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Management Information systems – Assignments

Management Information systems – Assignments

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    Management Information systems – Assignments Management Information systems – Assignments Document Transcript

    • Prepared by Manohar M. M. IyerRef. No. VAS2010XMBA15P005Batch XMBA – 15Term IFaculty Mr. Ravi MirandaPrepared on February 6, 2011
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 2011Disclaimer:This document is prepared purely as an educational project assignment to be submitted as a component ofthe XMBA curriculum being conducted by ITM (Institute for Technology and Management) at Vashi, NaviMumbai. The information contained within this document is for sample representation purposes only.Though this document is prepared by taking due references from various websites, including the website ofICANN. However, no information contained in this document should be considered by any individual,investor, share holder, group, organization, company or any other entity as true & correct information.The reader of this document is strongly advised not to use this document as a guide that may influence anyof your ideas/views/interests/feedback related to any of the companies/ business interests.Prepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 2
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 2011ContentsList of Assignments ....................................................................................................................................... 41. Paper on "how will computerization help my department”- Health care & Comfort services. ....................5 Why computerize? ...................................................................................................................................5 Activities related to health care & comfort services ..................................................................................5 How computerization helped the department ..........................................................................................62. Learn Excel Macros & create one...............................................................................................................8 Macro.......................................................................................................................................................8 Macro Example:........................................................................................................................................93. Study office network diagram and draw a WAN. ..................................................................................... 104. Draw Data flow Diagram for any process ................................................................................................. 11 The system ............................................................................................................................................. 11 Process flow for a PROJECT ..................................................................................................................... 12 Process flow for a Task ........................................................................................................................... 135. Find out one topic on internet & write a paper ........................................................................................ 14 ICANN..................................................................................................................................................... 14 DNS ........................................................................................................................................................ 14 IP addresses & Root Servers ................................................................................................................... 15 ICANN’s role ........................................................................................................................................... 15 ICANN decisions ..................................................................................................................................... 16 Accountabilities ...................................................................................................................................... 16 Effect of ICANNs role and work on the Internet ..................................................................................... 176. Analysis of different SDLC models............................................................................................................ 18 Water Fall Model .................................................................................................................................... 18 Spiral Model ........................................................................................................................................... 19Note from Author. ...................................................................................................................................... 21Prepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 3
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 2011List of AssignmentsIndividual Assignments 1. Write a paper on "how will computerization help your department/ any department" 2. Learn Excel Macros & create one 3. Study office network diagram and draw a WAN 4. Draw Data flow Diagram for any process 5. Find out one topic on internet & write a paper 6. Analysis of different SDLC modelsPrepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 4
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 20111. Paper on "how will computerization help my department”- Health care & Comfort services.This paper written based on my experience I gained while working for a company that was starting a newbusiness unit, a chain of health care & comfort services. My role in the organization was that of aSME/Analyst involved in process designing, conducting pre release functional Tests & UATs, designing usersupport manuals and training multi-located staff via web conference, net meeting & in class on thebusiness critical applications.I will start the paper with a small note on why computerize, a brief on the company’s activities related tohealth care & comfort services and then describe how computerization helped the department.Why computerize?Computerization is essential to modern life to manage our important data in an organized way, to work onand execute various projects related to our respective fields, to get instant access to vast information onalmost any possible topic, get the requests reserved in an easy and efficient manner, mass communicationand the list continues. Also modern information requirements are so complicated to handle that onlycomputers can be used to provide them and it is the speed of the computer that makes such tasks possible.Activities like store, transmit and manipulate large amounts of information are only possible with thecomputer technology. Traditional methods of exchange of information like via paper medium areexpensive, cumbersome and even if it did work it had its own limitations.Computerization can help any business: - It is easy for all stakeholders in an organization to access & update information within the network. - It allows employees to share files, view other peoples work, and exchange ideas more efficiently using tools like e-mail and instant messaging. - They can also store messages for future reference. - Using the remote access feature officials can also access the same files, data, and messages even when theyre not in the office through devices like mobiles, palmtops, etc. - Using scheduling software it is possible to arrange meetings using features like Shared address books and to-do lists. - Multi-located staffs can attend meetings using web conference & net meetings - It easier to protect & store companys data on a set of tapes, CDs, or other backup systems. - It also allows sharing of resources like printers, etc.Thus we can see computerization helps business to work efficiently.Activities related to health care & comfort servicesThe company’s objective for the new business unit is to improve & maintain customer’s health, byrendering all services under one roof, like Clinical diagnostics, Ayurveda, Homoeopathy, Gymnasium,Consultations, Skin & Beauty, etc.The company wished: - To provide facility to book for services in advance.Prepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 5
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 2011 - To allow customers to choose service centre for every sitting from a list of multi located service centre as per his convenience including services that required multi sittings. - To keep track of availability of rooms & service attendants including doctors across all centers. - To maintain customer records, history and make it available to all service attendants including doctors across all centers. - To keep complete track of services rendered to the customer at every point of service starting from the time he walks in to the centre, till the time he walks out after availing the service. - To keep track of all ingredients, materials, facilities, resources, etc. used for providing service to every customer and the cost incurred for the same. - To keep track of the material stocks used & ordered. - To keep track of reports generated & issued to the customers - To bill every customer based on the services rendered to himAll above mentioned tasks & activities can be done efficiently with the help of computerization.How computerization helped the departmentThe above requirements were studied in detail & a system of rendering the services was developed. Themain backbone used to track this entire activity was BARCODING.Computerization activitiesThe following computerization activities were done: - A bar code reader was installed in every room at every centre that is used for providing services like Clinical diagnostics, Ayurveda, Homoeopathy, Gymnasium, Consultations, Skin & Beauty, etc. - The bar code reader was connected to a computer having a tailor made software application. - The tailor made software application was developed with following modules covering various processes: • A Reception/ front desk module managing Appointments, Orders, Payments, Delivery & Order Completion • A Service provider/ Consultant module managing Room activity & Questionnaire • A Lab process module catering to Clinical diagnostic services • A Stock module managing Procurement, Consumption, Adjustment, Intra centre Transfer & Standard Costing - All the rooms were categorized & numbered. - All the computers in all the rooms and the reception desk were interconnected and all the information was stored automatically in a centralized server. - All the centers located across the country were connected to a master server.Processes & procedures used: 1. Customer requests for a appointment 2. Details like Name, Address, contact information, service customer wants to avail, preferred time, preferred centre, any promotional code are taken from the prospect. 3. Availability of service is ensured and an appointment number is provided. 4. When customer visits the center to avail the service an order is booked against the appointment number and an itinerary with a barcode is generated with all details related to the chosen service. 5. Customer is guided to the room where he can avail of the service along-with the itinerary.Prepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 6
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 2011 6. The consultant or technician who will attend the customer will scan the bar code on the itinerary using the bar code reader and all the details related to the service and the customer is auto populated in the computer screen available In the room. 7. The consultant or technician will provide the service to the customer. 8. Depending on the service the service provider will update the system with their notes, recommendations, any required information taken from the customer or information on any additional ingredient, material or resource used for providing the service. 9. If any sample is collected from the customer then a bar code sticker is generated & attached on the sample container. 10. The bar code on the itinerary is scanned again using the reader to indicate that the service is completed. 11. The Stock will get reduced automatically with the total amount of ingredient or material used to provide the service. 12. The relevant cost will get automatically added to the customer account and bill is generated. 13. Customer is guided to back to the front desk along-with the itinerary where he can make the payments for the availed services and also provide information on how and where h/she can collect the reports, if any. 14. Next time when customer requests for an appointment or books a service the system automatically tracks from the server whether h/her Name, Address, contact information is already available in the server which will help the front desk, service providers/ consultants to get the complete customer records & history, based on which they can offer discounts, recommendations, consultations, etc.The using the computerization activities & the process mentioned above the computer could achieve itsrequirements very efficiently.Prepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 7
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 20112. Learn Excel Macros & create oneMacroA macro is a series of steps that is grouped together as a single step and then executed when necessary.VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) is the programming language that macros use to create customprocedures or automate tasks in all the MS-Office applications. You can create macros without learningVBA using the record macro feature. But, if you create a macro and cannot quite get it to do everything youwant it to do, then edit the macro using VBA to create additional commands for the macro to carry out.Before you record or write a macro, plan the steps and commands you want the macro to perform.If you want to use the macro youre recording in other documents, make sure that the macro doesntdepend on the current documents contents. If you use a particular macro often, assign it to a toolbarbutton, a menu, or shortcut keys. That way, you can run the macro directly without having to open theMacros dialog box.The easiest way to quickly create a simple macro in Excel is to use the macro recorder. The Macro Recordercreates a copy of the commands you select with your mouse.Create a macroWhen you record a macro, all steps that are needed to complete the actions that you want to record arerecorded by the macro recorder. Navigation on the Ribbon is not included in the recorded steps. - If the Developer tab is not available, do the following to display it: • Click the Microsoft Office Button available on the top left corner, and then click Excel Options. • In the Popular category, under Top options for working with Excel, select the Show Developer tab in the Ribbon check box, and then click OK. - To set the security level temporarily to enable all macros, do the following: • On the Developer tab, in the Code group, click Macro Security. • • Under Macro Settings, click Enable all macros (not recommended, potentially dangerous code can run), and then click OK.Record a macro - On the Developer tab, in the Code group, click Record Macro. - In the Macro name box, enter a name for the macro. ( The first character of the macro name must be a letter. Following characters can be letters, numbers, or underscore characters. Spaces are not allowed in a macro name; an underscore character works well as a word separator. If you use a macro name that is also a cell reference, you may get an error message that the macro name is not valid.) - To assign a CTRL combination shortcut key to run the macro, in the Shortcut key box, type any lowercase letter or uppercase letter that you want to use. - In the Store macro in list, select the workbook in which you want to store the macro. - To include a description of the macro, in the Description box, type the text that you want. - Click OK to start recording.Prepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 8
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 2011 - Perform the actions that you want to record. - On the Developer tab, in the Code group, click Stop Recording .Assign a macro to an object, graphic, or controlAfter you create a macro, you can assign it to an object (such as a toolbar button, graphic, or control) sothat you can run it by clicking the object.On a worksheet, right-click the object, graphic, or control to which you want to assign an existing macro,and then click Assign Macro on the shortcut menu. In the Macro name box, click the macro that you wantto assign.Delete a macroIf you no longer need to use a macro, you can delete it. - Open the workbook that contains the macro that you want to delete. - On the Developer tab, in the Code group, click Macros. - In the Macros in list, select This Workbook. - In the Macro name box, click the name of the macro that you want to delete. - Click Delete.Macro Example:This macro will create and format the days of the week.Record a New Macro 1. Macro Name = days 2. Short cut = Ctrl + d 3. Store Macro In = Personal Macro Book 4. OK 5. Click the Relative Reference button on the Record Macro toolbar 6. Type Monday 7. Use the fill handle to drag across 6 more cells thereby completing the series to Sunday 8. Click Format, Cells 9. Click the Alignment tab 10. Horizontal & Vertical alignment = Center 11. Orientation = 90 degrees 12. Click the Font tab 13. Font = Bold, 12 14. Click the Border tabs 15. Click between each Text block to place vertical lines between cells 16. Click OKPrepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 9
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 20113. Study office network diagram and draw a WAN.This diagram was taken from the model used in a BPO organization where I was working as anSME/Information Analyst. Our organization had offices in Navi Mumbai, Malad, Mumbai, Bangalore,Kolkatta and Jalandhar. The diagram depicts how the various offices were inter connected. Office 1 Desktop Core Switch Desktop Firewall Access Switch Desktop Router Database Server Desktop MPLS Cloud Office 2 Desktop Core Switch Desktop Firewall Access Switch Desktop Router Database Server DesktopPrepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 10
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 20114. Draw Data flow Diagram for any processThis data flow was drawn based on my experience I gained while working for a multi located MNC that wasinvolved in Marketing Pharmaceuticals across world. My role in the organization was that of a SME/Analystinvolved in process designing, and information processing.Every business initiative was considered as a project & the related activities were considered as tasks. Wehad developed a system called PATTS.The systemPATTS is a standard platform for everyone to document and share their PROJECTS and tasks. This systemhelps in managing and tracking of PROJECTS and tasks in the organization. It also helps in ensuring that thePROJECTS and tasks are executed within the target date and all stakeholders are aware about the progressof a PROJECT or task.There are two activities in the system: a. PROJECT b. TaskPROJECT is a stand alone entity while task is dependent on a PROJECT or another task. Both PROJECT andtask function in a same way except for one difference, which is, in the PROJECT process flow we can definetasks whereas in the task process flow we cant define a sub tasks.A PROJECT/Task has following Stake Holders: a. Sponsor Associate who is requesting the PROJECT/task. Any associates (except Sales Associate) can be a sponsor. b. Reporter Associate who documents the PROJECT/task. Any associate can be a reporter. c. Owner Associate who is responsible for execution & completion of the PROJECT/task. Any associates (except Sales Associate) can be a Owner. d. Contributors Associates who can contribute to the PROJECT/task. Any associate can be a contributor.Stake holders are intimated through message on the Mail for certain actions taken on the PROJECT/Task.After changing the status of a PROJECT/task to Completed, sponsor has to rate the execution of thePROJECT/task as Excellent/ Satisfactory.Prepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 11
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 2011Process flow for a PROJECT PROJECTS Created Status: Open Owner Accepts Owner Rejects Status: Accepted Status: Open TASK/Dependent Do not Recommend Owner TASK/Actions added Recommend Owner Status: Pending Status: Open Status: Open Owner Fulfills PROJECT Status: Under Observation PROJECT Sponsor not PROJECT Sponsor satisfied satisfied Status: Completed Status: Pending Rate PROJECT Note: A PROJECT can be closed only if the TASK dependent on that PROJECT (if any) is closed/ abandonedPrepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 12
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 2011Process flow for a Task TASK Created Status: Open Owner Accepts Owner Rejects Status: Accepted Status: Open TASK updated/ Do not Recommend Owner actions added Recommend Owner Status: Pending Status: Open Status: Open Owner Fulfills TASK Status: Under Observation TASK Sponsor satisfied TASK Sponsor not satisfied Status: Completed Status: Pending Rate TASK Note: If a TASK is dependent on another TASK, then the dependent Task can be closed only if the Parent TASK is closed.Thus a record of all business initiatives & the related activities could be tracked by all stake holders at everystage using the above process model.Prepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 13
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 20115. Find out one topic on internet & write a paperICANNTo reach another person on the Internet you have to type an address into your computer - a name or anumber. That address has to be unique so computers know where to find each other.The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) coordinates these unique identifiersacross the world and is responsible for managing and coordinating the Domain Name System (DNS) toensure that every address is unique and that all users of the Internet can find all valid addresses. It doesthis by overseeing the distribution of unique IP addresses and domain names. It also ensures that eachdomain name maps to the correct IP address.Without ICANN coordination we wouldnt have one global Internet.ICANNs role is very limited, and it is not responsible for many issues associated with the Internet, such asfinancial transactions, Internet content control, spam (unsolicited commercial email), Internet gambling, ordata protection and privacy.DNSThe domain name system, or DNS, is a system designed to make the Internet accessible to human beings.The main way computers that make up the Internet find one another is through a series of numbers, witheach number (called an “IP address”) correlating to a different device. However it is difficult for the humanmind to remember long lists of numbers so the DNS uses letters rather than numbers, and then links aprecise series of letters with a precise series of numbers.The end result is that ICANN’s website can be found at “icann.org” rather than “192.0.34.163” – which ishow computers on the network know it. One advantage to this system – apart from making the networkmuch easier to use for people – is that a particular domain name does not have to be tied to one particularcomputer because the link between a particular domain and a particular IP address can be changed quicklyand easily. This change will then be recognised by the entire Internet within 48 hours thanks to theconstantly updating DNS infrastructure. The result is an extremely flexible system.A domain name itself comprises two elements: before and after “the dot”. The part to the right of the dot,such as “com”, “net”, “org” and so on, is known as a “top-level domain” or TLD. One company in each case(called a registry), is in charge of all domains ending with that particular TLD and has access to a full list ofdomains directly under that name, as well as the IP addresses with which those names are associated. Thepart before the dot is the domain name that you register and which is then used to provide online systemssuch as websites, email and so on. These domains are sold by a large number of “registrars”, free to chargewhatever they wish, although in each case they pay a set per-domain fee to the particular registry underwhose name the domain is being registered.ICANN draws up contracts with each registry. It also runs an accreditation system for registrars. It is thesecontracts that provide a consistent and stable environment for the domain name system, and hence theInternet.Prepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 14
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 2011In summary then, the DNS provides an addressing system for the Internet so people can find particularwebsites. It is also the basis for email and many other online uses.IP addresses & Root ServersICANN plays a similar administrative role with the IP addresses used by computers as it does with thedomain names used by humans. In the same way that you cannot have two domain names the same(otherwise you never know where you would end up), for the same reason it is also not possible for thereto be two IP addresses the same.Again, ICANN does not run the system, but it does help co-ordinate how IP addresses are supplied to avoidrepetition or clashes. ICANN is also the central repository for IP addresses, from which ranges are suppliedto regional registries who in turn distribute them to network providers.Root serversRoot servers are a different case again. There are 13 root servers – or, more accurately, there are 13 IPaddresses on the Internet where root servers can be found (the servers that have one of the 13 IPaddresses can be in dozens of different physical locations). These servers all store a copy of the same filewhich acts as the main index to the Internet’s address books. It lists an address for each top-level domain(.com, .de, etc) where that registry’s own address book can be found.In reality, the root servers are consulted fairly infrequently (considering the size of the Internet) becauseonce computers on the network know the address of a particular top-level domain they retain it, checkingback only occasionally to make sure the address hasn’t changed. Nonetheless, the root servers remain vitalfor the Internet’s smooth functioning.The operators of the root servers remain largely autonomous, but at the same time work with one anotherand with ICANN to make sure the system stays up-to-date with the Internet’s advances and changes.ICANN’s roleAs mentioned earlier, ICANN’s role is to oversee the huge and complex interconnected network of uniqueidentifiers that allow computers on the Internet to find one another.This is commonly termed “universal resolvability” and means that wherever you are on the network – andhence the world – that you receive the same predictable results when you access the network. Withoutthis, you could end up with an Internet that worked entirely differently depending on your location on theglobe.ICANN structureICANN is made up of a number of different groups, each of which represent a different interest on theInternet and all of which contribute to any final decisions that ICANN’s makes.There are three “supporting organisations” that represent: • The organisations that deal with IP addressesPrepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 15
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 2011 • The organisations that deal with domain names • The managers of country code top-level domains (a special exception as explained at the bottom).Then there are four “advisory committees” that provide ICANN with advice and recommendations. Theserepresent: • Governments and international treaty organisations • Root server operators • Those concerned with the Internet’s security • The “at large” community, meaning average Internet users.And finally, there is a Technical Liaison Group, which works with the organisations that devise the basicprotocols for Internet technologies.ICANN’s final decisions are made by a Board of Directors. The Board is made up of 21 members: 15 ofwhich have voting rights and six are non-voting liaisons. The majority of the voting members (eight ofthem) are chosen by an independent Nominating Committee and the remainder are nominated membersfrom supporting organisations.ICANN then has a President and CEO who is also a Board member and who directs the work of ICANN staff,who are based across the globe and help co-ordinate, manage and finally implement all the differentdiscussions and decisions made by the supporting organisations and advisory committees. An ICANNOmbudsman acts as an independent reviewer of the work of the ICANN staff and Board.ICANN decisionsWhen it comes to making technical changes to the Internet, here is a simplified rundown of the process: - Any issue of concern or suggested changes to the existing network is typically raised within one of the supporting organisations (often following a report by one of the advisory committees), where it is discussed and a report produced which is then put out for public review. If the suggested changes impact on any other group within ICANN’s system, that group also reviews the suggested changes and makes its views known. The result is then put out for public review a second time. - At the end of that process, the ICANN Board is provided with a report outlining all the previous discussions and with a list of recommendations. The Board then discusses the matter and either approves the changes, approves some and rejects others, rejects all of them, or sends the issue back down to one of the supporting organisations to review, often with an explanation as to what the problems are that need to be resolved before it can be approved. - The process is then rerun until all the different parts of ICANN can agree a compromise or the Board of Directors make a decision on a report it is presented with.AccountabilitiesICANN has external as well as internal accountabilities.Externally, ICANN is an organisation incorporated under the law of the State of California in the UnitedStates. That means ICANN must abide by the laws of the United States and can be called to account by thejudicial system i.e. ICANN can be taken to court.ICANN is also a non-profit public benefit corporation and its directors are legally responsible for upholdingtheir duties under corporation law.Prepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 16
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 2011Internally, ICANN is accountable to the community through: • Its bylaws • The representative composition of the ICANN Board from across the globe • An independent Nominating Committee that selects a majority of the voting Board members • Senior staff who must be elected annually by the Board • Three different dispute resolution procedures (Board reconsideration committee; Independent Review Panel; Ombudsman)Effect of ICANNs role and work on the InternetICANN plays a unique role in the infrastructure of the Internet. Through its contracts with registries (such asdot-com or dot-info) and registrars (companies that sell domains names to individuals and organisations),ICANN helps define how the domain name system functions and expands.RegistrarsICANN created the registrar market (together with an accreditation system) in order to introduce greatercompetition on the Internet. The result has been several hundred companies able to sell domains whichitself led to a dramatic reduction in the cost of domains - an 80 percent fall. There is now a diverse andvibrant market in the supply of the Internet’s basic building block.That accreditation process is currently undergoing reform in order to keep in up-to-date with a rapidlychanging domain name market.Dispute resolutionICANN helped design and implement a low-cost system for resolving disputes over domain nameownership. The Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) has been used tens of thousandsof times to resolve ownership disputes, avoiding the need for costly and complex recourse to the courts.New top-level domainsICANN approves the introduction of new "generic top-level domains" to the Internet - a process thatexpands the online space available. So far, ICANN has introduced 13 new top-level domains to the Internet,ranging from dot-asia to dot-travel, accounting for over six million domains. ICANN has also developed arefined process to introduce further TLDs that is being finalised with applications expected in early 2010.Internationalized domain namesThrough its decision-making processes, ICANN has adopted guidelines for the introduction ofinternationalised domain names (IDNs), opening the way for domain registrations in hundreds of theworld’s languages - something that will expand the use and the influence of the Internet globally to newheights.Prepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 17
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 20116. Analysis of different SDLC modelsWe will be discussing Water fall model & Spiral model.Water Fall ModelThe water fall model is linear and sequential with a purpose for each phase of development. Thedevelopment proceeds to the next phase, only when the prior phase of development is completed.This allows room for departmentalization & managerial control and we can set a schedule with deadlinesfor each stage of development.The product can proceed through the development process, and can be delivered on time.The development starts from concept & moves through design, implementation, testing, installation,troubleshooting, and ends up at operation and maintenance. Each phase of development proceeds indisciplined order without any repetition steps. However it does not allow room for a revisit, once theapplication is in the testing stage. One cannot amend something in prior stage.Since in this model Phases are processed and completed one at a time this works well for smaller projectswhere requirements are very well understood. However, it is a poor model where initial requirements canchange even during lifecycle of the project. Also since no working software is produced until late during thelife cycle this indicates that high amounts of risk and uncertainty are involved and this model proves to be apoor model for long and ongoing projects.Prepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 18
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 2011Spiral ModelThe Spiral model uses features of water fall model, however, it is also includes features of prototyping.Each stage (round) in this model consists of four phases: - Objective determination: Definition of Product, business objects, constraints and generation of alternatives - Alternatives evaluation: Analysis of risks & prototyping : - Product development: D Designing, coding, testing & Integration - Next cycle guidance: customer evaluation, design, implementation & customer delivery : designThe Steps used in spiral model are given below: - Requirements are defined in details via interviewing external or internal users and other aspects of the existing system. - A preliminary design is created & a first prototype is constructed which is an approximation of the requirements in the product. - The first prototype is evaluating for strengths, weaknesses, and risks.Prepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 19
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 2011 - This leads to requirement analysis for the second prototype including planning, design, construction and testing - The customer can foresee Risk factors & the development costs - The second prototype is evaluated in the same manner as was the previous prototype. - All the above steps are repeated till the customer is satisfied and agrees that the prototype represents the final product desired. - The final system is constructed, based on the agreed prototype. - The final system is thoroughly evaluated and tested. - The final product is released for operationThe spiral model gives due importance to high risk analysis which is good for large mission-critical projects.A prototype of the software is produced very early in the life cycle. The model’s success largely depends onthe analysis phase. However, this model can be costly in practice and may not be feasible for small projects.Thus we conclude that for smaller projects we can adopt the water fall model & for larger projects it makessense to use the spiral model.Prepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 20
    • Computer Information Systems - Assignments February 2011Note from Author.Dear Reader & user of this document,I hope I was able to attempt to complete the Computer Information Systems Assignments correctly to thefullest of my knowledge, abilities and by taking due references from the sources mentioned in thisdocument. I request the reader & user of this document once again to read and understand the disclaimermentioned at the start of the document for your own best interests.I thank one and all who have provided me the knowledge & support to do this analysis including Mr.Miranda, various websites, the ITM management & my class mates from XMBA 15 batch at ITM & mostImportant of all my mom Mrs. Manjula M. Aiyer, my dad Mr. Mani P. Aiyer & My brother Mr. Manoj M.Aiyer.Please feel free to forward your valuable feedback, comments, queries and suggestions related to thisanalysis at mumbai_man1977@yahoo.com.Thank you,Warm regards,Manohar M. M. IyerPrepared by: Manohar M. M. Iyer, VAS2010XMBA15P005 Page 21