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  • 1. Consequences Of Favoring the MINORITY & Marginalizing the MAJORITY– in the “Indian Democracy”!! Presented by: Romi Roy Senior Urban Designer, UTTIPEC DDA Delhi Spl. Invitee, Masterplan Review Committee under LG, Delhi Member, High Court Special Task Force on Transportation under CS Member, Technical Committee on Urban Drainage, GNCTD, Delhi Spl. Invitee, LAP Monitoring Committee, MCD Delhi Member, Sub-Committee on Sustainable Habitat, MoUD Member of Committees, Indian Road Congress 22 Dec 2012
  • 2. Who are the Roads for ??Pedestrians + As Many as 20 Types of Vehicles
  • 3. Delhi Modal Share35% of Tripsare Walk Only! Private modes BICYCLE 4% CAR/TAXI 27% Walk 9% 35% WALK 35% 2W 14% CYCLE RICKSHAW 2% BUS TRAIN (IR) 27% 1% AUTO RICKSHAW 5% METRO 3% Public modes In addition, 38% all Public Transport trips include walk! Source: RITES Transport Demand Forecast Study for DoT, GNCTD, 2010
  • 4. Delhi Modal Share Only 23% of the city’s people use private vehicles (car/2-wheeler).Yet almost all infrastructure investments in the city are made for this MINORITY! Private modes BICYCLE 4% CAR/TAXI 27% Walk 9% 35% WALK 35% 2W 14% CYCLE RICKSHAW 2% BUS 27% TRAIN (IR) 1% AUTO RICKSHAW 5% METRO 3% Public modes 38% Source: RITES Transport Demand Forecast Study for DoT, GNCTD, 2010
  • 5. 35% people of Delhi own CYCLES !! But only 4% of trips are bycycle – because its unsafe and dangerous to use them! Vehicle Ownership in Private Vehicle Ownership (%) Private Vehicle Trips (%) Delhi 60 50 47.9 40 43.4 40 35 38 30 35 30 35 25 20 20 19.4 15 10 10 14 5 9 4 0 0Source: RITES Transport Demand Forecast Study for DoT, GNCTD, 2010
  • 6. Everyone is Walking!
  • 7. Who is Cycling?
  • 8. Women prefer to travel in groups by Cycle – for Safety !! Its also a Free mode. Gives them independence.
  • 9. Where are they on theroad?
  • 10. Delhi was once the Cycling City !
  • 11. Soon cyclists were marginalized due to growing traffic…
  • 12. Now they are “invisible” so they have no rights to road space and are at the mercy of motor vehicles!!
  • 13. Cycle tracks are sometimes constructed, but wrongly so!!Therefore they land up being “encroached” by motor vehicles while cycles/ rickshaws remain on road!!
  • 14. Samarthyam (an NGO) conducted Audit of one such road. MCD Engineers Police said they were not aware that the track constructed here Police was for Cycles & Rickshaws… !! MCD engineers said they were not aware of the UTTIPEC or IRC design standards for footpaths & cycle tracks…!! Samarthyam
  • 15. Cycle tracks/ footpathsare supposed to be 4-inchhigh…11-11-inch high wereconstructed here.For whom ??
  • 16. How can a rickshaw get onan 11-inch high cycle track, 11-even with a ramp ???They can’t!! Therefore….
  • 17. ….the Track meant for Cycles/rickshawsis being used for Car-parking comfortably!! Car-
  • 18. The physically disabled person with us could barely bepushed up on the footpath/ cycle track. Slope here is 1:2 !!
  • 19. Message we are giving to people through our Road Design:• If you are a car user, the Road is for you. You get first priority to do whatever you like.• If you are a Pedestrian, you are “At you Own Risk”. If possible, install eyes at the back of your head.• If you are running a cycle-rickshaw, you are illegal and there is no space for you on the road. Be thankful we are not throwing you out.• If you are on a cycle, again, “At your Own Risk”.• If you are old or even slightly physically challenged, STAY AT HOME! CLICK NEXT >
  • 20. Some good examples…. The BRT corridor….
  • 21. Some good examples…. The BRT corridor….Planned/ designed respectable spaces for pedestrians, cyclists, auto-parking as well as motor-vehicles !! auto- motor-
  • 22. Some good examples…. The BRT corridor….A simple table-top crossing lets a cyclist move freely across table- driveway, without hampering the car’s movement!!
  • 23. Policy recommendation 1:Promote Non-Motorized Transport &Pedestrian Safety. Why ? 33
  • 24. • 60% of Trips in Delhi are below 4 KMs. 60% Cycles, Cycle-rickshaws & Walking are the ideal modes for short 1-4 km Trips. Average Trip Lengths by M ode: Delhi 120 100 Average Trip Mode Length (KM) 80 % of Trips •Car 10.5 60 •2W 8.7 40 •Auto Rickshaw 4.7 20 •Bus 8.8 •Metro 13.8 0 •Train (IR) 20.2 •Bicycle 4 •Cycle Rickshaw 1.7 Trip lengths in KM 60-70% 60- •Walk 1.1 trips 34Source: RIT ES T ransport Demand Forecast Study for DoT , GNCT D, 2010
  • 25. For a 3 km trip, car bicycle BRT metroBuses & Cycle aremost efficient PT 3modes. walk 2.5 2 Distance, km 1.5 1 Metro Walking 0.5 Bicycling BRT 2-Wheeler/car 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Time, minutesSource: Created by IIT Delhi + iT rans
  • 26. NMT inclusive Planning –Where do you need it?Schools• 3 km buffer around schools of Sec. and Sr. Sec schools. (Schools marked From . Eicher City Map, Edition 2)• The Catchment area of education based trips. Legend School railway line NCTD BoundarySource: TRIPP/IIT Delhi yamuna watercourse IGI airport forests and ridge Buffer School 0 3 6 12 18 24 ± Kilometers
  • 27. Trips origin: slums• Distributions of JJ Clusters in Delhi• There is direct relation between the density of these poor households and the number of cycle trips origin. Legend JJC_Point POPULATION 0 - 100 101 - 200 201 - 400 401 - 800 801 - 1600 ± 1601 - 10000 nctd line railway lineSource: TRIPP/IIT Delhi yamuna watercourse 0 2 4 8 12 16
  • 28. NMT trips destination:shops, MLU, CSC, DC, Wholesale areas• Major Commercial Centres, District Centres, -18%• Shops / Mixed Land Use and Wholesale areas -23%• These are spread all over urban area as major destination for poor urban workers Legend using cycles for upto 20km per day Shops / Mixed Landuse district centers C.S. Center s ± wholesale areas yamuna watercourse rai lway line 0 2 4 8 12 16 nctd line Kilometers Source: Figure 4.17 Shows locations of major Commercial Centres, District Centres, Shops / /TRIPP/IIT Delhi Mixed Land Use and Wholesale areas
  • 29. NMT destination: manufacturingareas and govt. offices• 21% of cycle n work- trips have factory destination and travel up to 10 km in a day n n• about 35% have offices (Govt. and n n Pvt.) as their destination and Legend n nn n n n travelling upto 10 n govt landuse km per day railway line NCTD Boundary n yamuna watercourse govt. landuse manufacture ± IGI airport forests and ridge Buffer_of_manufacture 0 3 6 12 18 24 Buffer_of_govt_landuseSource: TRIPP/IIT Delhi Kilometers
  • 30. Walking & Cycle-rickshaws are the most Cycle- important Feeders to Metro/ BRT Stations. Mode used to Reach Metro Stations: MODE FROM ORIGIN TO METRO FROM METRO TO DESTINATION Walk 61% 78% Cycle Rickshaw 12% 9% Two Wheeler 11% -- Auto 8% 8% Bus 5% 5% Car/Taxi 3% 1%Source: RITES Transport Demand Forecast Study: May 2008Yet NO Metro Station provides authorized cycle- cycle-rickshaw parking !! 40
  • 31. Policy Recommendation 2: • Improve Supply & Service by IPT. • Provide authorized Parking. auto taxi rickshaw• A Car serves one person a day & occupies minimum 3 parking spaces throughout the city.• An IPT mode occupies only one parking space, and serves multiple people throughout the day. 41
  • 32. 12th Plan Strategies to promote IPT:1. Provide More IPT Choices2. Provide organized IPT Parking at all Metro Stations & along all Roads.
  • 33. Road Safety is Low. The reasons for all accidents are: 1. Signal free high speed corridors. 2. Insufficient/ No pedestrian Crossing facilities. 3. Central verge without grills. 4. No speed breakers/ rumble strips on long stretches. 5. Absence of dedicated lanes for slow moving vehicles. 6. Heavy volume of traffic. 7. Glaring during night etc. Wazirabad Road Pedestrians G. T. Road Two Wheelers• There are more than 2100 Najafgarh Road Self accidents occurred during 2010. Mahrauli Badarpur Road N. H.-8• The maximum casualty in the fatal accidents are pedestrians, Mathura Road cyclists & 2 wheelers. G T K Road Rohtak Road• The maximum accidents have occurred during the lean hours both Outer Ring Road in the morning & night. Ring Road 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Fatal Accidents in 2010Source: Delhi Traffic Police
  • 34. How are Car-oriented Infrastructure Car- Impacting us?
  • 35. How are Car-oriented Infrastructure Car- Impacting us?• Making motor vehicle movement smoother for a few years, before jams take over.• Making it impossible/ very difficult to cross roads on foot!• Making cycles & cycle-rickshaws move contra-flow, thus endangering their lives.• Making it impossible/ difficult to interchange between different bus routes near junctions.• Creating environments suitable for eve-teasing and heinous crimes like Rape!• In long run, increased car use leads to Congestion again, while use of all other modes has been made excruciatingly difficult or impossible!
  • 36. How to cross this road ?? Where to walk or cycle ??Dhaulan Kuan Signal-free Cloverleaf (जलेबी) Signal- 46
  • 37. Walking Distances are increased by >5 times >5 after जलेबी construction at AIIMS!. AIIMS!.(Source: CSE)After construction of the Clover Leaf Flyover, the walking distancefrom AIIMS exit to Dilli Haat has increased by over 5 times.In addition, there are no safe crossings available, so people risktheir lives crossing the street at the most convenient locations.
  • 38. Walking Distances are increased by >5 times wherever a flyover is constructred. constructred. People can’t cross the street between neighborhoods!!
  • 39. All major flyovers have failed, or led to MORE congestion.
  • 40. All major flyovers have failed, or led to MORE congestion.
  • 41. Congestion is good!!It makes people shift to BRT or other modes like cycles!! Jakarta Delhi Delhi
  • 42. What to Do?1. Follow Road Standards & Guidelines. (IRC+ UTTIPEC)2. Plan a Network for cyclists, rickshaws & pedestrians, not pieces.3. Technically Design, Implement & Supervise projects.4. Regular Audit and Maintenance.
  • 43. Street Design Guidelines “…for Equitable Distribution of Road Space” - NUTP © UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority, New Delhi Guidelines Adopted: Nov 2009. Revision 1: Nov 2010
  • 44. Masterplan-2021 Road Hierarchy: Categorization* Primary Arterial Other Primary Arterial Primary Collector Secondary Collector Local StreetsRIGHT OF WAY 60-80 M 45-60 M 30-40 M 18-24 M 12-20 MSPEED RANGE 50 – 70 km/hr 30 - 40 km/hr. 20 - 30 km/hr 10- 20 km/hr 10-20 km/hrSPEED Enforcement and Traffic Enforcement and Traffic Enforcement and Traffic calming Traffic calmingCONTROL Calming required Calming required Traffic calming essential. required required.BUSWAYS FOR Segregated busw ays Segregated busw ays Segregated busw ays No segregated bus lane; No segregated busBRT required w here BRT required w here BRT required w here BRT but Road may be lanes or bus operations proposed proposed proposed, at-grade designated Bus-NMV required; but Road segregation possible on only if required may be designated R/Ws above 36 M Bus-NMV only if requiredMOTORIZED 2 to 4 motorized lanes per 2 to 4 motorized lanes per 2 to 3 motorized lanes No minimum lane width No minimum laneLANES direction, min. 3.3 m w ide direction, min. 3.3 m w ide per direction, min. 3.1m specification. width specification. (min. 3.5 for BRT (min. 3.3 for BRT w ide (min. 3.3 for BRT busw ays) busw ays) busw ays)CYCLE/ NMV Segregated cycle tracks Segregated cycle tracks Traffic Calming Cycle lanes can work, No special feature forTRACKS required; min. 2.5 m wide required; min. 2.5 m wide essential where segregated tracks cyclists for two-way movement. for two-way movement. segregated Cycle tracks required where friction & are not provided; Cycle encroachment expected tracks to be min. 2.5 m wide if block lengths are >250m.SERVICE LANES Serv ice lanes required. Serv ice lanes required for No serv ice lane No serv ice lane No serv ice lane residential frontages; for required required required commercial / MU frontages, not required.MEDIANS Continuous median; all Continuous median; all Intermittent or No Intermittent or No No medians; traffic openings and intersections openings and intersections median; median required; For calmed crossings, or accompanied by signals accompanied by signals openings/ intersections roads w here need for mini roundabouts and traffic calming. (no and traffic calming. (no accompanied by signals Median is felt, issue to grade separators within grade separators within and traffic calming. be brought to city) city) UTTIPEC. Crossings to NOT E: Lane Widths have been designated based on desired speed of the road category. be traffic calmed.54 Guidelines prepared by UTTIP EC, DDA; Revised and Updated in Nov 2010. * 54
  • 45. 05 Bicycle and Non-Motorized Transport Infrastructure05A Segregated Cycle +NMT Tracks05B Bicycle Parking andOther Infrastructure Provision for introducing cycle tracks, pedestrian and disabled friendly features in arterial and sub-arterial roads is a must. (MPD-2021) Bicycles, Rickshaw s and other Non-Motorized transport are essential and the most eco- friendly feeder services to and from MRTS stations. They are also indispensible for short & UTTIPEC Mobility Safety medium length trips for shopping, daily needs, school, etc. Providing safe and segregated NMT lanes on all Arterial and Collector Streets w ould encourage their use and reduce the & Comfort dependency of people on the private car... StreetIntegrated Design MAIN PRINCIPLES: Mobility - Continuous and safe NMT lanes with adequate crossings are essential throughout the city Guidelines Ecology - Ample parking facilities for NMTs must be provided at all MRTS stations Ecology: - The most eco-friendly mode of transportation. Safety/Comfort - Safe crossings for NMT are essential for their safety. - NMT lanes must be segregated from faster motorized traffic. - Shade must be provide along NMT lanes as well as at traffic signals. 55
  • 46. Not Preferable 05A Segregated Cycle and NMT Tracks Key Principles: • Cycle Lane - A portion of a roadw ay that has been designated by striping, signs, and pavement markings for the preferential or exclusive use of bicyclists. • Cycle Track - A Track intended for the use of bicycles that is physically separated from motorized vehicle traffic by an open space or barrier w ithin the existing ROW. • Provision for introducing cycle tracks, pedestrian and disabled friendly features in arterial and sub-arterial roads is a must, as per MPD-2021. Minimum acceptable Width for single lane movement is 2.0 M.‘Marked’ Cycle Lanes have failed in Delhi • NMT Lanes are meant for Bicycles, Cycle-Rickshaw s, Hand pushcarts, Haw ker carts, animal draw n carts, etc.as vehicles freely drive and park on thesecycle lanes. Key Guidelines:Marked lanes also suffer from lack of visibility. • NMVs are the second most vulnerable group of road users and therefore must be clearlyLack of physical separation also deprives segregated from faster moving motorizedcycles of safety and does not allow them to traffic, especially on Roads designed forpick up speed. motorized speeds of • The NMV lane should be constructed with smooth-finished cement Concrete or Asphalt in order to ensure a low maintenance and smooth riding surface. In the absence of this, cyclists will tend to move into the MV lanes which may be more comfortable. • Minimum Dimension of NMV Track is 2.5 M. • NMV Lanes or Tracks should be located on both sides of the street. ? • A 0.7 M landscaped buffer should be kept between NMV and MV lanes in order toMixing of modes slows down everyone and maximize the speed, efficiency and capacitycreates chaos! of the NMV Lane. NMV lanes must be given clear crossing Tracks at junctions. Street Design Guidelines © UTTIPEC, DDA 200956 ESSENTIAL GUIDELINES
  • 47. 05A Bicycle and NMT Tracks Best Practices 05 ARelative Levels of NMV Tracks and Footpaths.Source: TRIPP, IIT Delhi, BRT Design Specif ications, 2009 Segregated Cycle-NMV Track, BRT Corridor, Delhi Cycle track on Public Staircase, Europe Segregated TWO-WAY Cycle Track, Canal Street, Manhattan2.5 M is the Optimum Cycle Track Width. 1.5 M Width is required Shaded Waiting Area for Cycles at Segregated Cycle Track on 20 M Road,for Cycle Rickshaw Parking. Detail Source: Oasis Designs Road Junction, Hangzhou, China ManhattanInc. Street Design Guidelines © UTTIPEC, DDA 2009 ESSENTIAL GUIDELINES 57
  • 48. Not Preferable 05B Bicycle Parking and Other Infrastructure Key Principles: • Cycles are a very desirable and affordable private feeder service to MRTS/ BRTS Stations. • To encourage their usage therefore - safe and secure cycle parking options must be provided. • Secure Cycle Parking must be provided at all MRTS/ BRTS Stations. Key Guidelines: • Long-Stay Parking – Cycle parking lots must be enclosed, ticketed (like car-parking lots) and shaded from w eather. Cycle parking lots can be combined w ith ticket counter booths, local police booths, cycle service stations or shared areas w ithin private building complexes.80% of Cycles under the Paris Cycle ShareProgram are stolen or damaged. • Short-stay parking – should be open to view and close to entrances of destinations.Source: Samuel Bollendorf f for The New Y orkTimes The stands should allow at least the frame and ideally both w heels, to be secured to them.Open lockable parking bays like above may A typical Cycle Stand is show n above.not succeed in Delhi – due to fear of theft or Source: http://www.norwich.gov.uk/local_plan/images/figures/diag1a.jpgvandalism. However, they may work as ashort term (10-minute) parking option. http://www.bolsov er.gov.uk/localplan/ws_pics/image005.jpg Street Design Guidelines © UTTIPEC, DDA 200958 ESSENTIAL GUIDELINES
  • 49. 05B Bicycle Parking and Other Infrastructure Best Practices Public Cycle Parking in a Private Compound 2.1 or 2.5 M x 5.0 M Parking Bays Graphic Source: http://www.hackney- cyclists.org.uk/parking/on_street_x.jpgSAMPLE CYCLE PARKING PLAN A Cycle-repair stall next to a Cycle Track, Shanghai Stacked Cycle Parking, China 05 B Cycle Rickshaw Parking, Cycle Parking Stands, Cycle repair Stalls, etc. can all be accommodated within the Flexible “ Multi-Functional Zone” (Section 04) Shaded and Ticketed cycle Parking, Beijing Street Design Guidelines © UTTIPEC, DDA 2009 Sample Drawing: Pradeep Sachev a Design Associates ESSENTIAL GUIDELINES 59
  • 50. 01E Continuous Pavement Best Practices At entry points of properties – introduce “ raised driveway” or “ table-top” details – where01E pedestrian and cycle tracks continue at their same level, but the motorized vehicles have to move over a gentle ramp to enter the property. BRT Corridor, New Delhi 01E T ypical Detail of Raised Driveway at Building Entries. Source: TRIPP, IIT Delhi, BRT Design Specifications, 2009 Street Design Guidelines © UTTIPEC, DDA 2009 ESSENTIAL GUIDELINES 60
  • 51. Cycle Rickshaw Stands
  • 52. Cycle Parking
  • 53. 45 M Primary Arterial Road IRC Section Cycle Tracks MANDATORY UTTIPEC Section63 Drawings only Suggestive, not Prescriptive. Prepared by UTTIPEC, DDA 63
  • 54. 40 M Primary Arterial Road IRC Section Cycle Tracks MANDATORY UTTIPEC Section64 Drawings only Suggestive, not Prescriptive. Prepared by UTTIPEC, DDA 64
  • 55. 30 M Arterial RoadIRC Section Cycle Tracks MANDATORYUTTIPECSection6565 Drawings only Suggestive, not Prescriptive. Prepared by UTTIPEC, DDA
  • 56. 30 M Primary Collector Road NOTE: IRC Section Non-motorized Lanes/ Cycle T racks are OPT IONAL on R/Ws below 40m Width. In case smoother flow of motorized traffic is desired, one “ Shared Lane” may be replaced by a dedicated Non-motorized Lane, in each direction, to reduce friction between slow and fast moving vehicles. Cycle Tracks OPTIONAL UTTIPEC Section66 Drawings only Suggestive, not Prescriptive. Prepared by UTTIPEC, DDA 66
  • 57. 18-24 M Secondary Collector Road IRC Section Cycle Tracks OPTIONAL UTTIPEC Section67 Drawings only Suggestive, not Prescriptive. Prepared by UTTIPEC, DDA 67
  • 58. Example: 45m Road (Vikas Marg) Cycle tracks, footpaths, rickshaw-parking, auto-parking, vendor cart spaces, trees, car-parking, toilets… accommodated within R/W without disturbing carriageway space !7/26/2012 UTTIPEC 68
  • 59. Example: 45m Road (Vikas Marg) Cycle tracks, footpaths, rickshaw-parking, auto-parking, vendor cart spaces, trees, car-parking, toilets… accommodated within R/W without disturbing carriageway space !7/26/2012 UTTIPEC 69
  • 60. Example: 45m Road (Vikas Marg) Cycle tracks, footpaths, rickshaw-parking, auto-parking, vendor cart spaces, trees, car-parking, toilets… accommodated within R/W without disturbing carriageway space !7/26/2012 UTTIPEC 70
  • 61. A complete City-wide Safe Cycling Network to be developed.Arterial Roads to have safe Cycle Tracks
  • 62. A complete City-wide Safe Cycling Network to be developed.Nallahs can be Cycle-Ecomobility corridors, forming a City-wide Network.
  • 63. Road Small SuccessesAccidents! © UTTIPEC, DDA 201273
  • 64. Even when traffic is jammed & standing,still pedestrian crossings are not left free !74 Why No Crossings ? © UTTIPEC, DDA 2012
  • 65. No signalizedzebracrossings= jaywalking= Roadaccidents! © UTTIPEC, DDA 201275
  • 66. Signalized Pilot ProjectsCrossingswereproposedevery ~250mon AurobindoMarg to makeit safer!Times of India, 2010 © UTTIPEC, DDA 201276
  • 67. Signalized Pilot ProjectsCrossingswereproposedevery ~250mon AurobindoMarg to makeit safer!Times of India, 2010 © UTTIPEC, DDA 201277
  • 68. Typical SafeCrossing Designs: © UTTIPEC, DDA 201278
  • 69. Typical Safe Crossing Designs: © UTTIPEC, DDA 201279
  • 70. Provide safety through Design © UTTIPEC, DDA 201280
  • 71. Safe Crossings implemented on Aurobindo Marg:• Traffic calming strips before zebra crossings © UTTIPEC, DDA 201281
  • 72. Provide safety through Design• New Safe zebra crossings © UTTIPEC, DDA 201282
  • 73. Provide safety through Design• New Safe zebra crossings © UTTIPEC, DDA 201283
  • 74. Provide safety through Design Success © UTTIPEC, DDA 201284
  • 75. What to Do? Problems, Issues and Solutions are known! POLITICAL WILL IS MISSING !
  • 76. Safety and Pride for Non-motorized Transport One day we will have it!