Guerrilla marketing is an advertising strategy in which low-cost unconventional means (graffiti, sticker bombing, flash mobs) are utilized, often in a localized fashion or large network of individual cells, to convey or promote a product or an idea. The term guerrilla marketing is easily traced to guerrilla warfare which utilizes atypical tactics to achieve a goal in a competitive and unforgiving environment
The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format, as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. The annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event on television. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this game has reached US$3.5 million (as of 2012). Some television commercials feature a song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the product. Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming through computer graphics. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast audience. More controversially, virtual billboards may be inserted into the background where none exist in real-life. This technique is especially used in televised sporting events. Virtual product placement is also possible.
An infomercial is a long-format television commercial, typically five minutes or longer. The word "infomercial" is a portmanteau of the words "information" & "commercial". The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase, so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free telephone number or website. Infomercials describe, display, and often demonstrate products and their features, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals.
Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. Online ads are delivered by an ad server. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads that appear on search engine results pages, banner ads, in text ads, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising, online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including e-mail spam.
Covert advertising, also known as guerrilla advertising, is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. For example, in a film, the main character can use an item or other of a definite brand, as in the movie Minority Report, where Tom Cruise's character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved with the Bulgari logo. Another example of advertising in film is in I, Robot, where main character played by Will Smith mentions his Converse shoes several times, calling them "classics," because the film is set far in the future. I, Robot and Spaceballs also showcase futuristic cars with the Audi and Mercedes-Benz logos clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. Cadillac chose to advertise in the movie The Matrix Reloaded, which as a result contained many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. Similarly, product placement for Omega Watches, Ford, VAIO, BMW and Aston Martin cars are featured in recent James Bond films, most notably Casino Royale. In "Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer", the main transport vehicle shows a large Dodge logo on the front. Blade Runner includes some of the most obvious product placement; the whole film stops to show a Coca-Cola billboard.
IntroductionAdvertising is a form of communication for marketing and used toencourage or persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners;sometimes a specific group) to continue or take some new action.“A good advertisement is one which sells the product without drawingattention to itself.”-David Ogilvy(Often called Father of advertising)
• Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters.• Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is anothermanifestation of an ancient advertising form.• History tells us that Out-of-home advertising and billboards are theoldest forms of advertising.• As the economy expanded during the 19th century, advertising grewalongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising formateventually led to the growth of mail-order advertising.
Evolution of Concept• In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paidadvertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend itsreadership and increase its profitability and the formula was sooncopied by all titles.• In 1842 Palmer – a space broker, bought large amounts of space invarious newspapers at a discounted rate then resold the space at higherrates to advertisers.• However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisementsbecame a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertisingcontent.• By 1900 the advertising agency had become the focal point of creativeplanning, and advertising was firmly established as a profession.
20th Century• Modern advertising was created with the innovative techniques usedin tobacco advertising beginning in the 1920s.• Radio as a platform for advertising• Public service advertising, non-commercial advertising, public interestadvertising, cause marketing, and social marketing are differentterms for the use of sophisticated advertising and marketingcommunications techniques. Eg- Smokey Bear• In the early 1950s, the DuMont Television Network began themodern practice of selling advertisement time to multiple sponsors.• 1960s - Media diversification started
20th Century• The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of cabletelevision and particularly MTV. Pioneering the concept of the musicvideo, MTV ushered in a new type of advertising: the consumer tunesin for the advertising message, rather than it being a by-product orafterthought• As cable and satellite television became increasinglyprevalent, specialty channels emerged, including channelsentirely devoted to advertising, such as QVC, Home ShoppingNetwork, and Telebrands TV.• 1990s - Internet marketing started. With the advent of the adserver, marketing throughout the Internet opened new frontiers foradvertisers and contributed to the "dot-com" boom of the 1990s• A recent advertising innovation is "guerrilla marketing“.
Mission• purpose/objective behindadvertising.• other decisions are to be adjustedas per the mission• objectives behind advertising arevaried in character•include sales promotion, informationand guidance to consumers,developing brand loyalty, marketgoodwill
Money• the finance provided for advertisingpurpose (advertising budget)• is a limiting factor as effectiveness ofadvertising, media used, coverage ofadvertising, etc.• Advertising should be always within thelimits of funds provided.• decisions on advertising package shouldbe adjusted as per the budget allocationfor advertising.
Message• provided through the text ofadvertisement.• Attractive and meaningfulmessages give positive resultsand the advertising becomesresult-oriented.• should be simple and easilyunderstandable with the helpof picture or slogan.• should be also attractive andagreeable to youngergeneration.
Media• selection of media dependson the budget provided,products to be advertised,and features of prospectivebuyers.• Wrong decision on mediamay make advertisingineffective and money spentwill be wasted.• media should be selectedproperly and decision inthis regard is important andcritical.
Measure• to the effectiveness ofadvertising.• advertiser will like to makeevaluation of advertisement inorder to judge its effectiveness.• advertiser has to measure theeffectiveness of hisadvertisement programme/campaign and take suitabledecisions.
Types of advertising & Recent Trends :Television advertising / Music in advertising
Digital advertising• Digital Advertising, as you must have guessed is anextension of online advertising and gives business arelevant competitive edge.• Digital advertising had seemed to be the answer toa marketer’s dream, providing concrete data on thenumber of eyeballs viewing ads and the number ofpeople acting on them with a click.• Most important, there is no “best-practice” methodof assigning value to digital advertising with a solidanalytical foundation and therefore reduces cost.• Spending on digital advertising has risen each yeareven as TV and print advertising declines.
Parody Advertisement (Spoofs)• It’s a work that seeks ‘to mock,comment on, or trivialize anoriginal work, its subject, author,style, or some other target, bymeans of humorous, satiric orironic imitation.’• Spoofing in advertisements is notuncommon in the Western world,but isn’t used as frequently in Indiaalthough it is gaining popularity.
Innovation in Advertising :Coca-Cola• Cokes marketing strategies haveproduced some volatility over the long-haul, but part of that is due to willingnessof The Coca-Cola Company to innovate.• Coca-Cola remains one of the mostinteresting case studies forreferencing best practices in marketingand market research.• Marketer of the year 2011
Innovation in Advertising :Coca-ColaThe first TV ad was produced on Thanksgiving Day,1950. – Holidays are coming !!In the 60’s, Coca-Cola’s advertising agency startedexperimenting with color advertising.The decade ended with one of the most popular adsever created, the “Hilltop” Commercial, featuring thesong “I’d like to buy the World a Coke.”Stayed alive because of the belief of the ad’s basicmessage…”Coca-Cola is a bond connecting people toone another”.
Innovation in advertising : Coca-Cola• Successful marketing campaigns : Less Serious: Fanta is selling 3 percent more year-to-date on this 190 country global campaign Wake Up Your MMOJO: More men and youngadults are drinking orange away from the breakfasttable thanks to this Doner campaign. DIET COKE: Diet Coke is focused on keeping theNumber Two soda spot with a limited-edition canand 15-second spots in the stronger newmarketing calendar. – Stay Extra Ordinary!! Coca-Cola Music: Maroon 5 did a 24-hr Session in aLondon recording studio to create a new originalsong for this global teen-focused campaign that isgoing to 130 markets.
Innovation in advertising : Coca-Cola• Coca-Colas Three-Pronged Approach1. Product innovation2. Packaging innovation3. Consumer engagement.• Coke is working with the World WildlifeFund (WWF) to create a safe Arctic refuge forpolar bears• “Im Dreaming of a White Coke Can” is themarketing strategy adopted for this
Evolution In India• Press advertisements – largely importedgoods which had reached Indian shores• The talkies and radio emerge as media• 2nd world war and the fight forindependence• Cinema advertising began• Kolkata gets the privilege of India’s firstad club• National created the Murphy baby – themascot of Indian radio
Leading Ad agencies in India• Ogilvy & Mather• Clients – Hutch (Vodafone), Cadbury, Asian Paints and Fevicol.• J Walter Thompson• Clients – Nestle, Cadbury, Bayer, Ford, Nokia and Unilever• Mudra Communication• Clients – Neutrogena, HBO, Philips, Reliance NetConnect, BigBazaar• FCB Ulka Advertising Ltd• Clients – Tata Indicom, Whirlpool, Zee Cinema, Santoor,Sunfeast and Amul• McCann Erickson India Ltd.• “Thanda Matlab Coca Cola”• “For everything else, there’s MasterCard.”