screen in the self access
mode and students can select their own material. Therefore CALT facilitates the synthesis of the
pre planned syllabus and learner syllabuses “through a decision making process undertaken by
teacher and learners together” (Breen 1986 in Ravichandran 2000).
Critical thinking: -
Classroom Discussion and Debates: - Classroom discussion and debates can promote critical
thinking. Students are challenged to deal with the tension between the two arguments. This
tension is believed to be one component driving critical thought. Controversial issues in
psychology can ask to search, present and discuss. Students will respond favorably and as the
class will progress over time, they will report being more comfortable arguing both sides of an
In CALT a negotiation model could be employed to discuss certain topics, such as the use of heat
versus ice or the use of ultrasound versus electric stimulation in the treatment of an injury.
Students could be assigned to defend the use of a certain treatment with the help of computer or
internet research. Debate and observing the reasoning skills of another person can be used to
promote Critical Thinking. Students can be paired and reasoning tasks are administered. One
student performs an evaluation while the others in the class observe. Classroom discussion can
Another alternative is to divide students into pairs. One student performs an evaluation while the
other observes. After the evaluation is completed, the students discuss with each other the
evaluation. While observing, the student can write down any questions or topics to discuss after
the evaluation, providing the student an opportunity to ask why certain evaluation methods were
and were not used.
Written Assignments: - In class and out of class searching from internet assignments can also
serve as powerful vehicles to allow students to expand their thinking processes. Emig believed
that involving students in searching serves their learning uniquely because search, as process and
product, possesses a cluster of attributes that correspond uniquely to certain powerful learning
strategies. As a general rule, assignments for the purpose of promoting thought should be short
and focus on the aspect of thinking.
Fopma Loy and Ulrich identified various critical thinking classroom exercises. Educators can
implement to promote higher order thought. Many incorporate a personal reaction from the
student and allow the student to link that learning to his or her feelings. This personal reaction of
feelings to cognitive information is important to show the relevance of material.
CALT has much to offer English language teachers and will have more to offer in the future.
One of the advantages of CALT is that, it offers a powerful self access facility that helps to
generate autonomous learners who will experience freedom of choice. The tools that learners
find in computers allow them to assume mastery of their own learning experience. Students can
call up the programs held by computers whenever they want besides these computers are
sensitive to the learner’s level of proficiency. This advantage can also be seen as a disadvantage,
since many teachers may consider that computers are undertaking functions that should be
performed by trained teachers. Teachers can customise any CALL program to the syllabus or
course design that they are using to increase the level of proficiency in students. Computers are
useful in group activities as well as in imparting individualised instruction, which is rarely
possible in a traditional classroom.
By using CALL method the students will not only learn more number of words but also the
usage of those words as well. The advantage of using CALL method is that they can do the entire
study skill activity at their own pace and time using their own learning styles and strategies. Also
CALL with language teaching provides the learner with an opportunity to become part of the
skills. They are learning and address their subject related issues by the study skills approach.
Having introduced to CALL method of learning at the tertiary level, the learners will continue
the exercise of study skills approach and achieve distinctive mastery in their subjects when they
come to their higher semesters.
There are no limitations with regard to practice sessions or time. Students can have as many
practice sessions as they wish, repeat the tasks any number of times to acquire mastery and select
the material according to their individual requirements. Thus the computer is an efficient learner
centered device. Teachers in language classes give students exercises to write. Students most
often do not revise or correct the scripts immediately even though they are incorrect. The
computer helps to reduce this handicap. CALL software has tutorial modes, which help the
students explore the correct answers and learn from the errors they make.
As computers can store, access and analyse more data than books they create a technology
enabled exciting learning environment. Computers maximize learning opportunities for their
students. A question that we should analyse in relation to the implementation of computers in
English language teaching is, “What is the kind of environment that is going to be created by
means of the computer?” It is considered that the creation of autonomous learners should not be
associated to the concept of human alienation. The CALT classroom should not be conceived as
a room in which every learner is studying in isolation in front of his or her computer. Teachers
must think of activities that enable group work, student’s interaction and computers to be
compatible. Otherwise students as social beings will be replaced by men as alienated computer
Reasons for Diversity: - Students come from different cultural backgrounds so they have
different eating, talking and living habits. Next cause of diversity is school education. Students
with government run school background carry the feeling that they are inferior to private school
students. They sometime also differ in their approaches. Students from big cities or metros are
more extroverts and open up easily than the students from small towns. They readily accept
challenges while students from small towns hesitate to mix with others. Personal interests,
grasping capacity, learning ability, etc are some of the other reasons that create diversity among
students. All this adds to the challenge for the teacher to face in providing every student an
opportunity to learn in his or her own way and at his or her own pace.
How can a teacher overcome Mixed Diversity? - Proceeding further, if diversity cannot be
avoided, what should be the next step of a teacher? Could it be an effort of coming out with
homogeneous classes or to find out ways to handle heterogeneous classes? It is felt that coming
out with homogeneous class is just a myth and heterogeneous classes should be more welcomed
as they provide more than one answer, perspective or solution to any existing issues or problems.
They are the ones that actually help a teacher to extract highest potential of the students. Looking
at the inevitability of the heterogeneous classes, a teacher should work upon the ways through
which he can handle diversity in an effective way.
A teacher must first of all realize that learners will vary in their readiness, learning profiles,
interests, etc. So, it becomes the duty of a teacher to plan a lesson that aims at essential
understanding of the subject and is mentally prepared to use different ways, contents, and
products in the class. Another challenge on teacher’s part will be to introduce the content in such
a way that students do not realize that they are being differentiated. The challenge over here
could be fulfilled only when teachers will come out from the conventional image of a tutor being
a dictator to a friend or a facilitator. Denise De Fiore, a teacher at a new middle school in Silver
Spring, MD, USA rightly points out, “It’s more engaging for a teacher, too. It takes a different
kind of energy than direct instructions”
Pedagogy for the Situation: - Coming on to the teaching pedagogy in such kind of classes’
teachers can move in a strategic manner. There can be two stages of working for the task:
First stage involves certain task at teacher’s level where students are not aware that they are
being judged. This task can be accomplished by the teachers by following the steps suggested by
Mary Ann Hess:
1) Keeping the focus on the concepts, emphasizing understanding and sense making, not
retention and regurgitation of fragmented facts
2) Using ongoing assessment of readiness and interests, and pre assess to find students needing
more support and those who can leap forward. They don’t assume all students need a certain
3) Make grouping flexible. They let students work alone sometimes and also in groups based
on readiness, interest and learning styles. They use whole group instruction for introducing
ideas, planning and sharing results.
4) See themselves as a guide. They help students set goals based on readiness, interest and
learning profiles- and assess based on growth and goal attainment.
Use of Androgogy: - Just opposed to pedagogy teacher can plan to introduce andragogy (the
methods of techniques used to teach adults) where he give students liberty to have their own
methods to learn, connecting their own experiences in the learning process. Teacher gives
chance to the students to think actively about what they learn. They are given chance to discuss
and dispute which help them seeking out information on their own. Given a chance they very
readily come out sharing their original experiences with their classmates.
Implementation of the Strategy: - The next stage involves implementation of the strategy in the
class amongst students. Before implementing teacher should remember that knowledge
acquisition processes for today’s students have changed. We have to be very cautious while
implementing the strategies in the class. We have to create a conducive learning environment,
which takes into account the complexity, diversity and strengths of the students and for that there
should be ample opportunities for students to discover their own strength and talents to learn in a
productive and effective way and develop their creative and critical thinking as well.
Role of a Teacher in such kind of classes: - Important task for teachers in such kind of classes
should be to create and manage tasks and activities which will empower students overall
learning, both inside and outside. Teachers will have to work hard on their facilitation skills so
that they can motivate students to learn on their own and get efficient enough to apply what they
have learnt in their daily life. They should focus on enabling right level of dialectic in the class
and making the students come out with real discussion. This also follows that good preparation
on the part of teacher is also expected. They should be well prepared with the activities well
chosen, cases carefully researched, etc.
The teachers should learn the art of stimulating the discussions on the right track by asking
questions, by summarizing what has been said and moving the discussion on to a higher level or
closing it down as appropriate. Most important thing that teachers should take care of is to
create a relaxed and accepting environment where students can come out with their own ideas
without hesitation even if it is something controversial or radical. They should learn to not only
listen patiently to the students specially those who are introvert and speak less but also encourage
them by appreciating and praising.
Some Methods to Cope with the Problems of Mixed Ability Students: -
1. Caring for Students: - This is a tool to deal with students of mixed ability classes.
Sometimes, by the behavior, teacher envelope themselves with a certain kind of attitude which
forces students to recoil them in their shells and they are afraid to approach the teacher. Teacher
should give more time to interact with them when they work in groups. He takes care to discuss
not only academic matter but also life in general. He also takes care of students’ absence from
the class and reverts back to them to know their well being. In this way he tries to develop a
relationship which is expected to go even after they leave the institute. This method helps those
students who find it difficult to adjust to open up with their problems. They feel more free and
out pour their problems which in some or the other way hindering their active participation in the
class and in turn effecting their overall outcome.
2. Case Based Learning: - Teacher should present the material facts and ask the students to
discuss in groups. Each group is divided in a way that it carries a mixture of students with
different calibers. Students are asked to encourage less speaking friends to speak amongst
themselves. They are expected to come prepared for the session by doing the necessary reading.
Teachers also do their part by selecting the materials, facts and issues. They also structure some
questions based on the facts provided to the students. Students are left free to come out with
assumptions. Teachers on the backstage of mind has this that they will encourage students with
less abilities in comparison to others, without making them feel that they are doing it. The
teacher is also clear on his or her part that he or she is not there to teach but to facilitate the
discussion and see that it is going in right direction.
3. Dealing with different problem areas at a time: - One example of mixed ability class is
writing skills. Variations in students capabilities differ as few are good at content but are lacking
at accuracy, somewhere good at grammar structures but lack in organization and cohesion. A
teacher can convert the class into workshop mode where the learners are asked to draft letters or
stories in the class itself. Then the teacher can reach at every ones place to discuss what they
have written pointing out the areas that they lack in their writings which they drafted. On spot
feedback help them to make improvements in those areas. But in the process a teacher should
never forget to praise strong areas also which in turn make them confident and they accept their
weak areas willingly. This method prove very successful for teacher as slowly in the latter stages
he observes that he is able to pick up weak areas of every individual student and help them
overcome those areas finally leading to an overall improvement in their writing skills.
4. Group Presentations: - A teacher can ask his students to prepare group presentations. Each
group consists of 3 to 4 students. The teacher can randomly pick up a student to present his or
her group and provide answers or explanation. If the presenter is unable to answer or explain the
whole group is considered as a failure. Such kind of activities compel students to work together,
encourages better students to help weaker students and pressure of group members make even
dull students work for the team.
5. Simulation and Role Play: - Conducting simulation and role play also helped the teacher in
coping up with mixed ability classes. A very recently introduced theater technique in the classes
where students are first divided into groups then they are provided with the theme which they
have to act in front of the class. Making the students work in through this technique helps them
to open up with each other. Team spirit forces the students with strong abilities to encourage
their friends with lesser abilities to participate. This technique helps out largely in refining
nonverbal of the students and is highly appreciated by them.
Reading: - Reading is difficult for "unskilled" learners, so it is important to familiarize students
with the different contexts, genres, and texts that they are likely to read on the Internet. One of
the most obvious, yet important, tips is for teachers to choose appropriate Web sites and reading
texts emphasize the vocabulary, and help students to understand the salient lexical and
grammatical forms in online texts such as glossaries, corpora, tutorials, and dictionaries. Finally
explicit teaching is better than simply letting the students sink or swim in their own reading, a
criticism of those approaches that emphasize textual input alone may be sufficient to learn a
language (Krashen, 2006). The CD-ROM demonstrates and Include evaluation of learners'
comprehension and language knowledge by showing how a learner completes a reading quiz,
submits responses, and checks the score. In the simulation, select CALL materials with
appropriate reading texts, the user chooses a reading topic and a story, looks at two versions of
the story, and tries a variety of grammar learning activities, games, writing short answers and so
on. Certainly, it is not difficult to understand the importance of free reading in language learning
and the Internet is an abundant source of reading input that usually may or may not require direct
instruction, which appears to be the key aspect of teaching and learning. Call activities make it
easy to find texts that are at the appropriate level of difficulty, perhaps it is the texts that make
the CALL activities valid and valuable for learning.
Writing: - How important writing has become in our daily lives for professional and non-
professional communication, for example, through e-mail. A list of software and online
programs that help students write and contextualize their work according to genre, purpose, and
audience. The CD-ROM demonstration addresses, "Help learners to develop their writing
strategies,” use the “Daedalus” Integrated Writing Environment, in which a learner chooses a
topic to write about, answers questions about the topic, and begins an essay with a pre writing
activity. The simulation on the CD-Rom ask a student to select appropriate writing texts as
models with “WriteFix” explores arguments for an essay, examines organization and
paragraphing, and look at a complete model essay for transition words or phrases. A positive
aspect of presentation of Web sites is that it can assist learners in the process of editing and
monitoring their writing. This may be one of the most useful activities because these Web sites
can make students more aware of the importance of editing and monitoring their own language
Listening: - Listening as a constructive process that "involves decoding, comprehension and
interpretation" and requires the speaker's attention and knowledge to achieve understanding in
real time. Select appropriate listening materials, teachers should look for those that have "already
been categorized by level relevance to the ESL learner, and that pre-listening activities intended
to activate student's background knowledge", as well as top down and bottom up activities.
Teachers should also help students to develop autonomy in choosing materials themselves. Using
videos to enrich listening activities and provide examples to help improve the quality of teaching
listening. On the CD-Rom, teachers provide learners with opportunities for selective listening
activities based on what they are hearing and offers a demonstration of Planet English in which a
student reads the instructions for a listening activity while paying attention to a specific piece of
information, and then writes a personal note using that information. The simulation shows a
cultural activity video and writing a personal note.
Speaking and Pronunciation: - Internet is a convenient tool for obtaining speaking and
pronunciation input because language learners can use it autonomously. The authors also suggest
that the Internet makes students more confident about their speaking skills because practice is not
subject to in classroom anxiety from which some less confident students may suffer. Computers
can also be used to complete dialogues, thereby possibly increasing fluency because automaticity
of oral language develops through oral practice and interaction with the computer. Software that
provides visual feedback and plots the learner's speech signal on the screen, Use Tell Me More to
provide opportunities for oral practice through interaction with the computer, a student simulates
a chat with a computer program. More interesting practice is presented in, "Evaluate learners'
performance and provide feedback" in this software program for phonology development, the
user listens to a video monologue, segments the pauses in a text, checks the answers, records his
or her voice, and obtains feedback from the computer. In short, teachers who want to place
special emphasis on pronunciation, or those non-native speakers who feel that their speech is not
a good source of accurate pronunciation input, may find excellent ideas on the teaching of
pronunciation, which often tends to be neglected. The main problem with pronunciation is that
the current software tends to adopt one accent at the time say, British, American, or Australian.
Communication skills: - Communication skills, conveys that technology is an important part of
normal communication for students today and those students learn to communicate through
communicating. Among the pros of Internet communication, ability to speak to people in distant
locations can give students extra motivation. Challenges for teachers to design activities that
promote both synchronous and asynchronous communication and reflective conversations that
go beyond mere social interaction, pen pal Web sites, messenger forums or chat spaces can fulfill
this goal, supported by online tutorials, dictionaries, and other resources. The CD-Rom
demonstration presents online chat (using Microsoft Windows Live Player) while the practice
yourself section deals with how to contact and work with e-pals (online pen pals) through Web
sites like Linguistic Funland TESL Pen Pal Center.
Learning outcomes: - CALL is used as an additional component to enhance language teaching.
Students who have experienced the CALL activities described while studying English are likely
to develop the types of strategies and habits and possible risks of using the Internet, such as
plagiarism, criminal uses of the Web, technical problems with equipment and software, and
varying levels of teacher familiarity with computers. In addition Internet as a source of readings,
podcasts and contextualized materials to obtain specific information for teaching languages for
the professions as well as English for Specific Purposes (ESP) online materials can be seen on
the CD-ROM. The CD-ROM demonstration provides an example of an activity that explicitly
teaches field specific language for example medicine. A cartoon of a doctor patient interaction at
Englishmed.com can be seen. In the CD simulation, the user listens to a conversation between
two business people, fills in a sales chart, and consults the conversation transcript and a glossary,
followed by a cloze test activity.
Cross Cultural Exposure:-
CALT improves the cross culture exposure. It gives so many chances to the students to interact
through out the world. Learners’ language is the written or spoken language produced by a
learner. It is also the main type of data used in CALT. Much research in CALT is concerned with
the internal representations of a language in the mind of the learner, and in how those
representations change over time. It is not yet possible to inspect these representations directly
with brain scans or similar techniques, so SLA researchers are forced to make inferences about
these rules from learners' speech or writing. There are a number of different ways of gathering
and interpreting learner language. Researchers may adopt an interlanguage perspective,
regarding each learner language as a language in its own right, or they may study how a learner
language compares to a natively spoken language. Much of the research has focused on the
English language as the language being learned, because of the huge number of people around
the world learning and teaching it.
B) CALT empowers the learners to be in charge of their own learning.
Humans are designed to be flexible learners and active agents in acquiring knowledge and skills.
Learning is a basic adaptive function of humans and much of what people learn occurs without
formal instruction (Brown, Bransford et al. 1999). A pertinent example of this is the mobile (cell)
phone phenomenon. Most especially teenagers have no problems learning the intricacies of
making a call, sending a text message or installing a ringtone from the internet. Formal courses
in mobile telephony are not needed, most people learn what is required for their immediate needs
and the community of learners ensure that new knowledge not only about the complexity of the
handset but also about the practices of the mobile phone companies is passed on. However when
it comes to systematic and highly organised information systems such as reading, mathematics,
science, literature and history formal training, usually in what it is we think we know about how
people learn (Brown, Bransford et al. 1999).
Learning in schools is traditionally dominated and controlled by adults. Students seldom make
decisions about their own learning (Goodlad, 1984). Even though our philosophies of education
purport to graduating students who are responsible citizens capable of participating thoughtfully
in a democracy and our educational practices have a tendency to foster dependence, passivity
and a "tell me what to do and think" attitude.
Students are in charge of their own learning: - A touchstone of CALT learning is that students
are in charge of their own learning. Essentially, they direct their own learning processes. CALT
empowers the student's ability to shape and manage change, in other words, self directed.
A CALT teacher can nurture student self direction and personal efficacy by providing students
with opportunities before, during and after instruction to exercise some control of their own
learning. This does not mean students make all the decisions. An emphasis on student self
direction and efficacy means that a teacher can teach and engage students in specific strategies
that offer them opportunities to make decisions and solve problems on their own without being
told what to do at all times. It means CALT provide them with strategies designed to help them
process information effectively and to be self confident, believing that they have the abilities to
succeed and perhaps most important, CALT help students become more reflective about their
thinking and learning processes. Specific strategies of CALT can provide include encouraging
students to set their own goals for personal development and instructional improvement, and
planning ways to achieve these goals.
According to Hom and Murphy (1983): "A growing body of research indicates that when
students are working on goals they themselves have set, they are more motivatived and efficient,
and they achieve more than they do when working on goals that have been set by the teacher" (p.
In some situations, students may require extra guidance from teachers in order to self direct their
learning. CALT Types of guidance include helping students develop an awareness of their
beliefs about their abilities and about their role in choosing to learn or choosing not to learn.
In traditional classrooms the teacher is seen as the information giver. Knowledge flows only one
way from teacher to student. In contrast, the methods used in a CALT classroom emphasize
shared knowledge and decision making. The teacher has the knowledge of content, skills, and
instruction but values the contribution students can make. The personal experiences, prior
knowledge, and cultural background they bring to the learning experience are used as a basis for
instruction. CALT teaching requires teachers to share authority with students allowing them a
voice in setting goals, deciding on activities, etc.
After this search it is concluded that without empowering the students CALT is not so effective.
Teacher role in CALT should be only a facilitator. CALT is so much effective that it must be
introduced in all institutions of Pakistan. Pakistan as a developing country can gain so much
development through this teaching strategy.
Breland,H.M. 1996. Computer-assisted writing assessment: The politics of science versus the
humanities. New-York: Modern Language Association of America.
Esteras,S.R. 2003. English for computer users. Infotech: Third edition. Cambridge University.
EUROCALL – http://www.eurocall-languages.org/
Hartoyo, Ma, Ph.D. 2006. Individual Differences in Computer Assisted Language Learning
(CALL). Semarang: Universitas Negeri Semarang Press.
History of CALL - http://www.history-of-call.org/
Kiliçkaya, Ferit. 2007. The Effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning on Turkisk
Learners’ Achievement on The TOEFL Exam.
(Mary Anne Hess, http://www.weac.org/Home/Parents_Community/differ.aspx
Longman English Interactive www.esl.net/englishinteractive_34.html
Adult Learning Activities www.cdlponline.org/ http://www.planetenglish.com
(DIWE 7) www.daedalus.com www.writefix.com/ www.tellmemore.com
Connected Speech, http://www.masterspokenenglish.com/index.html