The back of the thigh and popliteal fossa


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The back of the thigh and popliteal fossa

  1. 1. AnatomyBack of the Thigh Dr Dalia Saleh
  2. 2. Objectives Bony features Muscles of the back of the thigh Sciatic nerve Popliteal fossa  Boundaries  Contents Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  3. 3. 1. Ischial tuberosity (upper lateral)2. Ischial tuberosity (lower medial)3. Ischial tuberosity (sitting area) 1 24. Ischial ramus 4 3 Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  4. 4. 1. Linea aspera 22. Gluteal tuberosity. tuberosity.3. Medial supracondylar line 74. Adductor tubercle 6 5 15. Lateral epicondyle6. Popliteal groove7. Pit for lateral head of gastrocnemius 3 4 Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  5. 5. 1. Back of the medial tibial condyle (groove) 1 22. Styloid process.3. Fibular head 34. Tibial tuberosity5. Upper ¼ of medial surface of 4 tibia 5 Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  6. 6. Back of the Thigh
  7. 7. Back of the ThighContent: 1. Hamstring  Ischial head of adductor magnus  Semitendinosus  Semimembranosus  Long head of biceps femoris 2. Short head of biceps femoris 3. Sciatic nerve 4. Posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh 5. Vessels Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  8. 8. MUSCLES
  9. 9. Ischial Head Adductor Magnus Origin:  Ischial tuberosity and ischial ramus Insertion:  Adductor tubercle of the femur Nerve supply:  Ischial part  Sciatic nerve Action:  Extends hip and flexes knee Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  10. 10. Hamstring Muscles1. Semimembranosus2. Semitendinosus3. Long head of biceps femorisOrigin: Ischial tuberosity.Insertion: Upper end of fibula or tibia.N.S: tibial division of sciatic nerve.Action:  Extend the thigh at hip joint.  Flex and rotate the leg at knee joint. Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  11. 11. SemimembranosusOrigin: By a flat tendon from the upper & lateral part of ischial tuberosity.Insertion: By a rounded tendon into the horizontal groove behind medial condyle of the tibia. Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  12. 12. SemitendenosusOrigin: In common with long head of biceps from the medial part of ischial tuberosity. tuberosity.Insertion: By a cord like tendon into the upper part of medial surface of the tibia. Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  13. 13. Biceps Femoris (Long Head)Origin: In common tendon with semitendinosis from the lower medial part of ischial tuberosity. tuberosity. Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  14. 14. Biceps Femoris (Short Head)Origin: Linea aspera. Lateral supracondylar line.Insertion: Joins long head into the head of the fibula. Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  16. 16. Boundaries Diamond shaped Upper lateral boundary:  Biceps femoris Upper medial boundary:  Semimembranosus  Semitendinosus Two lower boundaries are the heads of gastrocnemius Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  17. 17. Roof Skin, superficial fascia containing cutaneous nerves and vessels Deep fasciaFloor Popliteal surface of the femur Capsule of the knee joint Fascia over the popliteus muscle Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  18. 18. Popliteus MuscleOrigin: By a tendon from anterior end of popliteal groove on lateral femoral condyle. Its tendon passes under lateral collateral ligament of the knee Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  19. 19. Popliteus MuscleInsertion: Tendon passes within the knee capsule under arcuate popliteal ligament Into a triangular area on the posterior surface of the tibia above the soleal line. Knee capsule Lateral meniscus Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  20. 20. Popliteus MuscleN.S: Tibial nerve.Action: Unlock the knee to start flexion. Retraction of lateral meniscus during flexion. Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  21. 21. Contents Popliteal artery and its branches Popliteal vein and its tributaries Popliteal lympn nodes Tibial and common peroneal nerves and their branches Fatty tissue Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  22. 22. Popliteal ArteryBeginning: Continuation of femoral a. @ adductor magnus hiatusTermination: Divide into anterior and posterior tibial arteries @ lower border of poplitus Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  23. 23. Popliteal ArteryCourse: It is the deepest of the structures of the popliteal fossa Anterior relations = floor of the fossaBranches:1. Superior, inferior, and middle genicular arteries2. Muscular branches (sural) Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  24. 24. Popliteal VeinFormation: Union of the venae comitantes of the anterior and posterior tibial arteries near the lower border of the popliteus muscleTermination: Pass through adductor magnus hiatus into adductor canal and continues as femoral vein Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  25. 25. Popliteal VeinCourse: Along its course, lies between popliteal artery and tibial nerveTributaries:1. Veins that accompany the branches of the artery2. Small saphenous vein Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  26. 26. Small Saphenous VeinFormation: From the lateral side of dorsal venous arch of footCourse: Ascends behind lateral malleolus Then upward in the calf Drains the lateral side of the foot and ankle and the back of the leg.Termination: Pierces the deep fascia and drains into the popliteal vein Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  27. 27. Popliteal Lymph Nodes Few nodes just under the deep fascia Embedded in the fatty connective tissue of popliteal fossa, close to the popliteal vessels Drain the deep tissues of the leg, foot and knee joint Efferents to the deep inguinal LN Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  28. 28. Sciatic Nerve Leaves gluteal region to back of thigh midway between the greater trochanter and ischial tuberosity. Lying deep to long head of biceps femoris Usually divides into tibial and common peroneal nerves just above popliteal fossa Innervates muscles of the back of the thigh Has articular branches to hip and knee Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  29. 29. Tibial Nerve Passes vertically in the fossa Leaves between the 2 heads of gastrocnemius Gives:  Muscular  to muscles arising from the popliteal fossa  Articular  3 genicular nerves  Cutaneous  sural nerve Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)
  30. 30. Common Peroneal Nerve Passes medial to biceps femoris Disappears into peroneus longus Lie on neck of fibula Gives:  Muscular  NONE in the fossa  Articular  3 genicular nerves  Cutaneous  sural communicating nerve and lateral cutaneous nerve of the calf Dr. Dalia Saleh (Anatomy Dept)