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South asia challenges threats and trends contact saarc iii dec 2011

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Session conducted as part of Two week Program conducted by CONTACT SAARC III in Kathmandu, Nepal in December 2011...

Session conducted as part of Two week Program conducted by CONTACT SAARC III in Kathmandu, Nepal in December 2011

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Conflict Transformation and Peace Building in South Asia
Challenges, Threats and Trends

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South asia challenges threats and trends contact saarc iii dec 2011 South asia challenges threats and trends contact saarc iii dec 2011 Presentation Transcript

  • South AsiaChallenges, Threats and Trends Dr. Mansi Mehrotra December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • PURPOSETo understand the South Asian kaleidoscope (from Greek kalos beautiful + eidos form + ‐SCOPE) December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • What are the elements that defines  your Ethnic Community?Ethnicity is a sense of belonging to a particulargroup that distinguishes them from others insocial, cultural, language, religion, region, history,genetic, economic, customs, place of residenceand traditional orientation.The membership to such exclusive group gives itsmembers material and social advantages alongwith psychological support. December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • INTERVIEW EACH OTHER (Find your partner sitting on your Right)• What does your partner like about her/his  ethnic community? (INDIVIDUALLY)• What does you partner dislike about her/his  community? (INDIVIDUALLY)• What are some of the common stories your  ethnic communities share? (AS A PAIR) December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • LANGUAGE• Language is a central feature of human  identity. When we hear someone speak, we  immediately make guesses about gender,  education level, age, profession, and place of  origin. Beyond this individual matter, a  language is a powerful symbol of national and  ethnic identity. (Spolsky, 1999, p. 181) December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • Language Identity Crises• Pakistan – National language is Urdu which is the native language of only about 7% of country’s population• Nepal  – Nepal Bhasha Movement 1909 after Khas was renamed “Nepali” and Nepali bhasa was  “Newari” in 1905• Bangladesh – Bengali Language Movement (21st Feb)• Sri Lanka – Official Language Act No.33 1956• India – 1952, Telugu Movement by Congress leader Sriramalu 56 day fast. 1953 Andhra Pradesh  Created – 1964, use of English language to cease (TN, WB, Karnataka, AP and Pondicherry) – Anti‐Hindi feelings by Shiv Sena and Maharashtra Navniman Sena – There are also odd examples. In Mizoram, Meghalaya and Nagaland, India’s three Christian‐ majority states in the North‐East, the  languages used for official purposes are Hindi, and  English (link language), and not the languages spoken by the people in those states.  December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • RELIGION• “Le coeur a ses raisons que la raison ne  connaît point. (The heart has its reasons that  reason does not know at all). Les Pensées,  (Thoughts) Blaise Pascal, 1665• Religion is often  used to justify conflict, and  becomes a source of conflict, even though  most religions of the world emphasize  peaceful coexistence and tolerance. December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • • Afghanistan Religious Intolerance – March 2000, Taliban destroyed the Bahamian statues• Pakistan – Small Christian minority has periodically been targeted since Pakistan became a US ally in the so‐called War on Terror.  – Red Mosque crisis – Attacks on Ahmadis, Hindus and Shiites – Pakistani authorities shut down 156 radio stations for operating illegally and for “fanning sectarian hatred and anti‐state feelings” in  western tribal areas – Blasphemy laws alienate both moderate Muslims and non‐Muslims – Hudood Ordianace requires strict adherence to Muslim practices and blatantly discriminate against non‐Muslims in the court of law – The Federal Sharia Court (FSC) ensures that all legislative acts and judicial pronouncements, including those of the Supreme Court,  are compatible with Islamic law. • India – Anti Sikh Riots 1984 – Ethnic Cleansing of Kashmiri Pandits – Religious involvement in North‐East India Militancy – Anti‐Muslim Violence – Anti‐Christian Violence – Anti‐Hindu Violence• Nepal – Christian and Muslim Religious minorities are attacked – On May 23, 2009, a bomb attack against Lalitpurs Catholic Church of the Assumption, claimed by the NDA. Days later, the NDA  issued a call for all Christians to leave Nepal.• Bhutan – It is illegal to convert someone from the countrys two predominant religions, Buddhism and Hinduism – Government has limited non‐Buddhist missionary activity, barring non‐Buddhist missionaries from entering the country, limiting  construction of non‐Buddhist religious buildings, and restricting the celebration of some non‐Buddhist religious festivals. December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • • Bangladesh – Religious minorities, especially Hindus and Ahmadiyyas, face  manifold problems.  – Religious minorities are readily attacked by the influential and  politically powerful, enjoying absolute impunity many of them  while performing their rituals.  – In many places, houses, businesses and religious properties have  been taken or destroyed. Girls and women belonging to religious  minorities have been raped for reason of their beliefs. • Sri Lanka – flag of Śri Lankān – Arrest of Sarah Malathi Perera for her book “From darkness to  light: Questions and Answers”• Maldives – According to the former President Maumoon Abdul Gavoom, no  religion other than Islam should be allowed in the Maldives.  December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • ETHNO‐REGIONAL IDENTITIESIf we institutionally define a nation‐state as a set of reciprocal economic, military, and even social rights and obligations, it becomes obvious that a modern nation‐state is as much a state of mind as a geographic entity” Louis Depree December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • Regional Divide in SA• Sri Lanka  India • Jharkahand Movement • Uttrakhand • Gorkhaland • Bodoland • Ladakh • The Northeast • Magadh, Bhojpuri Pradesh, Angika Pradesh,  • Bajjika Pradesh and  • Seemanchal from Bihar,  • Udayachal, and Kamatapur from Assam,  • Braj Pradesh and Rohilkhand from UP,  • Malwa from MP,  • Mewar from Rajasthan and  • Kuchh and Saurastra from Gujarat • Maharashrtra,MP, AP, UP and Bihar (Vidarbha, Bundelkand, Telangana, Vindhya Pradesh,  Mahakaushal, Purvanchal, Harit Pradesh and  Mithilanchal)  December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • PakistanTime Group Location Description1947‐48 Baloch Kalat and  First Baloch insurgency of Abdul Karim Khan against forcible annexation of Balochistan surroundings  into Pakistan 1947‐48 Pashtun NWFP Reaction to dismissal of Dr. Khan’s nationalist government1958‐63 Baloch Baloch countryside Resistance against one‐unit scheme, distant identity1950s Pashtun NWFP  Resistance against one‐unit scheme, afghan irredentist movement. But at the same time  Dr. Khan accepted the offer of central government and became Chief minister of West  Pakistan1973‐77 Baloch Baloch tribal areas of  Baloch insurgency against central government on the dismissal of  nationalist regime.  Marri‐Mengal This war involved more than 80,000 Pakistani troops and some 55,000 Baloch guerrillas  (Harrison, 1981). The insurgency ended after the over throw of Bhutto by Zia‐ul‐Haq. 1973‐74 Pashtun NWFP  Resignation of elected government as a protest against central  governments interference in provincial matters of Balochistan and  NWFP1980s Sindhis Rural Sindh Movement for the Restoration of Democracy1980s Mohajirs Urban Sindh Killings in Karachi 2002‐?  Baloch Baloch countryside  Baloch resistance movement: a response to marginalisation,  demands for distributive justice • Nepal – Three ecological regions are: (i) the Mountain, (ii) the Hills, and (iii) the Tarai – Politically five development regions by the Panchayat rulers (i) Eastern Development Region, (ii)  Central Development Region, (iii) Western Development Region, (iv) Mid‐Western Development  Region, and (v) Far‐Western Development Region. December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • SOCIO‐ECONOMIC GROUPS“There is no caste in blood.” Edwin Arnold December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • GROUP EXERCISETalk to people on your own table December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • ECONOMIC SECURITY• Poverty and income inequality• Food security• Employment security• Impact of privatisation on economic security• Globalisation and economic security December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • HEALTH AND HUMAN SECURITY• Health security • Spread of infectious diseases• Causes of health security December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY• Water security• Air pollution• Energy security and environmental impact• Deforestation• Natural and man‐made disasters• Environmental Security in South Asia‐some  initiatives December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • CONFLICT AND HUMAN SECURITY• Conflicts between the states in South Asia• Militarisation: protection or threat to Human  Security• Nuclearisation in South Asia: A deterrent or a  threat to human security• Armed conflicts, arms transfers and human  security ‐‐‐cont.‐‐‐ December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • CONFLICT AND HUMAN SECURITY• Internal conflicts• Refugees• Cost of conflict Human cost Women  Economic cost Refugee December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • Security of WomenManipuri women protests nude on 15 july 2004 in front of The Assam Riflesagainst the rape and killing of Manorama by 17 AR Photograph of Aisha Women harassed by the Police in  Bangladesh December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • Gender Equality and Empower WomenShare of women in non‐agricultural wage employment, 1990 & 2004 (in %) 6.6 Pakistan 8.6 12.7 Nepal 17.3 17.6Bangladesh 23.1 1990 31.1 2004 Maldives 35.6 39.1 Sri Lanka 43.2 0 20 40 60 13 S.Asia 18 38 East Asia & Pacific 39 39 Latin America & Caribean 43 46 Europe & C.Asia 46 December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III 0 50
  • Security of Children More than a third of the  world’s child brides are from  IndiaIn Afghanistan almost 1,800 children have been killed or injured in conflict‐related violence from September 2008 to September 2010 December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • Child mortality Under‐five mortality rate per  Under‐five mortality rate per  1,000 live births, 1990 and 2004 1,000 live births, 1990 and 2004 260 Afghanistan 1.7% of target  257 achieved 188 87 Sub‐Saharan Africa 13.6% of target  171 achieved 63 130 Pakistan 33.5% of target  101 achieved 43 129 S.Asia 43% of target achieved 92 123 43 India 46.3% of target achieved 85 41 145 1990 CEE/CIS & Baltic States 44.4% of target  54 38 Nepal 71.4% of target achieved 76 achieved 48 2004 18 Bangladesh 72.5% of target  77 149 2015 M.East & N.Africa 46.3% of target  81 56 achieved 50 achieved 27 166Bhutan 77.7% of Target achieved 80 58 55 E.Asia & Pacific 56.9% of target achieved 36 199 32 Sri Lanka 84.4% of Target  14 achieved 11 54 Latin America & Caribbean 63.9% of  31 target achieved 111 18 Maldives 87.8% of Target  46 achieved 37 December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  0 50 100 150 200 250 0 100 200 300 CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • Percentage of children of primary school age  out of school, total and by sex  2000‐03 Education Bhutan 46.7 52 49.3 32.4 Pakistan 39.3 46.6 Out of school males (as % of  22.3 total primary school age males)Net enrolment in primary  Nepal 31.6 26.8education India 4.3 11.4 19 Out of school females (as % of  total primary school age  females) 11.2 Bangladesh 8.8 10 Total out of school children(%  of total primary school age Afghanistan 27 3 population) 54 Maldives 1.9 2.5 Pakistan 33.4 52 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Nepal 64 84 41.3 India 89.7 2000‐2005 West & C.Africa 45.3 49.3 Maldives 86.7 89.7 1990‐91 Eastern and S.Africa 37.8 39.1 38.5Bangladesh 71 93.8 22.3 South Asia 29.9 Sri Lanka 90 26 97.1 15.4 M.East & N.Africa 22.1 18.7 0 100 200 10.5 Central and E.Europe/CIS 12.9 11.7 6.1 Latin America & Caribbean 5.3 5.7 5.6 December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  E.Asia & Pacific 5.8 5.7 CONTACT‐SAARC‐III 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
  • DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE AND  HUMAN SECURITY• Nexus between human security and  governance• The sate of governance• The failure of institutions• Economic governance and human security December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III
  • What can change relation between  countries?• Dangers of "Single Story" (Media)• People‐to‐people Contact• Resolving Border issue• Removal of border restrictions• Identity cards and legal migration• Economic, Trade and Financial Connectivity• Road, rail and air connectivity• Internet and mobile connectivity• Water management• Power sharing• Interdependence not isolation or exclusion• Checking Terrorism CONTACT‐SAARC‐III December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal, 
  • December 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal,  CONTACT‐SAARC‐III