Ease-of-use and Effectiveness of Participatory GIS in Empowering Rural Communities by Nagesh Kolagani

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In rural South India, over the years, there has been a steady increase in ground water crises. To resolve these crises, participatory water management by increasing community involvement is essential. …

In rural South India, over the years, there has been a steady increase in ground water crises. To resolve these crises, participatory water management by increasing community involvement is essential. Participatory GIS can empower rural communities for such a role by facilitating better visualization and easier understanding. Towards this goal, as part of a Government of India funded a project, open source Quantum GIS software was simplified for use by village people. It was demonstrated in an upland village of South India and was evaluated for its ease-of-use in terms of how easily people could use it for producing and using maps and for its effectiveness in creating easier understanding and better decisions.

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  • 1. Participatory GIS in Empowering Rural Communities: Implementation and Field Trials of a PGIS Solution Nagesh Kolagani, Palaniappan Ramu and Koshy Varghese IIT Madras
  • 2. Simplifying Open Source GIS for Use by VillagersIn Map Preparation & Map Utilization; For Local Control & Low CostYouth gather GPS & attribute data View complex data in simple waysSchool children produce GIS maps Villagers participate better
  • 3. Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS Case Study of a South Indian Village2. PGIS Solutions Implementation Field Trials3. Conclusions Future Improvements Training & Extension
  • 4. Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS Case Study of a South Indian Village Problem: Water Crisis Solution: PGIS-based Water Harvesting2. PGIS Solutions Implementation Field Trials3. Conclusions Future Improvements Training & Extension
  • 5. Location Map of Project Villages in South India Parigi villages (22) (phase II) E. Palaguttapalli village (phase I) IIT Madras
  • 6. Up to 1970’s: Community-based Rain Water Harvesting FOREST STREAMS WELLS FARMS RESERVOIRS
  • 7. Up to 1970’s: Sustainable Water UsageNumber of wells: 76● Open wells
  • 8. During 1980’s and 1990’s: Excessive Water UsageNumber of wells: 198● Open wells● Tube wells
  • 9. Since 2002: Water CrisisNumber of wells: 59● Open wells● Tube wells
  • 10. Falling Ground Water Levels over DecadesGround level 0 1970s 1980s & 1990s post-2001 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 -140 -160 -180Hard rock -200
  • 11. Problem: Water Crisis since 2002Water-intensive commercial crops up to 2001 Rain-fed subsistence crops since 2002
  • 12. Solution: Water Harvesting Structures
  • 13. Blackboard Sketch of Peoples Suggestions
  • 14. Field Visits to Proposed Locations
  • 15. A Sample Plan for Proposed StructuresNo location information for facilitating monitoring & visualization
  • 16. GPS/GIS Map of Peoples SuggestionsFor monitoring & visualization; Enforces participation & field visits
  • 17. Social Benefit Analysis of Proposed Structures For facilitating discussions among people
  • 18. A Structure Well-planned and Constructed by Neighbours
  • 19. Started working as a Successful Silt Trap within 1 Month
  • 20. Well Co-operatives for Sharing Ground Water
  • 21. Extending these Lessons to Other Villages
  • 22. Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS Case Study of a South Indian Village2. PGIS Solutions Implementation Field Trials3. Conclusions Future Improvements Training & Extension
  • 23. Google Map of Reservoir and FarmsDoes not know their descriptive data; Does not show other needed features (e.g. wells)
  • 24. Village Youth gathering such Data using GPS & Questionnaires
  • 25. Collecting Spatial Data as GPS WaypointsFor point layers:(such as wells)‫‏‬ As GPS way pointsFor line and polygon layers:(such as streams and farms)‫‏‬ As GPS tracks: Can not deviate from boundary Difficult for streams, farms, etc due to presence of thorny bushes, etc. OK for roads, etc. As GPS routes: User interface is difficult for use by a villager As GPS way points: To be joined later using GIS
  • 26. A Sample Questionnaire for Farms Layer
  • 27. School Children Producing GIS Maps from Such Data
  • 28. villageQGIS: Auto-connecting GPS points
  • 29. Entering Questionnaire Data into Appropriate GIS layer
  • 30. Comparison of villageQGIS and QGISUsing villageQGIS software: (e.g. 3 clicks)For each feature of each layer (of type line or polygon): Constructing lines and polygons from GPS point data: - specify way points to join as a string e.g. “209-213, 218, 221-224” - visually verify correctness of boundary points & joined line/polygon Converting lines and polygons into GIS features: - select layer name from a list box e.g. “streams” or “farms” - fill resulting attribute form with data from questionnaireUsing QGIS software: (e.g. at least 17 clicks)For each feature of each layer (of type line or polygon): - Select desired feature and select option to add new a feature - For each GPS point: (e.g. 209,210,211,212,213,218,221,222,224”) - locate it on the screen, using find button or appropriate label option - draw a line connecting it to previous point - fill resulting attribute form with data from questionnaire - Save
  • 31. A Sample Village Map
  • 32. Querying Attributes of Mapped Features ...
  • 33. Easy Interface to View Complex Data in Simple WaysThis will help villagers understand their problems & solutions and participate better
  • 34. Default Views: Farms Classified based on Social Data
  • 35. Multi-Criteria Classification e.g. Technical & Social Data
  • 36. Interface for Local Experts to Build Custom Views
  • 37. Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS Case Study of a South Indian Village2. PGIS Solutions Implementation Field Trials3. Conclusions Future Improvements Training & Extension
  • 38. Experiments on Ease-of-Use in Map Preparation● Participants:6 sub-groups of 3 village students each ● 3 sub-groups use Quantum GIS software (Control group) ● 3 sub-groups use villageQGIS software (Test group)● Task:Produce GIS maps from given GPS and Questionnaire data sets
  • 39. Experiments on Ease-of-Use in Map Preparation 3 QGIS 2.5 villageQGIS 2Ratio of times taken (with QGIS and 1.5 with villageQGIS) 1 0.5 0 1 2 3 Experiment no.
  • 40. Experiments on Ease-of-Use in Map Preparation 3 Desired spatial QGIS 2.5 accuracy villageQGIS 2Ratio of times taken (with QGIS and 1.5 with villageQGIS) 1 0.5 0 1 2 3 Experiment no.
  • 41. Iterative Development
  • 42. Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS Case Study of a South Indian Village2. PGIS Solutions Implementation Field Trials3. Conclusions Future Improvements Training & Extension
  • 43. Providing Indian Language InterfaceSimplified User Interface (UI): For facilitating participation1. Text display in Indian languages:- static text (such as tooltip and button labels)-dynamic text (such as user entered data )2. Attribute data as audio output3. Help/instructions using audio and/or video4. ‘Text-free UI’ (as far as possible) E.g. User entered text in Indian languages
  • 44. Porting to Handhelds for On-Site Map Preparation and AnalysisMap preparation as One-step On-site process: On-site Map analysis:1. Following map preparation steps can be combined: 1. On-site map analysis for a. Spatial data gathering using GPS better participatory planning, b. Attribute data gathering using PDA/questionnaires implementation and b. Preparating maps using ‘Gram Panchyat QGIS’ monitoring becomes possible.2. This facilitates transparent verification and correction. If internet connection is3. Created/updated map features can immediately be available, this can be an onlinereplicated to a central map server (e.g. open source UMN MapServer) process through web client;through internet, facilitating social and official monitoring. else an offline process using last available data.Examples:1. Samsung Galaxy Tablet 2. Akaash Tablet Rs. 28,000 /- Rs. 2,500 /- 0.565 kg 0.350 kg 10.1 touch screen 7 screen 9 hours battery 2-3 hrs battery Android 3.1 OS 3. Samsung N100 Netbook Rs. 12,290 /- 1.03 kg 10.1 screen 5+ hours battery Ubuntu OS
  • 45. Mobile SMS based Basic Map Updating and QueryingMap updating: Map querying:1. Send updated attribute 1. Send query as structured SMS to central server and receive basic attribute datadata as structured SMS to (e.g. Basic measurement and expenditure details of such-and-such work) (‘pull’)central server (e.g 2. Send SMS alerts about map updates, etc to registered users such as concernedcompleted works) beneficiaries, officers, etc (‘push’)
  • 46. Browser based Data Entry, Viewing & AdministrationOpen Source UMN Map Server & Adempiere ERP server Drill down to farms/sub-polts & households Upload & download (push & pull) using mobile SMS,tablets (open source Android OS) & netbooks (Ubuntu OS) Drill down up to individual vouchers
  • 47. Integrated DSS for Planning and Implementation
  • 48. Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS Case Study of a South Indian Village2. PGIS Solutions Implementation Field Trials3. Conclusions Future Improvements Training & Extension
  • 49. Extending through Training Workshops Days 2, 3 & 4: Village based GPS mappingDay 1: GIS theory classes Day 5: Evaluation & review 49
  • 50. Thank You!Credits: To the local youth & To the farmers
  • 51. Appendix
  • 52. ArcView 3.1 GIS-based Scripts for Automated Map GenerationRun a script and specify location of imported GPS & Questionnaire files
  • 53. Using ArcView 3.1 ScriptsEnter attribute data from each questionnaire table into an Excel file(e.g. c:av_datagps_pdawell_points.txt) and convert it into a tab-delimited text file 1. Run ARCVIEW3.1SETUP.EXE from CD Default directory for installation is C:ESRI. 2. Copy av_data directory from CD to C: 3. Run c:av_dataprojectproj1.apr 4. Run ‘0_main’ script and specify location of imported GPS and PDA files: ‘proj1.apr’ window‘Scripts’ icon‘0_main’ script‘Run’ button‘Select Mapsource File’=c:av_datagps_pdamapsource.txt’Select Attribute Files’=bw_points.txt;fm_polygons.txt;sm_lines.txt
  • 54. Preparing Maps using ArcView 3.1 GIS without Scripts1. For each point theme: Based on its questionnaire table file: 1. Create a new ArcView table 2. For each record/feature: Copy Name/Long/Lat of appropriate Waypoint from mapsource.txt into the new ArcView table 3. Create a new Event Theme using the new ArcView table 4. Join new table with questionnaire table (after converting it into dBASE format)2. For each line (or polygon) theme: Based on its questionnaire table file: 1. Create a new Theme with shape = line (or polygon) 2. For each record/feature:  recursive 1. Create a new ArcView table 2. Copy Long/Lat of appropriate Trackpoints from mapsource.txt into the new ArcView table 3. Create Event Theme using the new ArcView Table 4. Create new feature by joining these points  recursive 3. Join Attribute table of new theme with questionnaire table file (after converting it into dBASE format)
  • 55. Georeferencing Tool for Geo-referencing Scanned Maps
  • 56. Installing Scripts Based on GRASS 6.0.0 GIS for Geo-referencingI. Copy ‘cygwin’ directory from pendrive (or CD) to ‘c:’ directoryII. Run c:cygwinsetup.exeIII. Set following parameters during the running of setup.exe 1. Installation type/Download source=Install from Local Directory 2. Root Install Directory=c:cygwin: Leave default options “All Users” & “Unix / binary” selected 3. Local Package Directory = c:cygwin 4. Select Packages: Click on “+” sign appearing before “Database default” Click on “Skip” appearing before “… postgresql …”  it will change to “8.0.7-1” Click on “Skip” appearing before “… grass-cvs …”  it will change to “6.1.cvs-8” Click on “Skip” appearing before “… grass …”  it will change to “6.0.0-2”IV. To enable Geo-referencing GUI tool: Copy c:cygwingrass60.nrm.sh to c:cygwinusrlocalbin Copy c:cygwinInit.nrm.sh to c:cygwinusrlocalgrass6.0.0etc Copy c:cygwind.m..nrm.sh to c:cygwinusrlocalgrass6.0.0scripts Copy c:cygwind.m.nrm.tcl to c:cygwinusrlocalgrass6.0.0etcdm
  • 57. Geo-Referencing Scanned Maps using GRASS GIS-based Scripts Run c:cygwingrass60.nrm.bat Wait for xterm & subsequently the GUI tool to appear ↓ Copy ‘tif’ image to be georeferenced to c:cygwinhome directory (e.g. img.tif) ↓ 1. Click ‘Georef’ button 2. Specify image name and coordinates of any 4 known points (e.g. /home/img.tif and image_x, image_y, long and lat) 3. Click ‘Georef’ button ↓ Copy geo-referenced files from c:cygwinhome (e.g. outputImage. tif and outputImage.tfw) ↓ Right-click on “Cygwin/X Server 0:0” on status barexitexit
  • 58. Starting GRASS 6.0.0 GIS Run c:cygwingrass60.bat (Return if it asks) ↓ To use sample data: If GUI window appears: set database=“/home”enterselect location=e_pgp_600_f mapset=ws_planEnter GRASS If Console window appears: set parameters: location=e_pgp_600_f mapset=ws_plan database=/home/escenter ↓ To create new data: If GUI window appears: set database=“/home”enterCreate New LocationSet parameters: location=e_pgp_600_f mapset=ws_plan database=/homeescenteryy coordinate system=ByDescription=…ydatum=nellipsoid=evrst30 N-S-W-E boundary coordinates=(e.g.13:35:00N 13:30:00N 79:00:00E 79:05:00E) E-W & N-S resolutions=0:00:0.1escenteryReturnescentery ↓ If GUI warning apears: OKenter PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/grass6.1.cvs/lib d.mon start=x0switch to console If using sample data: d.rast contour_rastswitch to monitorswitch to console exitright click Cygwin/X Server on status barexitexit
  • 59. Using GRASS 6.0.0 for Geo-referencing Scanned Maps Run c:cygwingrass60.bat Set parameters: location=<loc> mapset=<set> database=/home/<user_name>esc-enter If this database/<loc>/<set> does not already exist: yycoordinate system=B (for Latitude-Longitude)yDescription=…ydatum=nellipsoid=evrst30 N-S-W-E boundary coordinates=(e.g.17:00:00N 16:55:00N 77:35:00E 77:40:00E) resolutions=(0:00:0.1 0:00:0.1) esc-enteryyesc-enter ↓ PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/grass6.1.cvs/lib Copy scanned map, <img>.tif to c:cygwinhome<user_name><loc>_data directory r.in.gdal input=/home/<user_name>/<loc>_data/<img>.tif output=<img> location=<loc>_temp g.mapset location=<loc>_temp mapset=PERMANENT r.composite red=<img>.red blue=<img>.blue green=<img>.green output=<img> i.group group=map input=<img> i.target group=map location=<loc> mapset=<set> ↓ d.mon start=x0switch to grass console windowi.pointsmapswitch to monitordouble click on <img> ↓ For each ground control point whose location in <img> map and whose LongLat in field are known: click on ‘Zoom’ option with cross-hairClick on ‘Box’click in top-left quadrant map on top-left corner of region to be magnifiedmove cursor & click on bottom right corne click on desired ground control point in magnified map in bottom left quadrantswitch to console enter LongLat as space-separated values in decimal format (e.g. 77.60492 16.96120)enteryswitch to monitor(repeat above steps for at least three ground control points e.g. the four corners of a 5’ x 5’ block in a 1:50k toposheet) click on ‘quit’click on ‘yes’switch to console ↓ i.rectify -a group=map extension=_<ext> order=1g.mapset location=<loc> mapset=<set> r.out.tiff -t input=<img>_<ext> output=<img>_<ext> exit (from Grass 6.0 GIS)exit from cygwin/X Server on status bar copy c:cygwinhome<user_name><img>_<ext>.tif & .tfw files to c:cygwinhome<user_name><loc>_data
  • 60. Using GRASS 6.0.0 for Transforming Coordinate Systems of Digitized Maps/Shape Files Run c:cygwingrass60.bat location=<loc> mapset=<set> database=/homeesc-enter If the directory c:cygwin<database><loc><set> does not already exist: yycoordinate system=B (for Latitude-Longitude)yDescription=…ydatum=nellipsoid=evrst30 N-S-W-E boundary coordinates=17:00:00N 16:55:00N 77:35:00E 77:40:00E resolution=0:00:0.1esc-enter yenteresc-entery PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/grass6.1.cvs/lib ↓ Copy digitized map files, <map>.shp, dbf and other associated files, to c:cygwinhome<loc>_data ↓ Prepare text file, <map>_points.txt and copy to c:cygwinhome<loc>_data: min. 4 known points; one line per point; space separated map x & y and Long & Lat in decimal format r.in.gdal –oe input=/home/<loc>_data/<img>.tif output=<img> r.composite red=<img>.red blue=<img>.blue green=<img>.green output=<img> d.mon start=x0d.rast <img>_<ext>d.what.rast Repeat: switch to monitorclick on known pointswitch to consolenote down Long Lat of known point use ArcView 3.1 and note down map x & y coords of known points ↓ v.in.ogr –oe dsn=/home/<loc>_data output=<map> layer=<map> v.transform input=<map> output=<map>_<ext> pointsfile=/home/<loc>_data/<map>_points.txt v.out.ogr -e input=<map>_<ext> type=(point, line or area) dsn=/home /<loc>_data olayer=<map>_<ext> format=ESRI_Shapefile exit (from Grass 6.0 GIS)exit from cygwin/X Server on status bar copy c:cygwinhome<map>_<ext>.shp, dbf and other associated files to desired directory (e.g. loc=namdarpur4; set=set; map=namdarpur_topo_drain; img=namdarpur_etc_georef; ext=georef)
  • 61. Using GRASS 6.0.0 for 3-d animation & catchment estimation Start new GRASS location ↓ Import and view digitized contour vectors from ESRI shapefile v.in.ogr -o dsn=/home/e_pgp_toposheet output=c_vect layer=contours d.mon start=x0 select=x0 d.vect c_vect color=brown ↓ Convert contour vector map into a contour raster map with elevation data v.to.rast in=c_vect out=c_rast col=ELEVATION d.rast map=c_rast ↓ Generate DEM from contour raster map by interpolation r.surf.contour -f input=c_rast output=surface_rast ↓ View DEM interactively in 3-d using nviz tool nviz elevation=surface_rast ↓ Divide watershed into sub-basins and compute accumulation raster map r.terraflow elev=surface_rast fill=f1 swatershed=s1 acc=accumualtion_rast tci=t1 memory=850
  • 62. Using GRASS 6.0.0 for Transforming Coordinate Systems of Digitized Maps/Shape Files Run c:cygwingrass60.bat location=<loc> mapset=<set> database=/homeesc-enter If the directory c:cygwin<database><loc><set> does not already exist: yycoordinate system=B (for Latitude-Longitude)yDescription=…ydatum=nellipsoid=evrst30 N-S-W-E boundary coordinates=17:00:00N 16:55:00N 77:35:00E 77:40:00E resolution=0:00:0.1esc-enter yenteresc-entery PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/grass6.1.cvs/lib ↓ Copy digitized map files, <map>.shp, dbf and other associated files, to c:cygwinhome<loc>_data ↓ Prepare text file, <map>_points.txt and copy to c:cygwinhome<loc>_data: min. 4 known points; one line per point; space separated map x & y and Long & Lat in decimal format r.in.gdal –oe input=/home/<loc>_data/<img>.tif output=<img> r.composite red=<img>.red blue=<img>.blue green=<img>.green output=<img> d.mon start=x0d.rast <img>_<ext>d.what.rast Repeat: switch to monitorclick on known pointswitch to consolenote down Long Lat of known point use ArcView 3.1 and note down map x & y coords of known points ↓ v.in.ogr –oe dsn=/home/<loc>_data output=<map> layer=<map> v.transform input=<map> output=<map>_<ext> pointsfile=/home/<loc>_data/<map>_points.txt v.out.ogr -e input=<map>_<ext> type=(point, line or area) dsn=/home /<loc>_data olayer=<map>_<ext> format=ESRI_Shapefile exit (from Grass 6.0 GIS)exit from cygwin/X Server on status bar copy c:cygwinhome<map>_<ext>.shp, dbf and other associated files to desired directory (e.g. loc=namdarpur4; set=set; map=namdarpur_topo_drain; img=namdarpur_etc_georef; ext=georef)
  • 63. Google Imagery as Base Map for Attribute Tagging
  • 64. 3-d Visualization
  • 65. Catchment Estimation in Hilly Areas
  • 66. Proposed Tablet User Interface