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Department of Veterinary Surgery & Radiology COVAS, Parbhani
Definition  <ul><li>A  laser  is a device that emits light (electromagnetic radiation) through a process of optical amplif...
<ul><li>Intangible </li></ul><ul><li>Yet able to transfer energy due to mass effect of photons </li></ul><ul><li>Photon </...
How a photon is produced? <ul><li>Neil Bohr’ model of atom explains it. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons in specific atoms and ...
Now stimulated emission  <ul><li>Einstein (1905) proposed stimulated emission. </li></ul><ul><li>Photons can be produced, ...
<ul><li>It was technologically possible in the mid-twentieth century to prove the utility of selected materials for energy...
History  <ul><li>Einstein (1905) proposed stimulated emission. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Theodore Maiman  (1960)  under the di...
What is special? <ul><li>Coherent-   in phase in space & time  </li></ul><ul><li>Monochromatic-   one color/wavelength </l...
Practically saying
Common Components of all Lasers <ul><li>Optical resonant cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tube or cylinder, more length than w...
 
Lasing Action <ul><li>Pumping  </li></ul><ul><li>These atoms spontaneously decay to a relatively long-lived, lower energy,...
<ul><li>If the energy from this photon is of the precise wavelength, it will stimulate the production of another photon of...
Lasing Action Diagram Energy Introduction Ground State Excited State Metastable State Spontaneous Energy Emission Stimulat...
COMMON USED LASER LIGHTS
 
Power of laser light <ul><li>Energy- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The capacity for doing work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joule (...
LASER Regulation <ul><li>Classified  by the FDA’s Center for Devices & Radiological Health based on the Accessible Emissio...
LOW LEVEL LASER THERAPY  <ul><li>Class 3B  < 500 mW  Therapeutic lasers </li></ul>
WHAT ? <ul><li>Relatively a new biotechnology that uses the science of photobiostimulation to speed healing  </li></ul><ul...
Cont…. <ul><li>Different colours are used in veterinary medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Infra-red, at about 800 nm or greater <...
Procedure  <ul><li>The laser handset is held over the skin for a few minutes in each setting, although it can be used thro...
EFFECTS <ul><li>Main  areas of application of LLLT </li></ul>
Physiological Effects <ul><li>Stimulation of wound healing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes faster wound healing/clot format...
Physiological Effects <ul><li>Biostimulation  – improved metabolism, increase of cell metabolism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inc...
Numerous disorders which respond <ul><li>Arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Hip dysplasia </li></ul><ul><li>Post surgical pain re...
 
 
Mechanism of Action <ul><li>Red  light affects all cell types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbed by the mitochondria present i...
Mechanism of Action
Mechanism of Action <ul><li>The light-induced increase in ATP synthesis and increased proton gradient leads to an increasi...
Mechanism of Action
Mechanism of Action <ul><li>Redox couples </li></ul><ul><li>NAD/NADH, NADP/NADPH,GSH/GSSH  etc </li></ul><ul><li>Change in...
Treatment Techniques <ul><li>Gridding Technique   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide treatment areas into grids of square centim...
LASER SURGERY <ul><li>Class 4  > 500 mW  Surgical lasers </li></ul>
Introduction  <ul><li>Surgery using a laser to cut tissue instead of a scalpel </li></ul><ul><li>Laser scalpel </li></ul><...
 
Photovaporolysis
<ul><li>Char – remnant  of non-fluid cellular component </li></ul>
Photoplasmolysis  Canine lithotripsy by Ho:YAG laser
<ul><li>As the lasers pass to the depth the energy is decreased below the vaporization threshold power density and less co...
Crater <ul><li>Zone of carbonization-   the limit of vaporization. </li></ul><ul><li>Zone of coagulation and thermal necro...
20 watt  Carbon Dioxide  laser with plume evacuater  <ul><li>Highly absorbed by water, making it perfect for tissue cuttin...
General parameters for CO2 laser use <ul><li>Routine incision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spot Diameter: 0.4 mm </li></ul></ul>...
Why use laser? <ul><li>Less Pain  - The laser seals nerve endings as it cuts. So the patient will have less pain.  </li></...
Why use laser? - The laser seals nerve endings as it cuts. So the patient will have less pain.  <ul><li>Less Pain   </li><...
Laser surgery benefits for surgeons <ul><li>Unique surgical capabilities:  Laser surgery improves many surgical procedures...
Laser surgery benefits for surgeons Laser surgery improves many surgical procedures by making them simpler and reducing ri...
Operations  Scalpel blade or a nail trimmer is the traditional way of declaws, that was painful and time consuming. Laser ...
Canine Skin Incision
Canine Skin Incision
Canine Dewclaw Amputation
Canine Dewclaw Amputation
Feline Ovariohysterectomy
Feline Ovariohysterectomy
Canine Aural Hematoma
Canine Aural Hematoma
Canine Aural Hematoma
Uncomplicated Acral Lick Granuloma
Uncomplicated Acral Lick Granuloma
Canine Cystotomy
Conclusion  <ul><li>Lasers have a wide range of utility in veterinary practice </li></ul><ul><li>The LLLT technique is ver...
Conclusion  <ul><li>Laser surgery is a specialized technique of performing surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>The great advantage ...
References  <ul><li>Veterinary Laser Surgery A Practical Guide By  Noel Berger, Peter H. Eeg </li></ul><ul><li>Veterinary ...
Thank you  Laser will not make a practitioner a better surgeon; it will, however, allow a good surgeon to do surgery in a ...
 
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Laser and its use in veterinary practice

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Transcript of "Laser and its use in veterinary practice"

  1. 1. Department of Veterinary Surgery & Radiology COVAS, Parbhani
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>A laser is a device that emits light (electromagnetic radiation) through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of photons. </li></ul><ul><li>The term &quot;laser&quot; originated as an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation . </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Intangible </li></ul><ul><li>Yet able to transfer energy due to mass effect of photons </li></ul><ul><li>Photon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific packets of electromagnetic energy that give light its mass and therefore allow to do work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Described by Max Planck (1905) as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E = h f </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. How a photon is produced? <ul><li>Neil Bohr’ model of atom explains it. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons in specific atoms and molecules can alter their energy state to lower or higher levels without being getting destroyed. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Now stimulated emission <ul><li>Einstein (1905) proposed stimulated emission. </li></ul><ul><li>Photons can be produced, amplified & induced to cascade geometrically in a continuous positive feedback mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>Accredited as Father of modern lasers. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>It was technologically possible in the mid-twentieth century to prove the utility of selected materials for energy transformation. </li></ul><ul><li>Simply applying electrical energy to a material caused the repeated release of photons. </li></ul><ul><li>The first actual physical model for coherent stimulated radiation emission was in sophisticated microwave equipment developed to produce radar. </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Townes created MASER—microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation </li></ul><ul><li>A.L. Schawlow (1958) provided the idea of an “optical type maser” or LASER </li></ul>
  7. 7. History <ul><li>Einstein (1905) proposed stimulated emission. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Theodore Maiman (1960) under the direction of Dr. Henry Gould demonstrated consistent laser energy with the production of a ruby crystal laser </li></ul><ul><li>Hence a laser was realized in true physical form </li></ul><ul><li>1964 first used in veterinary medicine shortly in a laser assisted vocal cord nodectomy </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is special? <ul><li>Coherent- in phase in space & time </li></ul><ul><li>Monochromatic- one color/wavelength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collimated- single direction, tight beam, parallel paths </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Practically saying
  10. 10. Common Components of all Lasers <ul><li>Optical resonant cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tube or cylinder, more length than width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly reflective mirror cap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partially transmitting but highly reflective mirror cap at opposite end </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lasing Medium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>solid ruby or Nd:YAG, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>liquid dyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gases CO2 or Helium/Neon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External energy source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Lasing Action <ul><li>Pumping </li></ul><ul><li>These atoms spontaneously decay to a relatively long-lived, lower energy, metastable state. </li></ul><ul><li>A population inversion is achieved when the majority of atoms have reached this metastable state . </li></ul><ul><li>Lasing action occurs when an electron spontaneously returns to its ground state and produces a photon. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>If the energy from this photon is of the precise wavelength, it will stimulate the production of another photon of the same wavelength and resulting in a cascading effect. </li></ul><ul><li>The highly reflective mirror and partially reflective mirror continue the reaction by directing photons back through the medium along the long axis of the laser. </li></ul><ul><li>The partially reflective mirror allows the transmission of a small amount of coherent radiation that we observe as the “ beam ”. </li></ul><ul><li>Laser radiation will continue as long as energy is applied to the lasing medium. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Lasing Action Diagram Energy Introduction Ground State Excited State Metastable State Spontaneous Energy Emission Stimulated Emission of Radiation
  14. 15.
  15. 16. COMMON USED LASER LIGHTS
  16. 18. Power of laser light <ul><li>Energy- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The capacity for doing work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joule (J) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fluence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy delivered per unit area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>j/ cm 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of energy delivered per unit of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to do work over a given period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>watt (W) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiant power striking a target per unit area of a cross section of a laser light beam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W/ cm 2 </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. LASER Regulation <ul><li>Classified by the FDA’s Center for Devices & Radiological Health based on the Accessible Emission Limit (AEL). </li></ul><ul><li>Class 1 < 0.5 mW Laser pointers </li></ul><ul><li>Class 2 < 1.0 mW Toys </li></ul><ul><li>Class 3A < 5 mW CD-players </li></ul><ul><li>Class 3B < 500 mW Therapeutic lasers </li></ul><ul><li>Class 4 > 500 mW Surgical lasers </li></ul>
  18. 20. LOW LEVEL LASER THERAPY <ul><li>Class 3B < 500 mW Therapeutic lasers </li></ul>
  19. 21. WHAT ? <ul><li>Relatively a new biotechnology that uses the science of photobiostimulation to speed healing </li></ul><ul><li>Cold laser therapy or soft laser therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Over 35 years </li></ul><ul><li>Painless </li></ul><ul><li>Non-invasive </li></ul><ul><li>Works with the body’s own healing mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>No harmful side-effects. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Cont…. <ul><li>Different colours are used in veterinary medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Infra-red, at about 800 nm or greater </li></ul><ul><li>Red, at about 610 - 800 nm </li></ul><ul><li>Gives body the pure energy to use for healthy cellular regeneration </li></ul>
  21. 23. Procedure <ul><li>The laser handset is held over the skin for a few minutes in each setting, although it can be used through clothes for intimate areas. Different programmes use a range of settings with various wave-lengths and phasing to penetrate to the best level within the body and interact directly with the appropriate cells. Sessions last no more than an hour and most clients notice the benefits from the very first session. </li></ul>
  22. 24. EFFECTS <ul><li>Main areas of application of LLLT </li></ul>
  23. 25. Physiological Effects <ul><li>Stimulation of wound healing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes faster wound healing/clot formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps generate new & healthy cells & tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase collagen production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops collagen & muscle tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase macrophagic activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alter nerve conduction velocity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates nerve function </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Physiological Effects <ul><li>Biostimulation – improved metabolism, increase of cell metabolism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases speed, quality & tensile strength of tissue repair </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improved blood circulation & vasodilation </li></ul><ul><li>Increases ATP production </li></ul><ul><li>Analgesic effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relieves acute/chronic pain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anti-inflammatory & anti-edematous effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immunoregulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulates IMMUNOGLOBINS and LYMPHOCYTES </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Numerous disorders which respond <ul><li>Arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Hip dysplasia </li></ul><ul><li>Post surgical pain relief and faster healing </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous skin conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Gingivitis </li></ul><ul><li>Otitis - Ear infections/inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Wound healing </li></ul><ul><li>Insect bites/stings </li></ul><ul><li>Lacerations/abrasions </li></ul><ul><li>Cystitis -bladder infections/inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Burns </li></ul><ul><li>Plus many more </li></ul>
  26. 30. Mechanism of Action <ul><li>Red light affects all cell types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbed by the mitochondria present in all cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytochromes (respiratory chain enzymes) within the mitochondria have been identified as the primary biostimulation chromophores ( primary light-absorbing molecules ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytochrome c oxidase (Cox) is the primary photo-acceptor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased oxidation of Cytochrome c and increased electron transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased ATP production </li></ul></ul>
  27. 31. Mechanism of Action
  28. 32. Mechanism of Action <ul><li>The light-induced increase in ATP synthesis and increased proton gradient leads to an increasing activity of the Na + /H + and Ca 2+ / Na + antiporters, and of all the ATP driven carriers for ions, such as Na + / H + ATPase and Ca 2+ pumps . </li></ul><ul><li>Ca 2+ regulates almost every process in the body(muscle contraction, blood coagulation, signal transfer in nerves, gene expression, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>ATP is the substrate for adenyl cyclase </li></ul><ul><li>Controls the level of cAMP. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Ca 2+ and cAMP are very important second messengers. </li></ul>
  29. 33. Mechanism of Action
  30. 34. Mechanism of Action <ul><li>Redox couples </li></ul><ul><li>NAD/NADH, NADP/NADPH,GSH/GSSH etc </li></ul><ul><li>Change in redox state activates numerous intracellular signaling pathways </li></ul><ul><li>DNA/RNA synthesis, enzyme activation and cell cycle progression. </li></ul>
  31. 35. Treatment Techniques <ul><li>Gridding Technique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide treatment areas into grids of square centimeters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wanding Technique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A grid area is bathed with the laser in an oscillating fashion; distance should be no farther than 1 cm from skin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scanning Technique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No contact between laser tip in skin; tip is held 5-10 mm from wound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Point Application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Acupuncture point) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 36. LASER SURGERY <ul><li>Class 4 > 500 mW Surgical lasers </li></ul>
  33. 37. Introduction <ul><li>Surgery using a laser to cut tissue instead of a scalpel </li></ul><ul><li>Laser scalpel </li></ul><ul><li>Highly focused laser beam efficiently ablate (either vaporize or chip away) the living tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time, it seals (welds) capillaries, small blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerve endings, with significant benefits to both patients and surgeons. </li></ul>
  34. 39. Photovaporolysis
  35. 40. <ul><li>Char – remnant of non-fluid cellular component </li></ul>
  36. 41. Photoplasmolysis Canine lithotripsy by Ho:YAG laser
  37. 42. <ul><li>As the lasers pass to the depth the energy is decreased below the vaporization threshold power density and less collateral heating of tissues but causes coagulation of vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller primary nociceptors are sealed and action potential is inhibited and secondary nociceptors are not stimulated </li></ul>How it controls bleeding How it minimizes pain sensation
  38. 43. Crater <ul><li>Zone of carbonization- the limit of vaporization. </li></ul><ul><li>Zone of coagulation and thermal necrosis- Slightly farther away from the center. This zone will eventually die. </li></ul><ul><li>Zone of hyperthermia- Farthest from the center. </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond these zones there is no effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of the crater and the diameter of these zones are directly related to power density. </li></ul>
  39. 44. 20 watt Carbon Dioxide laser with plume evacuater <ul><li>Highly absorbed by water, making it perfect for tissue cutting, vaporization and acoustical destruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal injury to surrounding tissue is very superficial. </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral thermal injury of 0.05 mm to 0.1 mm </li></ul><ul><li>Because there is such minimal lateral thermal damage, injury to surrounding tissues is limited to what you see during application of the laser energy. </li></ul>
  40. 45. General parameters for CO2 laser use <ul><li>Routine incision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spot Diameter: 0.4 mm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Setting: 6 to 10 W </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Routine ablation/vaporization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spot Diameter: 0.8 mm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Setting: 10 to 20 W </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delicate location incision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spot Diameter: 0.3 to 0.4 mm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Setting: 3 to 6 W </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Routine excision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spot Diameter: 0.8 mm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Setting: 8 to 15 W </li></ul></ul>
  41. 46. Why use laser? <ul><li>Less Pain - The laser seals nerve endings as it cuts. So the patient will have less pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Less Bleeding - The laser seals small blood vessels during surgery and speeds up surgery by minimizing bleeding. </li></ul><ul><li>Less Swelling - No physical contact except the invisible laser beam. The tissue will not be crushed. </li></ul><ul><li>Sterilization - The laser sterilizes the surgical site as it cuts. Bacteria and viruses are vaporized by the laser during laser surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>Faster Recovery - Less bleeding and swelling will result in faster healing. </li></ul><ul><li>Precision - The beam direction and power can be controlled precisely to remove thin layers of tissue and produce minimal side effects on the surrounding healthy tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced hospitalization time - All of above factor will greatly reduce the procedure time. </li></ul>
  42. 47. Why use laser? - The laser seals nerve endings as it cuts. So the patient will have less pain. <ul><li>Less Pain </li></ul>- The laser seals small blood vessels during surgery and speeds up surgery by minimizing bleeding. <ul><li>Less Bleeding </li></ul>- No physical contact except the invisible laser beam. The tissue will not be crushed. <ul><li>Less Swelling </li></ul>- The laser sterilizes the surgical site as it cuts. Bacteria and viruses are vaporized by the laser during laser surgery. <ul><li>Sterilization </li></ul><ul><li>Faster Recovery </li></ul>Less bleeding and swelling will result in faster healing <ul><li>Precision </li></ul>- The beam direction and power can be controlled precisely to remove thin layers of tissue and produce minimal side effects on the surrounding healthy tissue. <ul><li>Reduced hospitalization time </li></ul>All of above factor will greatly reduce the procedure time.
  43. 48. Laser surgery benefits for surgeons <ul><li>Unique surgical capabilities: Laser surgery improves many surgical procedures by making them simpler and reducing risk. This enables surgeries that are not practical with conventional methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced visibility of the surgical field: The laser light seals capillaries and small blood vessels as it cuts, thereby dramatically reducing bleeding. This results in a much clearer and drier surgical site. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased precision and control: The focal spot size of the beam may be adjusted down to a small fraction of a millimeter or expanded for a much wider coverage. The laser power may be set for rapid removal of relatively large tissue amounts, or adjusted to remove only one cell layer at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of surgery time: The hemostatic effect of the laser beam and the improved visibility of the surgical field often reduce the duration of the surgery </li></ul>
  44. 49. Laser surgery benefits for surgeons Laser surgery improves many surgical procedures by making them simpler and reducing risk. This enables surgeries that are not practical with conventional methods. <ul><li>Unique surgical capabilities </li></ul>The laser light seals capillaries and small blood vessels as it cuts, thereby dramatically reducing bleeding. This results in a much clearer and drier surgical site. <ul><li>Enhanced visibility of the surgical field </li></ul>The focal spot size of the beam may be adjusted down to a small fraction of a millimeter or expanded for a much wider coverage. The laser power may be set for rapid removal of relatively large tissue amounts, or adjusted to remove only one cell layer at a time. <ul><li>Increased precision and control </li></ul>The hemostatic effect of the laser beam and the improved visibility of the surgical field often reduce the duration of the surgery <ul><li>Reduction of surgery time </li></ul>
  45. 50. Operations Scalpel blade or a nail trimmer is the traditional way of declaws, that was painful and time consuming. Laser surgery to declaw will make cats have little pain One of the CO2 laser features, selectively and gently going through layers of tissue, makes the CO2 laser excellent for ear hematoma due to the small opening needed to drain the fluid. Laser can completely ablate the small tumors lesion and make pets have less discomfort during the recovering time. <ul><li>Declaws </li></ul><ul><li>Ear Hematoma </li></ul><ul><li>Skin Tumor </li></ul><ul><li>Dog Neuter </li></ul>CO2 laser can also treat dog neuters due to the advantages of minimal bleeding and less pain. <ul><li>Amputation </li></ul>The laser is particularly good at amputations. Minimal bleeding during the laser surgery allows the surgery to perform much faster.
  46. 51. Canine Skin Incision
  47. 52. Canine Skin Incision
  48. 53. Canine Dewclaw Amputation
  49. 54. Canine Dewclaw Amputation
  50. 55. Feline Ovariohysterectomy
  51. 56. Feline Ovariohysterectomy
  52. 57. Canine Aural Hematoma
  53. 58. Canine Aural Hematoma
  54. 59. Canine Aural Hematoma
  55. 60. Uncomplicated Acral Lick Granuloma
  56. 61. Uncomplicated Acral Lick Granuloma
  57. 62. Canine Cystotomy
  58. 63. Conclusion <ul><li>Lasers have a wide range of utility in veterinary practice </li></ul><ul><li>The LLLT technique is very versatile for numerous medical applications. </li></ul><ul><li>LLLT is non invasive, painless with no side effects </li></ul><ul><li>LLLT provides a unique way of healing in sync with the natural healing processes of the body </li></ul><ul><li>More research has to be done to understand the interaction of Laser light with cells and tissues. </li></ul>
  59. 64. Conclusion <ul><li>Laser surgery is a specialized technique of performing surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>The great advantage of laser surgery in large animals is that it allows your surgeon to reach obscure areas and perform surgery through a minimally invasive approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Laser surgery provides a better alternative for a blood less and pain less surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>It makes possible otherwise the difficult procedures </li></ul><ul><li>It helps in faster recovery of patients </li></ul>
  60. 65. References <ul><li>Veterinary Laser Surgery A Practical Guide By Noel Berger, Peter H. Eeg </li></ul><ul><li>Veterinary Cold Laser Therapy By Wm. L. Inman BS, DVM, CVCP </li></ul><ul><li>What is Cold-Laser Therapy? By Craig Amrine L.Ac. </li></ul><ul><li>Laser Surgery in Small Animal Practice—A Personal Perspective John C Godbold Jr, DVM </li></ul><ul><li>Low Level Laser Therapy By Laurence J. Walsh. The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanisms of Low Level Light Therapy By Michael R. Hamblin </li></ul><ul><li>Veterinary Cold Laser Therapy By Wm. L. Inman BS, DVM, CVCP </li></ul><ul><li>Please visit: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.mgh.harvard.edu/wellman/people/mhamblin.asp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.Wikipedia.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.acvs.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://low-level-laser-therapy.org </li></ul></ul>
  61. 66. Thank you Laser will not make a practitioner a better surgeon; it will, however, allow a good surgeon to do surgery in a way that helps their patients and owners.
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