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  • 1. Origin of the diversitywithin Afrotropicalstem borers subtribe Sesamiina (Lep. Noctuidae)
    Emmanuel Toussaint
    Faculté des Sciences d’Orsay, Université Paris-Sud XI
    Collaborators: Bruno Le Ru, Gaël Kergoat & Jean-François Silvain
    Laboratoire Evolution Génomes et Spéciation
    UPR9034 IRD/CNRS Gif-sur-Yvette
    Centre de Biologie et de Gestion des Populations
    UMR1062 INRA/CIRAD/IRD/Montpellier SupAgro
  • 2. Introduction
    Material& Methods
    Results & Discussion
    Conclusion
    Biological model : Apameinitribe
    More than 800 species (unravelledtaxonomy)
    Caterpillars on crops
    No phylogenetichypothesis for the tribe
    2 sub-tribes: Sesamiinamainly Afrotropical and Apameinafrom the Palaearcticregion
    Strong model to investigate the delineationbetweenmolecluar, morphological and ecological species concepts.
    BusseolafuscaSesamiacalamistis
  • 3. Introduction
    Material& Methods
    Results & Discussion
    Conclusion
    Problematic
    Combiningdifferentanalyticalmehods in order to untangle the evolution of feedingpreferenceswithin the Sesamiina subtribe :
    Delineate the species shapes of this group using molecular, ecological and morphological data
  • 4. Introduction
    Material& Methods
    Results & Discussion
    Conclusion
    ~1000 specimens
    ~200
    species
    Outgroup
    Mitochondrial
    Mitochondrial
    Nuclear
    12S
    16S
    28S
    EF1
    CO1
    CytB
    Non coding
    Coding
    Alignment
  • 5. Introduction
    Material& Methods
    Results & Discussion
    Conclusion
    Concatenated matrix
    ~1000 specimens
    ~200
    species
    Parsimony analyses
    TNT
    Outgroup
    Mitochondrial
    Nuclear
    Phylogeny
    12S
    16S
    28S
    EF1
    CO1
    CytB
    Non coding
    Coding
    Alignment
    Carvingmonophyleticentities
  • 6. Introduction
    Material& Methods
    Results & Discussion
    Conclusion
    Monophyletic groups
    Concatenated matrix
    ~1000 specimens
    ~200
    species
    Bayesian inference analyses
    MrBayes
    Parsimony analyses
    TNT
    Outgroup
    Molecular species delimitation
    Pons et al.,2006
    Monaghan et al.,2009
    Mitochondrial
    Nuclear
    Phylogeny
    12S
    16S
    28S
    EF1
    CO1
    CytB
    Non coding
    Coding
    Return to morphology/ecology
    Alignment
    Carvingmonophyleticentities
    Sesamiina Matrix
  • 7. Introduction
    Material& Methods
    Results & Discussion
    Conclusion
    Problematic
    Combiningdifferentanalyticalmehods in order to untangle the evolution of feedingpreferenceswithin the Sesamiina subtribe :
    Delineate the species shapes of this group using molecular, ecological and morphological data
    Studying the evolution of feedingpreferencesusingphylogenetic analyses allowing life history traits optimization
  • 8. Introduction
    Material& Methods
    Results & Discussion
    Conclusion
    Sesamiina Matrix
    Species – Host plants encoding
    Datation by Bayesian inference
    Beast
    40 000 caterpillarsraised on decade of host plants identified by botanists
    Phylogeny of the Sesamiina subtribe
    Optimization file
    Maximum Likelihoodanalysis
    Reconstructingevolutive patterns between stem borers and their host-plants
  • 9. Introduction
    Material& Methods
    Results & Discussion
    Conclusion
    Problématique
    Combiningdifferentanalyticalmehods in order to untangle the evolution of feedingpreferenceswithin the Sesamiina subtribe :
    Delineate the species shapes of this group using molecular, ecological and morphological data
    Studying the evolution of feedingpreferencesusingphylogenetic analyses allowing life history traits optimization
    Assess the origin of the Sesamiina subtribe Bayesian inference analyses and comparingthis timing with the occurrence of main palaecological and palaeoclimaticevents
  • 10. Introduction
    Material& Methods
    Results & Discussion
    Conclusion
    Apameini
    GeometridaeOenos. NotodontidaeEuteliidaeNolidaeErebidaeNoctuidae
    Fossile Arctiidae
    48 Ma
    Hawaii endemicH.Hawaiiensis
    => Emergence à 5 Ma
    Outgroup NOCTUOIDEA (Zahiri et al., 2010)
    MIN AGE
    (Erebidae)
    MAX AGE
    (Helicoverpa)
    EF1
    CO1
    DNA Matrix (134 taxons)
    Fossil and geologicalconstraints
    Bayesian inferenceanalysis
    Beast
    Chronogram
    Assessing Sesamiina origin
  • 11. Introduction
    Material& Methods
    Results& Discussion
    Conclusion
    Molecular species delimitation analyses : exemple of the genusFeraxinia sensu lato :
    New genus5 nov.sp1
    Feraxiniajemjemensis
    Feraxinia nov.sp1
    Feraxinianyei
    Feraxiniaserena
    New genus1 nov.sp1
    New genus8 nov.sp1
    New genus2 nov.sp1
    8 morphological species (B.Le Ru pers.com)
  • 12. Introduction
    Material& Methods
    Results& Discussion
    Conclusion
    Molecular species delimitation analyses : exemple of the genusFeraxinia sensu lato :
    New genus2 nov.sp1
    New genus8 nov.sp1
    New genus1 nov.sp1
    Feraxiniaserena nov.sp1
    Feraxiniaserena nov.sp2
    Feraxiniaserena nov.sp3
    Feraxiniaserena nov.sp4
    Feraxiniaserena nov.sp5
    Feraxiniaserena nov.sp6
    Feraxiniaserena
    Feraxinianyei nov.sp1
    Feraxinianyei
    Feraxinia nov.sp1
    Feraxiniajemjemensis
    New genus5 nov.sp2
    New genus 5 nov.sp1
    Pons et al. (2006) :
    14 espèces moléculaires
    Monaghan et al. (2009) :
    11 espèces moléculaires
    Choix de la méthode la plus « conservative » Monaghan
  • 13. Introduction
    Material& Methods
    Results& Discussion
    Conclusion
    Host-Plant optimization analyses and ancestral state reconstruction
    BotanicFamilylevel
    Conico.
    Acrapex
    Scio.
    Pir.
    Car.
    Busseola
    Manga
    Ferax.
    Po.
    Sesamia
    *
    *
    *
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    Poaceae
    *
    Poaceae
    Cyperaceae
    *
    Cyperaceae
    Typhaceae
    Typhaceae
    *
    Polyphage
    Polyphage
    *
  • 14. Introduction
    Material& Methods
    Results& Discussion
    Conclusion
    Host-Plant optimization analyses and ancestral state reconstruction
    BotanicSub-Familylevel
    Conico.
    Acrapex
    Scio.
    Pir.
    Car.
    Busseola
    Manga
    Ferax.
    Po.
    Sesamia
    *
    *
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    *
    *
    *
    *
    *
    *
    Panicaceae
    *
    Poaceae
    Chlorodoideae
    *
    Cyperaceae
    Arundinoideae
    Typhaceae
    Cyperoideae
    *
    Polyphage
    Pooideae
    Polyphage
    *
  • 15. Introduction
    Material& Methods
    Results& Discussion
    Conclusion
    Host-Plant optimization analyses and ancestral state reconstruction
    BotanicTribelevel
    Conico.
    Acrapex
    Scio.
    Pir.
    Car.
    Busseola
    Manga
    Ferax.
    Po.
    Sesamia
    *
    *
    *
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    Andropogoneae
    Poaceae
    Paniceae
    *
    Cyperaceae
    Zoysieae
    *
    Typhaceae
    Aruiulineae
    Polyphage
    Aveneae
    Cypereae
    Fuireneae
    Typheae
    Polyphage
  • 16. Introduction
    Material& Methods
    Results& Discussion
    Conclusion
    Chronogram of the Noctuoidea super-family
  • 17. Introduction
    Material& Methods
    Results& Discussion
    Conclusion
    Conclusion
    • Stronghypothesis for the Sesamiina phylogeny
    • 18. Unsuspected species richness and highlevel of specialization
    • 19. Group diversification occuredat the sametimeas the emergence of the first savannah biomes
    • 20. High level of phylogeneticconservatism in host use, contradicting the « specializationis an evolutionarydead-end » hypothesis
    Prospects
    • Densification of the taxon sampling (Acrapex, Buakea, Apameina…)
    • 21. Study of the diversification rates
    • 22. Working on the adptation of the stem borers to the crops
  • Acknowledgments
    Collaborations
    Molecular Biology
    Anne-Laure Clamens
    TRNO
    Claire Capdevielle-Dulac
    IE
    Dr. Gaël Kergoat
    CR1
    Dr. Jean-François Silvain
    HDR
    Dr. Bruno Le Ru
    HDR
    I wouldalsolike to thank Fabien Condamine(PhD) and Maud Lecomte (TR)