IMPRESSIONISM. Pierre- Auguste Edgar Degas, Ballet rehearsal. Renoir, Girls at the piano.05/02/12 Manuel Cruz Martínez, 4º B
INDEX: Impressionism |1|. Impressionism |2|. Main features of Impressionism. Painting. Édouard Manet. Claude Monet. Pierre- Auguste Renoir. Edgar Degas. Alfred Sisley. Camille Pissarro. Impressionism in Spain. Sorolla. Sculpture. Auguste Rodin. Explanation of a painting: Rouen Cathedral, by Claude Monet Explanation of a sculpture: The Thinker, by Auguste Rodin Sources.
Impresionism |1| The scientific advances of the 19th century, especially the invention of photography, had an important influence on art evolution. At the end of the 19th century reflecting reality was not a priority for artists any more. So many artists started experiencing with colours, atmosphere, sensation and representing their subjective point of view in their works. This was the beginning of the avant-garde styles of the 20th century. Sea-Roses, by Renoir.
Impresionism |2| Impressionist painters never spoke of themselves using this word (Impressionism). It was applied to them in a pejorative way by critic Louis Leroy, as he saw Monets Impression Dusk or Impression: Raising Sun, painted in 1872 and shown in an exhibition in 1874. On the following day, doing a parody of the pictures title in order to make a joke, Leroy gave name to the new movement: ‘When I beheld the work I thought that my glasses were dirty, what did this canvas mean?.. The picture had neither up nor down... Impression! Of course, it makes an impression... Coloured paper in his embrionary state is more complete than this sea-scene. In this way the word "Impressionism" became the name of the stream that would make feel proud even to Leroy himself. It caused a big scandal, similar to that experienced by Manet. The refined public of the moment was not ready to accept a revolution like the one that the Impressionists proposed. Jokes and drastic criticisms they suffered would make them succeed. Claude Monet reading, by Renoir.
Main features of Impressionism. Asymmetrical Balance Use of Coloured Shadows Use of Pure Color Broken Colour or Broken Brushstrokes Use of Impasto Subjective themes High Horizontal Line Photographic Influence Influence of Japanese Prints "En Plein Air“ painting Alfred Sisley, Le Loing à Saint-Mammès.
Camille Pissarro, Paysanne poussant une brouette.PAINTING. Alfred Sisley, Les berges de lOise.
Édouard Manet. He was the precursor of Impressionism. He admired Velázquez and Goya. Some of his paintings are: The balcony, The fifer, Olympia, The Luncheon on the grass. Édouard Monet, Olympia.Édouard Manet, The Balcony. Édouard Manet, The Fifer.
Claude Monet. He was really interested in light and how it can change a landscape. he made different series of the same theme. Claude Monet, Claude Monet, Sunrise. Impression. Claude Monet, Water lilies.
Pierre- Auguste Renoir. He was mainly interested in two things: the scenes in open air and the feminine beauty and sensuality. Pierre- Auguste Renoir, Luncheon at the Boating Party. Pierre- Auguste Renoir, Dance at the Moulin de la Galette.Pierre- Auguste Renoir, The Swing.
Edgar Degas. He was focused on human figure and movement. He painted scenes of dancers and racecourses. Edgar Degas, The Tub.Edgar Degas, The dance Edgar Degas, L class. ´Absinthe.
Alfred Sisley. He painted scenes in the open air, such as Flood at Port- Marly. Alfred Sisley, Passerelle dArgenteuil Alfred Sisley, Flood at Port- Marly. Alfred Sisley, Le canal Saint-Martin.
Camille Pissarro. As Alfred Sisley he painted scenes in the open air, such as Boulevard Montmartre.Camile Pissarro, Camille Pissarro, La Moisson. Camille Boulevard Pissarro, LeMontamartre at Jardin à night. Pontoise.
IMPRESSIONISM IN SPAIN Sorolla, Sad Inheritance.
Sorolla. His most important paintings were his beach paintings, which can be classified as belonging to this style. Sorolla, Castilla.Sorolla, Children on Sorolla, Walk on the the Seashore. Beach.
SCULPTURE. Auguste Rodín, The age of Bronze.
Auguste Rodin He used multiple planes to get light effects. Some of his main works of art were: The kiss, The thinker and Balzac. Auguste Rodin, TheAuguste Rodin, The Kiss. Auguste Rodin, Burghers of Calais. Balzac.
Explanation of a painting: Claude Monet: Rouen Cathedral. It corresponds to the series of paintings of the Rouen Cathedral. "Rouen Cathedral", Claude Monet. It was made between 1892 and 1893 and reworked in Monet´s studio in 1894. The material used was oil on canvas. There are 17 different version of this painting. This one is located in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., USA. The meaning of this painting was the purpose of showing that light could change a landscape. It can be considered as belonging to Impressionism because of the use of light. It has a lot of importance because he selected what he considered to be the twenty best paintings from the series to exhibit at his Paris dealer’s gallery and it influenced other artist too, like Pissarro and Cézanne. Some important information is that apart from its religious significance, Rouen Cathedral–built in the Gothic style–represented all that was best in French history and culture, being a style of architecture that was admired and adopted by many European countries during the Middle Ages. Monet made a lot of paintings about this theme, he used different colours to represent his interest in light.
Explanation of a sculpture: Auguste Rodin: The Thinker It was made in 1902, now its in the Museé Rodin in Paris. There are some twenty other original castings as well as various other versions, studies, and posthumous castings. It represents a man in sober meditation battling with a powerful internal struggle. Its often used in philosophy. Its considered the best sculpture and most representative of Impressionism. He was in origin named "The Poet" the piece was part of a commission by the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris to create a monumental portal to act as the door of the museum. Its made in bronze and marble. As you can see it´s an impressionist sculpture because of the expression of “The Thinker”.
Sources: Campo de Criptana Cristina Blanco and Paqui Perez Fons (2011). Social Sciences History 4th Year ESO. Anonimous writter. "The Thinker", web site "Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia", entered in the 28th of April of 2012, consulted in the 28th of April of 2012. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Thinker Beatriz Aragonés Escobar. "Impressionism", sitio web "Spanisharts", consulted in the 28th of April of 2012. URL: http://www.spanisharts.com/ history/del_impres_s.XX/impresionismo/i_impresionismo.html