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Yamuna in Delhi
 

Yamuna in Delhi

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  • Hi. Thanks so much. Really good PPT. I am doing a study for Yamuna river for DUAC. Is there anyway i can contact you? Thanks.
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    Yamuna in Delhi Yamuna in Delhi Presentation Transcript

    • Delhi
    • RIVER  YAMUNA  AT ORIGIN  ‐ YAMUNOTRI
    • RIVER  YAMUNA  AT UTTARAKHAND
    • RIVER  YAMUNA  AT  DELHI
    • The Yamuna river originates at  gYamunotri in Uttarakhand.The total length of the river from the Glacier river from the Glacierto the Ganga Sanagm at Allahabad is about at Allahabad is about1,300 km.
    • Wazirabad BarrageDELHI STRETCHThe 22‐km stretch of the Yamuna in Delhi lies between  lhi li bWazirabad and the  Vikas Marg BridgeOkhla barrage.Okhla barrage Nizamuddin Bridge Okhla Barrage
    • Rape of the River in Delhi
    • Sewage DisposalThe 22 km stretch of The 22 km stretch ofthe Yamuna in Delhi contributes over 80%contributes over 80%of the pollution load of the entire 1300 km of the entire 1300 kmriver.The stretch is barely 2% of the length of of the length of the river.
    • The Yamuna in Delhi – 22 sewage filled drains empty into the river
    • All waste of the city, domestic and industrial, whether treated or not flows through these drains and reaches the Yamuna.
    • The Najafgarh drain and the Shahadra drain are the two  largest polluters of the river Pic to come from CSDS
    • Sewage status of India 2005 40% of India’s sewage treatment capacity belongs to Delhi, yet a massive gap remains between sewage generation and treatment.remains between sewage generation and treatment 35000 33212 itres pe day 30000 27022 er 25000 20000 in Million li 15000 M 10000 6190 5000 0 Sewage generation Installed capacity Untreated
    • Delhi Jal Board sewage generation estimate : 3632 MLD Actual sewage treatment : 1478MLD A l 1478MLD Which is only 64% of treatment capacity The Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) remain grossly  underutilised.Three STPs (Ghitorni, Rohini and Keshopur‐I) do not treat  even a drop of waste
    • The STPs release treated effluents into the nearby drains, which are already full of untreated and illegal sewage.
    • The river ceases to exist at Wazirabad
    • What flows subsequently is only the sewage and waste from  Delhi’s 22 drains.
    • Ecological flow For the health of any river, the amount of  For the health of any river the amount ofwater drawn out for usage must be limited. The  standards required for ecological flow are  t d d i df l i l flcompletely disregarded in case of the Yamuna  in Delhi.
    • Micro‐pollutants like pesticides and heavy metals have been found in  the water flowing in Delhi’s drains. In 2004, high levels of Arsenic were reported in the Yamuna at OkhlaIn 2004 high levels of Arsenic were reported in the Yamuna at Okhla
    • Effluent discharge by factories ‐ film of poisonous foam and frothing
    • The frothy mix is so glaring it can be viewed on Google Earth
    • The Holy River ‐ film of poisonous foam and frothingThe Holy River ‐An idol of Goddess Durga being immersed immersednear Okhla barrage amidst froth‐like froth likesewage
    • CremationNigambodh Ghat, the citys public crematorium area
    • Yamuna as a Holy river
    • Unregulated settlements on water edge
    • However the amount of sewage generated by the slum population  30 % of the population accounts for slum population ‐ 30 % of the population accounts for merely 3.3 % of the total sewage generated by the  entire city population. entire city population. It is the illegal, unregularised and unauthorised It is the illegal, unregularised and unauthorised residential and commercial colonies that are not  connected to the sewage system. Hence 50% of the  connected to the sewage system. Hence 50% of the sewage that enters the Yamuna is untreated.
    • Garbage dumped along the river
    • Access to the river – blocked by garbage dumpsAccess to the river –
    • Access to the river – blocked by garbage dumpsAccess to the river –
    • Access to the river – blocked by garbage dumpsAccess to the river –
    • Direct usage – bathing, washing clothes, defecating etc.
    • Direct usage – bathing, washing clothes, defecating etc.
    • Direct usage – bathing, washing clothes, defecating etc.
    • Water transport•Vegetable transport carried out in thermocol boats S tb t t & di l i l il bl hi•Some government boats, steam & diesel engines are also available on hire
    • Water transport
    • Water transportBraving the stench, people take a boat ride in the Yamuna
    • Plastic collectorsPlastic collectors collect and sell plastic from the river to make a living
    • Plastic collectors
    • Plastic collectors
    • Plastic collectorsThermocol from dumped garbage used for making boatsThermocol from dumped garbage used for making boats
    • Coin collectorsCoin collectors in the polluted river
    • A cow and a man scrounging for leftover food 
    • Garbage and sewage flow in Yamunas QudsiaGarbage and sewage flow in Yamunas Qudsia Ghat
    • Yamuna FloodplainsDelhi’s largest groundwater recharge zone 
    • Covering the banks with impermeable concrete and Covering the banks with impermeable concrete and construction has threatened this groundwater  recharge zone. recharge zoneIllegal constructions on the floodplain ‐ Akshardham Temple, the Delhi Government Secretariat and the  l h lh d h Commonwealth Games Village ‐continue to exist. 
    • Groundwater exploitation Unplanned exploitation of precious groundwater has led to the  decline of the water table by 2 to 8 m during the past decade. 
    • The River is Dead Oxygen level when river exits Delhi is almost zero, unable to  yg support any aquatic life. It is even unfit for bathing. Yamuna at palla 14 Yamuna river at Nizamuddin Yamuna river at Okhla after meeeting 12 Shahdara Drain n Demand (BOD)  M aximum permissible limit for bathing 10 8 mical Oxygen 6Biochem 4 2 0
    • Even during monsoon, the river is not able to  rejuvenate it self.  During 2005 during monsoon, the DO (Dissolved Oxygen) levels at Nizamuddin rose to 4 mg/l (October  2005) where as in 2007 observed levels were  2.1 mg/l (August 2007).  5 mg/l‐ the limit set for bathing water quality
    • Traditional value ofthe Yamuna in Delhi
    • In the olden days, Delhi received its main source of water from:water from:• Shallow step wells dug on the floodplains of Yamuna. h fl d l f y j•Ponds locally called johadsthat had connection with the local streams, rivulets and their tributaries. their tributaries18th Century – Century – yShahjahanabad by the Yamuna
    • 18th Century – The Yamuna flowing by The RedFort Century – The Yamuna flowing by The RedFortWater resources were managed by the community
    • River in India has always had the status of Mother. pp The Yamuna has been worshipped as a Divine holy river.
    • The Yamuna is revered as source of civilisation.  pTradition calls for prudence in use of it’s water. 
    • The river is no longer seen as a  g living, breathing entity
    • What h bWh t has been done dto clean the River? ?
    • Between 1995 and 2005 the government of Delhi  has incurred a total expenditure of  has incurred a total expenditure of Rs. 1100 to Rs. 1450 croreon building sewage and waste treatment facilities. on building sewage and waste treatment facilities
    • In addition, there has been planning and funding  through YAP (Yamuna Action Plan).  through YAP (Yamuna Action Plan). By 2006, capital investments totaling Rs. 1,188 1,491 crore have literally gone down the Rs 1 188‐ 1 491 crore have literally gone down the drain. 
    • The YAP or any plan to control river pollution, has never looked at the 22 open stormwater drains, which flush out  Delhi’s waste into the Yamuna. 
    • Even after the Supreme Court’s directive of  achieving the minimum desired water quality of the river by March 2003, the pollution levels have  only risen and the river has been classified dead.
    • Why should Delhisave the Yamuna?
    • 1. Fresh perennial water, for which the river must flow2. Recharges the aquifers 3. Allows excess rainwater to drain out 3 Allows excess rainwater to drain out4. Beauty and recreation
    • A river is a symbol of identity for a region.
    • It is a community asset. River revitalization brings  communities that depend on it back to life.
    • Flood Control
    • It provides public spaces which bring people together. 
    • River floodplains recharge groundwater
    • What Wh t needs to be d t bdone/ way forward? / f ?
    • Recently,Recently Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said “...Our country is blessed with mighty rivers y g ythat are inextricably linked with our history, ourreligious beliefs, our culture and our customs of ourpeople. l …We have decided to adopt a different and more Weholistic approach taking the river and not the city asthe unit of planning...focus on catchment area p gtreatment, protection of flood plains, ensuringecological flows and restoration of the riverecosystem...”
    • Yamuna Satyagrah at Qudsia GhatYamuna Satyagrah at Qudsia Ghat
    • The Yamuna Satyagrah began in Aug 2007  and i A 2007 dpledged to save the Yamuna flood plains from encroachments. 24 hour dharnasare carried out to are carried out tokeep the Satyagrah, alive which goes on till  h h lldate at the Qudisa Ghat.
    • Save the FloodplainSave the Floodplain
    • Rainwater Harvesting R i t H ti Annual rainfall in Delhi is substantial and the city  A l i f ll i D lhi i b t ti l d th it area receives a normal rainfall of 611.8 mm in 27 rainy days amounting to 193 MCM, which however  i d ti t 193 MCM hi h h goes unutilised at the moment. 
    • We need a new approach which is localised and cost effective, and also tries to  and cost effective and also tries to minimise the waste to be treated.
    • •Maximising utilisation of existing treatment facilities•Cleaning the drains in Delhi •Ensuring reuse of treated effluent (so that treated and untreated sewage do not mix)•Improving monitoring systems and setting progressive standards •Achieving dilution in the river. 
    • Thank You