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Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
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Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology

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The MAPPA - Methodologies Applied to the Predictivity of Archaeological Potential – project (University of Pisa) is a research project aimed at the creation of a replicable predictive model of a map …

The MAPPA - Methodologies Applied to the Predictivity of Archaeological Potential – project (University of Pisa) is a research project aimed at the creation of a replicable predictive model of a map of archaeological potential in an urban area. The starting point has been a well‐organized data archive, so the research group focused on developing a webGIS and the Open Data application. The webGIS (MAPPAgis) offers the archaeological information layer, the building archaeology layers, the historical mapping layer and the geomorphological layer. The optimization of MAPPAgis is intrinsically linked to the MOD (MAPPA Open Data), the first Italian archaeological open data archive, that collects datasets of archaeological raw data and preliminary reports. Through the use of spatial and geostatistical analysis, the cooperation with geologists to analyze the ancient surrounding environment and with mathematicians to elaborate a specific algorithm, we realized a predictive mathematical model. Using the same criteria as those for assigning importance to web pages by search engines, we identified the relations that exist among finds, both in spatial and in functional terms. All these open products have a strong impact on archaeological heritage protection, territorial planning and historical knowledge.

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  • 1. Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology Francesca Anichini, Nevio Dubbini, Gabriele Gattiglia, Fabio Fabiani, Maria Letizia Gualandi (University of Pisa, Italy) 19th EAA Annual Meeting 4-8 September 2013, Pilzen, Czech Republic
  • 2. 2 di 23 Predictive Map of Archaeological Potential Archaeological Map Paleogeographical Map Mathematical model Open digital archaeological archive Open Data Cooperation Transparency Geology Archaeology Mathematics Pisa, Italy Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
  • 3. 3 di 23 DATA MODEL •Urban data •Historical cartography data •Geographical/ geomorphological data •Archaeological data PRIMARY DATA •obtained data SECONDARY DATA Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
  • 4. 4 di 23 MAPPAGIS www.mappaproject.org/webgis Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
  • 5. OPEN DATA www.mappaproject.org/mod Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology 5 di 23
  • 6. One can hardly think of complex mathematical models applied to archaeological data, but consider that other fields of study “far from” mathematics have welcomed worthwhile applications of mathematics Moreover new applications took advantage of mathematics, but also posed new problem to mathematics itself!  mathematical shape theory Provides answers to questions like “when some points in the space are placed at random?” “What is a random shape?” Graph theory is the study of mathematical structures used to model relations between objects (networks) Link analysis studies the relationships among objects of different types that are not apparent from isolated pieces of information ARCHAEOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF MATHS Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology 6 di 23
  • 7. 7. Report, explain, predict 1. Real-world problem 3. Formulate the abstract problem 4. Solve the abstract problem 5. Interpret the solution 6. Verify the model TESTING 2. Make assumptions BASIC RULES governing the system PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS MATHEMATICAL MODELS STATISTICAL MODELS Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology 7 di 23
  • 8. • represents the possibilities that a more or less significant archaeological stratification is preserved • is calculated by analyzing and studying a series of historical, archaeological and paleo-environmental data retrieved from various sources, with a degree of approximation that may vary according to the quantity and quality of the data provided and their spatial and contextual relationships • is a factor independent on any other following intervention that is carried out, which must be regarded as a contingent risk factor ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL • type of settlement • density of settlement • multi-layering of deposits • removable or non-removable nature of archaeological deposit • degree of preservation of the deposit PARAMETERS Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology 8 di 23
  • 9. 9 di 23  A key issue in detecting archaeological potential is the identification of relations, both in spatial and in functional terms, influencing the probability of higher level structures presence  influence the potential of an area  A 3-d grid models the subsurface. A cell can - attribute potential to surrounding cells, and - receive importance by surrounding cells  Analogy with criteria for assigning importance to web pages by search engines cell = web pages  In PageRank web pages - attribute importance to pages they link to - receive importance from pages linking to Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology PAGERANK ALGORITHM
  • 10. 10 di 23 WORKFLOW DIAGRAM Archaeological findings : Categorisation of archaeological data Shaping the urban elements i.e. roman domus, medieval tower- house etc They operate on the expansion of archaeological potential Creation of functional areas: • Urban area • Suburban area • Rural area Relations between archaeological categories in the same historical period Creation of paleogeographical maps Assigning the potential value of archaeological information Relations between archaeological categories through different periods Synchronic level Diachronic level [*] [**] [***] Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
  • 11. 11 di 23 • production • building techniques • trade • food • agricolture/breeding • worship • waste management • political/institutional aspects • social and gender aspects • physical anthropology • fauna/flora • geomorphology • viability/transport • health and hygiene • warfare • land management • leisure • tradition • water system Every category of archaeological findings can give information about: For each of them we assign a binary value. The sum of values gives the archaeological potential of each category [*] Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology Assigning the potential value of archaeological information
  • 12. 12 di 23 Relations between archaeological category in the same historical period Medieval tower-house shop alley road courtyard [**] Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
  • 13. 13 di 23 [***] Creation of functional areas Using the archaeological findings we computed automatically on the basis of the rules given by the archaeologists the functional areas, i.e. levels of spatial and functional organization (e.g. urban, suburban, rural areas) in which the urban space is organized. Archaeological findings Functional area Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
  • 14. Geomorphological, stratigraphic geophisical and archaeological data have been processed using geostatistical techniques in order to get temporal DEMs for 7 periods from Protohistory to Contemporary Age and to create paleogeographical maps Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology 14 di 23 Creation of paleogeographical maps
  • 15. 15 di 23 PAGERANK FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL The relative values of links are obtained weighting by the paleogeographical datum The area of influence is proportional to the value of the functional area the cell belongs to Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology The total “weight” of links distributed by a cell with finds will vary on the basis of the estimated probability of the presence of certain finds near particular finds
  • 16. Contemporary Age Modern Age Late Medieval period Early Medieval period Roman period Etruscan period Protohistory Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology 16 di 23
  • 17. 17 di 23 CORE- DRILLINGS VALIDATION The final result has obtained after a validation of the results provided by a preliminary version, through 14 new core-drillings, with which the algorithm was tested, in order to obtain a better fitting model. Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
  • 18. 18 di 23 THE MAP OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF THE URBAN AREA OF PISA Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology The map of archaeological potential is given by the composition of the 7 layers. It’s weighted sum in which archaeological periods with few information available are taken more into account.
  • 19. 19 di 23 Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology Pisa in the Middle Ages: archaeology, spatial analysis and predictive models RESEARCH
  • 20. 20 di 23 Is it enough DILEMMA ? Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
  • 21.  Trends in data storage - digitalization  analysis through computers - usability  availability of data in different places and through different devices  Though the process is more evident in other fields, also in archaeology these trends encouraged the production of a huge quantity of data, and the development of open data archives or repositories The only way of analyzing huge quantity of digital (and heterogeneous!) data is by means of automatic methods  Here mathematics come into play: the way of improving analyses is moving from having the best data, to having the best way to analyze data BIG ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology 21 di 23
  • 22. 22 di 23 BIG DATA are the solution for sustainable archeology ! Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology
  • 23. Managing the future: new frontiers in Italian Open Archaeology Follow us @mappaproject Progetto MAPPA www.mappaproject.org All our publications are Open Access

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