HISTORY OF WINDOWS 1.0 The box art of Windows 1.01, the first version Microsoft released to the public. The same box art was used in the subsequent minor releases.
WINDOWS 1.0 <ul><li>Windows 1.0 is a 16-bit graphical operating environment that was released on 20 November 1985. It was Microsoft 's first attempt to implement a multi-tasking graphical user interface -based operating environment on the PC platform. Windows 1.0 was the very first version of Windows launched. It was succeeded by Windows 2.0 . </li></ul><ul><li> 1985: Windows 1.0 </li></ul><ul><li>The first version of Windows provided a new software environment for developing and running applications that use bitmap displays and mouse pointing devices. Before Windows, PC users relied on the MS-DOS® method of typing commands at the C prompt (C:). With Windows, users moved a mouse to point and click their way through tasks, such as starting applications. </li></ul>
In addition, Windows users could switch among several concurrently running applications. The product included a set of desktop applications, including the MS-DOS file management program, a calendar, card file, notepad, calculator, clock, and telecommunications programs, which helped users manage day-to-day activities.
This early Interface Manager product preceded the Windows 1.0 GUI.
The first release version is actually numbered 1.01. Version 1.02, released in May 1986, was international and had editions in several European languages. Version 1.03, released in August 1986, was for the US- and international market, with enhancements making it consistent with the international release. It included drivers for European keyboards and additional screen and printer drivers. Version 1.04, released in April 1987, added support for the VGA graphics adapters of the new IBM PS/2 computers. At the same time, Microsoft and IBM announced the introduction of OS/2 and its graphical OS/2 Presentation Manager , which were supposed to ultimately replace both MS-DOS and Windows.
Windows 1.0 was superseded in November 1987, with the release of Windows 2.0 . Windows 1.0 was supported by Microsoft for sixteen years, until 31 December 2001. Windows 1.0 was one of the longest supported operating systems of the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems. Installation media: Windows 1.0 was only available on floppy disks . The user had to have DOS to install. It was the same with all versions of Windows up to and including Windows 95 , which was still available on diskettes (but no longer required DOS to be installed first).
Competition: The history of Windows dates back to September 1981, when the project named "Interface Manager" was started. It was first presented to the public in 10 November 1983, renamed to "Microsoft Windows"; the two years of delay before release led to charges that it was " vaporware ". The initially announced version of Windows had features so much resembling the Macintosh interface that Microsoft had to change many of them: overlapping windows, although supported by the GUI engine, weren't allowed for exactly this reason. The announcement of Windows' imminent arrival in 1985 probably did not help the sales of VisiCorp 's VisiOn environment which debuted at the same time. However, even when finally released, Windows 1.0 aroused little interest.
Another GUI for the PC platform at the time was GEM . It used more aspects from the Macintosh GUI , for example the trash can concept (which Microsoft would later employ in future Windows releases) and more generally the desktop interaction. GEM was eventually used as the standard GUI for the Atari 's ST range of 68k -based computers, which were sometimes referred to as Jackintoshes (the company being run by Jack Tramiel ). GEM's resemblance to the Macintosh OS later caused legal trouble for the manufacturer, Digital Research , who was obliged to seriously cripple the desktop's appearance and functionality (applications were not affected).
GEM was not multitasking, so users had to close one program in order to run another one. Collections of related programs, like GEM Draw , had tricky File menu items like Close (to Edit) to facilitate switching. Features: Windows 1.0 offers limited multitasking of existing MS-DOS programs and concentrates on creating an interaction paradigm (cf. message loop ), an execution model and a stable API for native programs for the future. Due to Microsoft's extensive support for backward compatibility , it is not only possible to execute Windows 1.0 binary programs on current versions of Windows to a large extent,
but also to recompile their source code into an equally functional "modern" application with just limited modifications. Windows 1.0 is often regarded as a " front-end the MS-DOS operating system ", a description which has also been applied to subsequent versions of Windows. Windows 1.0 is an MS-DOS program. Windows 1.0 programs can call MS-DOS functions, and GUI programs are run from .exe files just like MS-DOS programs. However, Windows .exe files had their own "new executable" (NE) file format, which only Windows could process and which, for example, allowed demand-loading of code and data.
Applications were supposed to handle memory only through Windows' own memory management system, which implemented a software-based virtual memory scheme allowing for applications larger than available RAM . Because graphics support in MS-DOS is extremely limited, MS-DOS applications have to go to the bare hardware (or sometimes just to the BIOS ) to get work done. Therefore, Windows 1.0 included original device drivers for video cards, a mouse, keyboards, printers and serial communications, and applications were supposed to only invoke APIs built upon these drivers.
However, this extended to other APIs such as file system management functions. In this sense, Windows 1.0 was designed to be extended into a full-fledged operating system, rather than being just a graphics environment used by applications. Indeed, Windows 1.0 is a "DOS front-end" and cannot operate without a DOS environment (it uses, for example, the file-handling functions provided by DOS.)
The level of replacement increases in subsequent versions. The system requirements for Windows 1.0 constituted CGA/Hercules/EGA (listed as "Monochrome or color monitor"), MS-DOS 3.1, 384K RAM (512KB recommended), and 2 double-sided disk drives or a hard drive. Windows 1.0 runs a shell program known as MS-DOS Executive. Other supplied programs are Calculator , Calendar , Card file, Clipboard viewer, Clock, Control Panel , Notepad , Paint , Reverse, Terminal , and Write .
Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled . Only dialog boxes can appear over other windows. Windows 1.0 executables , while having the same .exe extension and initial file header as MS-DOS programs, do not contain the so-called MS-DOS stub which prints the "This program requires Microsoft Windows" message and exits when the program is run outside of Windows. Instead, the file header was formatted in such a way as to make DOS reject the executable with a "program too large to fit in memory" error message. From the beginning,
Windows was intended to multitask programs (although this originally only applied to native applications and for many versions the multitasking was co-operative , rather than preemptive). Originally Windows was designed to have the pull-up menus at the bottom of windows, as it was common with the DOS programs of the time; however, this was changed before the first release.
Windows The Microsoft Windows operating system is the most popular choice and currently has a stronghold over the market. This platform has made significant advancements from version 1.0 all the way to the new Vista system. The Windows system is highly compatible, feature-rich and has a much larger selection of software applications. Unlike the Linux kernel, Windows is proprietary software and tends to be more expensive than others. Despite widespread usage, Windows has been heavily associated with the term "insecure" as a number of security vulnerabilities have made it the most targeted system.
Frequently exploited by hackers and malicious code writers, it is recommended that any Windows operating system with internet access be protected by some form of security software. Although the XP version is still popular among users, support for this system will conclude in 2009 as more emphasis will be placed on developing the Vista series.
<ul><li>The Microsoft and Apple Comparison: </li></ul><ul><li>v.s </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft and Apple are two powerhouses when it comes to the computer related and consumer electronics industry. Both of these companies have many similarities and differences with each other, and they both went corporate within several years of each other. Lets start with some information about Apple. The corporation was formerly known as Apple Computer, Inc. but changed the name to Apple Inc. eventually. Apple focuses on manufacturing and designing consumer electronics and closely related software products. They are best known for their personal computer, the Macintosh, the media player known as the iPod, and recently the iPhone. </li></ul>
All of these products have received great reviews and are only getting better with time and technology advances. From Warner Brothers maps to having GPS on your phone, technology has definitely made leaps and bounds in the recent years. Along the lines of software, Apple products include the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software, Final Cut Studio relating to audio and film industry, iTunes media browser, and most popular the Mac OS X operating system. Currently there are over two hundred retail stores in seven different countries as well as an online store where practically every Apple product that is currently being made is sold.
The iTunes store is also available which has recently expanded their depths into selling. They now provide music, television programs, music videos, podcasts, audiobooks, and iPod games which can be downloaded to your Mac OS X or Windows and then put onto your iPhone or iPod touch. The company was established in 1976, and has been growing ever since. The annual sales in its fiscal year 2007 were 24.01 billion dollars. A great achievement for the company that continues to grow. Now onto the Microsoft Corporation. This company is an American multinational computer technology corporation that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a great range of software products for computer devices.
<ul><li>They are best known for the Microsoft Windows operating system as well as the Microsoft Office series. Bill Gates became the richest man in the world through this company, and although he no longer holds that spot, being the second richest man in the world is nothing to be upset about. Recently Bill Gates has thrown in the towel and stepped down from Microsoft Corporation to further pursue his charity organization. One of the visions that he had for Microsoft was to have a workstation running Microsoft software in every office desk and home. Microsoft has been so successful over the years that due to the release of an initial public offering in the stock market, Microsoft made 12,000 millionaires and four billionaires from their employees. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Microsoft is also very popular in several other markets too, such as the mouse and home entertainment products. These consist of the Zune, MSN TV, Xbox, and Xbox 360. With all of these streams of revenue coming in for Microsoft, they have made strides to purchase the powerhouse search engine Yahoo. Unfortunately, their offer of 44.6 billion dollars did not satisfy Yahoo. As you can see, Microsoft and Zune have had huge strides throughout the years. There is definitely some intense competition between the two especially for the computer market with all of the Apple commercials using Microsoft as a dummy. That's pretty brave of Apple to be throwing punches at the big guy in the computer industry, but it seems to be working. </li></ul>
<ul><li>You will definitely be seeing these two corporations continue to dominate when it comes to releasing software and hardware that uses the newest and most advanced technology. Both of these companies specialize in certain hardware and software products of their own, but it seems that for every line that Microsoft has, Apple has too and vice versa. </li></ul>
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