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  • 1. Manoj Patel Assistant Professor Jhunjhunwala Business School Data Collection {Tools, Techniques, Methods}
  • 2. What is DATA? Informatio n Statistics Figures Numbers Facts Records
  • 3. What does web say about data??  a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn; "statistical data” (  The term data means groups of information that represent the qualitative or quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables(  information; A collection of object-units that are distinct from one another. (  Data is Information that has been organised and categorised for a pre-determined purpose. (
  • 4. What does web say about data??  In computer science, data is anything in a form suitable for use with a computer. Data is often distinguished from programs. A program is a set of instructions that detail a task for the computer to perform. In this sense, data is thus everything that is not program code. (  are the smallest units of measure. The word is technically the plural of datum but often used as a singular. Data are the components of information. They may be the 1's and 0's of computer memory, names and addresses in a demographic file, or the raw facts and figures before interpretation. (
  • 5. Types of Data PRIMARY  Collected by researcher first hand  Demands efforts and resources  Depends upon the researcher’s ability and clarity of purpose SECONDARY  Collected by someone else but used by researcher second hand  Cheaper and quicker  Needs lesser resources  Have to ascertain accuracy of content/time/sources/ purpose/methods/ adequacy/ credibility  Various sources/forms
  • 6. Data Collection…steps  Construction of tools for data collection  Decision about techniques of data collection  Testing the tool/technique by Pilot study or Pre-testing of tool/technique  Finalization of tool/technique  Ascertaining reliability and validity of tools/techniques to be used for data collection  Actual collection of data
  • 7. Data collection tools & techniques TOOLS  Questionnaire  Interview schedule  Observation schedule  Scales  Tests  Inventory, Checklist, Opinionnaire  Sociogram/Sociometry TEHNIQUES  Questioning: Written, Oral  Interviewing: Face to face, Telephonic, Electronic/Net, Group, Video  Observation  Projective Techniques  Panel Methods (Diary, Checklist, Logs etc.)
  • 8. Factors influencing decision about data collection Tool/Technique/Method  Scale and magnitude of the study  Characteristics of the respondents  Unit of inquiry and analysis  Availability of resources: Money, Time, Human, Technical, Competence  Field Conditions  Subject under study  Expected outcome  Degree of precision/reliability required
  • 9. Decisions about data collection Method  Settings: Natural – Contrived/Artificial  Inquiry: Obstructive/Undisguised – Unobstructive/Disguised  Nature: Qualitative – Quantitative  Structure: Structured – Semi structured – Unstructured  Questions: Open ended – Closed ended  Administration: Human – Mechanical  Analysis: Pre coded – Not coded
  • 10. Data comes through…. Tools & Techniques METHOD Procedure
  • 11. Framing of Questions…  Length of a question/tool  Language, Sequence, Style  Objective of asking (measuring what?)  Structural issues: Embarrassing/personalisation, Leading/Directive, Assumptions/presumptions, Hypothetical/ambiguous, median replies, Loaded/ Inbuilt coercion-forced, Double barreled, Double negatives
  • 12. When you collect Data…YOU must- Record time (time of the day/date/ month/year) when you collected it Total time (number of days/months/ years) it took to collect it along with field note for each response Procedure you followed to collect it Average time per respondent/unit Experiences you had collecting it
  • 13. Right Question…?! United Nations conducted a Worldwide survey. The question asked was: "Would you please give your honest opinion about solutions to the food shortage in the rest of the world?" The survey was a huge failure. Africa didn't know what 'food' meant, India didn't know what 'honest' meant, Europe didn't know what 'shortage' meant, China didn't know what 'opinion' meant, the Middle East didn't know what 'solution' meant, South America didn't know what 'please' meant, And in the USA they didn't know what 'the rest of the world' meant !!
  • 14. Good DATA depends upon…  Clarity of purpose/objectives of the study  Appropriateness of tool/technique  Sharpness of the tool and abilities of investigator/researcher in using the techniques  Cooperation/rapport with the respondents  Decisions about utilization at analysis stage