Why I chose this song and population –Vallejo, friends/community, teacher, children’s song-Katy de la Cruz 1920’s-30’s jazz singer, eventually retired in SF
180 languages spoken with Tagalog and Cebuano having greatest # of native speakers
Filipino flag, beautiful beaches, mountain areas, industrialized areas, The Philippines' rainforests and its extensive coastlines make it home to a diverse range of birds, plants, animals, and sea creatures (Philippine tarsier seen here)
1898- unknown to Philippines, Spain sold to US. Filipinos celebrated their independence from Spain on June 12, 1898, and declared Emilio Aguinaldo as president. However, the people of the Philippines were not truly free. In fact, they never were. America was its new ruler and had cheated the Filipinos in believing that they were free
Arrival before English settlement!
Filipino Cajuns!-The earliest Filipino settlement in the United States was the Manila men of the Saint Malo village, Louisiana.-Filipino sailors who jumped from the Spanish vessels plying the famous Manila-Acapulco galleon trade during the Spanish colonization of the Philippines. While the galleon was docked in the west coast of Mexico, many Filipinos escaped the oppressive colonial conditions and traveled east to Vera Cruz where they boarded another ship or traveled by land until Louisiana.
-US promised Philippines independence, but didn’t acknowledge it after war was won- Philippines revolted-Thus, the Filipino American War began shortly after U.S. colonization. Known in U.S. history books as the "Philippine Insurrection", it was a bloody precurser to Vietnam. The Filipino American War was America's first true overseas war. The War lasted from 1898 to 1902, and in those 3 years as many as 70,000 Americans died and close to 2 million Filipinos were killed. American soldiers were ordered to shoot and kill every one over age 10. Filipinos over ten were considered "Criminals because they were born ten years before [America] we took the Philippines."-There was even a special gun designed to kill Filipinos, the Colt.45 1902 "Philippine Model", where only 4,600 were made. This is the real American history that historians, academicians, and scholars forgot to tell us. Soon after the War, William Howard Taft, who later became President of the United States, became governor of the Philippines. American school teachers, called 'Thomasites', came to the Philippines to establish a public school system similar to American public schools.American educators taught Filipinos that "Aguinaldo and friends" were the enemy. They were taught American songs, and world history through American eyes. This is why so many of us speak such good English. The elite class of rich Filipinos also known as "pensionados" were allowed to come to America to learn in American universities. In November 1903, 103 pensionados became the first Filipino students in American Universities and campuses.-After US defeated Spain in war and took over Guam, Puerto Rico, Cuba and the Philippines in 1898,magazine articles, cartoons and advertisements show “US is now a world power”-Rudyard Kipling article in McClure’s magazine (1899)-President McKinley cleansing/baptizing child to purify/civilize (Filipino-kin to African-American and Native American, familiar faults to people of the Republic to justify war)-Campaign to civilize another nation-Must put down Philippine rebels to serve US’s need (“1/2 devil, ½ child”)
-World Fair of 1904-6 month fair with 20 million visitors-Live exposition to showcase America’s achievements, “triumph of civilization” theme filled people with hope, optimism and served as a metaphor of human advancement-Human exhibits(“in natural habitat”): “Old plantation” (slavery on display), “Geronimo” (Native American signing autographs)…but the largest exhibit was the Filipino exhibit to show the people they’d recently conquered (most Americans didn’t know what a Filipino looked like before this)
-Between 1906-1935, many Filipinos migrated to Hawaii and Alaska looking for jobs-Many served in World War II for the US-The U.S. Census registered that from 1909 to 1931, 112,828 Filipinos arrived in Hawaii. Although the majority of these were known to have returned to the Philippines or stayed in Hawaii, more than 18,000 migrated to the mainland, mostly to the West Coast, finding work in the agriculture fields and fisheries. -despite these actions, Filipinos, like other minorities and immigrants found it difficult to obtain equal opportunities and citizens-despite hard work and little pay, migrants continued to come in hope for a better life-they were an ideal labor source (knew how to grow crops, rice)-Pensionados-Political tutelage was one of the goals set forth by the U.S. when it acquired the Philippines. One reason for training Filipinos in lessons of self-rule was to create a pool of qualified, highly educated civil servants emboding the American ideals. Thus, in 1903, through the passage of the Pensionado Act, qualified Filipino students could be sent to the United States to further their education. These students were called pensionados since they were scholars studying at the expense of the colonial government.
1920’s- Anti- filipino movements1930’s-Anti Filipino lawsTydingsMcDuffey Act of 1934-limit to 50/yr, purpose: to exclude Filipinos because they were perceived as a social problem, disease carriers and economical threat-American attitudes toward Filipinos changed at the onset of World War II
Brides finally allowed to join husbands in USThousands of nurses and doctors recruited to US to alleviate nursing shortageStrikes-Int’l Hotel- evicted filipinos who were paying low rent
-Mural created by Philippine-born artist Eliseo Silva (1972) located in historic Filipinotown in LA. The mural celebrates leadership and achievements of Filipinos-Delano nurses win $1 million lawsuit in Sept. 2012 after 6 year battle, where 70 nurses/staff were discriminated against/warned not to speak Tagalog and that surveillance cameras would be installed to monitor this. More than ½ of the American nurses trained abroad are from the Philippines.-Under California law, employers can require workers to speak English if business necessity
-Completed April 2003 (while I was a student there!) by 200 students and faculty for the North Plaza-4 sections: solidarity, community, community members’ struggles in Philippines, and struggles in US-”we stand on their shoulders” (ancient script) because of achievements of their ancestors-Stand arm-in-arm in front of the sun to represent solidarity within all people of color-Important figures: Purmassuri, Lorena Barros, Al Robles, Marasigan and Philip Vera Cruz-these icons paved the way for future generations thru their courage, hard work and dedication-Veterans, nurses, int’l hotel (displaced)
-Before 1900, Philippine population of Malayo-Polynesian backgrounds were classified as Indios by the Spaniards, and eventually “mestizo” referred to offspring of Indios and Chinese.-After 1900, “Filipino” was new, formal appellation, as bulk comprised of local Indios and former Chinese Mestizos, who had by then become members of the Filipino elite. “Mestizo” then referred to only mixed-Spanish-native ancestry-Mestizo = “light-skinned”-Mulato/a= “dark-skinned”Sakada=Filipino cotractlaborors (Hawaii)Pinoy= most filipinos refer to self as “pinoy” (of last 4 letters of flipino, adding dimunitive suffix ‘y’)-Before 1987, no letter “F” in filipino alphabet, and was substituted by “P”-Fil-Am-Filipino American-Rice rocket martini- rice vodka, mango nectar,mango chutney, ice, lime juice, sugar cane syrup
-Although Asian American adolescents generally have lower rates of substance abuse as a whole, new data is showing significant differences within subgroups.-Past month Alcohol use for teens 12-17 is highest at 9.7& for Filipinos among all Asian Americans to a low of 5.1% among Asian Indians, and seems to be higher for Filipino teens born in the US compared to those born outside of the US (Samhsa, 2009-This highlights the importance of monitoring substance use data among the diverse populations od Asian adolescents in the United States, and to be cognizant of not only gender and age differences, but also cultural differences.
-When America declared war against Japan in 1941, Philippines armed forces joined the US troops in fihgting. Their wartime performance led Pres Roosevelt to pledge citizenship to those who fought against the Japanese. A federal act rescinded that pledge in 1946.-Citizen rights were restored in 1990.-Veteran’s benefits were signed into law by Clinton in 1996, but were no allocated until just 3 years ago. (even now is a struggle to get these benefits, loop holes, etc)-Social status is important in Filipino society, and is expressed thru social relations and reciprocity -(Domingo, 1993) Elders have a greater social status within the family when they are making economical contribuitions, and those who do so participate more in family decision-makingWWII Filipino American Veterans Immigrating in later life to US for social status, health benefits (argument advanced by Social Exchange Theory, that older people must have some negotiable commodity to exchange in order to maintain their status in society)
Terms “tomboy” and “bakla” used to describe lesbian women and gay men, but can also be used interchangeably with hermaphrodite-Study to examine experiences of LGBT Filipinos on East and West Coast in US-Findings indicate religion, culture, family expectations influenced one’s ability to accept one’s sexuality, and that Filipino LGBT experience added psychological stressors because of their multiple identities
Filipinos often affiliate more with Latino values which are based on similar colonial experiences and less with traditional East Asian values (which are based on Buddhist and Confucian teachings). In fact, one study found FilAm college students to possess contrary cutural values than Chinese, Korean and Japanese-American students. Philippines is the on Asian country where 90% population subscribes to Catholicism and Christianity.(unique experiences of religion and spirituality than other Asian Americans)Fil women encouraged to maintain roles as caretakers, although pursuing education and careers. Women also manage household finances, discipline children, dictate rules of the house, and taught to be as assertive and independent as men.Filipinos are often mistaken for other racial groups such as Latino or Pacific Islander. Range of skin color (dark to brown) and hair texture (curly to straight).This differs from East Asian Americans who are more likely to be perceived as Asian
-Kaiser study, 2008-Through comparisons with non-Hispanic whites, the group with the highest rate of health coverage and fewest problems accessing healthcare, this fact sheet provides and overview of coverage-In health status, they are less likely (11%) to rate their health status as fair or poor, although 40% of Filipino patients have chronic conditions-
72% of Filipinos have health coverage, ahead of Chinese at 62%, and compared to only 49% of Koreans. These rates for Filipinos and Chinese are similar to that of non-hispanic whites.-Having a good income and access to healthcare is usually associated with the utilization of preventative services and timely and appropriate medical care….but it is not always the case for the Filipino population
-As we learned earlier, many Filipinos in America have extensive experiences of ethnic and cultural oppression, stemming from the Philippines and they continue to experience such an oppression in the United States.-Going back to the 1900’s, although Filipinos were considered US nationals, they weren’t US citizens and American laws didn’t protect their rights.Cultural Mistrust –construct originally conceptualized to describe the distrust among African-Americans of White Americans and mainstream institutions incl legal system, political system, government agencies, educational system and healthcare systems, which was generally governed or staffed by whites.-Because cultural mistrust has demonstrated to predict more negative attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help, it is possible that cultural mistrust also plays a role in Filipino-American mental health help seeking attitudes
Table 1- In addition to initial findings that higher income and later generational status may be related to fewer barriers for MH help seeking, higher loss of face concerns (LOFQ) correlated negatively with psychological openness, propensity to seek help, and indifference to stigma.-Adherence to Asian values of conformity to norms, family recognition of achievement, emotional self control, collectivism, and humility were also negatively correlated to these 3 thingsTable 2-With the values of Table 1, it wasn’t clear if cultural mistrust is correlated with mental health help seeking attitudes, so a hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to measure the 3 MH help seeking attitudes-Results indicate a 5-6% variance in MH help seeking that are not accounted for by income, generational stattus, loss of face and adherence to Asian values.-Future investigations-explore how cultural mistrust may influence actual MH help seeking behavior, preference for certain race of clinicians, early termination of therapy, satisfaction with services received, and effectiveness of Tx among Filipino Americans. These variables have been investigated among African American community and it would be worthwhile to see how much cultural mistrust plays a role in attitudes toward therapeutic interventions
-In the past and present times, many Filipinos believe in the afterlife and give special attention to respecting and paying homage to the dead. Wakes are generally held for 3 to 7 days because of this.
Kapwa-shared identity is the core value, and is held together with accommodative values (gratitude, soldiarity), social values (shared humanity), confronative values (determination and resistance), and pivotal interpersona value (shared inner perception)
Impact on own group-I can identify with many of the challenges associated with cultural mistrust- not speaking the language, being shy in front of authority figures, etc despite income and access to healthcare. Sikhs and Asian Indians were also displaced in India and were oppressed by the government, not protected by laws and had to turn to each other/could only trust one another in facing struggles and making it safe thru warfare.-Consciousness- In learning about the historical oppression of Filipinos and Fil-Ams, I have a better understanding of why they are as collectivistic a society and have a deeper appreciation for their strength as a people and sacrifices for humanity. I am more grateful for their services in the military as well.-Impact of TG: Target groups within Filipino community incl LGBT have multiple identities to deal with and may have more psychological stressors than others-previous bias: I did not understand the history of American colonization and why Filipinos were so Americanized when they arrived, and it is not because they are “trying to be white american”, but that their institutions are models by American government
Most minorities in the US have been oppressed in one way or another by the current system of racism and oppression. This country is what it is because of contributions made from all societies, and with the growing number of Asian and Latinos in the United States, I am optimistic that we will be more trusting in utilizing our institutions and raising awareness on current oppressions. The question now is how to deconstruct the internalized oppressions we are all carrying. What do you think we can do to help facilitate health, self care, and happiness without oppression?
FILIPINO ANDFILIPINO-AMERICANOPPRESSIONIPS1- Fall 2012Manmeet Rattu
Philippine Islands• 7,100 islands with land area of 115,707 square miles• 92 million Filipinos in the Philippines• 7th most populated Asian country• 12th most populated country in the world• 12 million Filipinos overseas• Multiple ethnicities are found throughout the islandFilipinos in the United States• 1.1% of US population• 3.4 million people• second-largest self-reported Asian ancestry group
List of U.S. Metropolitan Areas with large FilipinoAmerican populations (from 2010 Census): Filipino American % Filipino Rank City Population American Los Angeles-Long Beach- 1 Riverside, California CSA 606,657 2.8 San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, 2 California CSA 463,458 5.1 3 New York, New York CSA 232,980 0.9 San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, 4 California MSA 182,248 4.7 5 Honolulu, Hawaii MSA 158,624 14.9 6 Chicago, Illinois CSA 131,388 1.1 7 Seattle, Washington MSA 118,538 1.9 8 Las Vegas, Nevada CSA 108,668 4.4 Washington, District of Columbia 9 (DC-MD-VA) CSA 99,901 0.9 10 Sacramento, California CSA 77,262 2.2
Brief History• In 1521, arrival of Ferdinand Magellan marked the era of Spanish interest and eventual colonization• In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy Lopéz de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Phillip II of Spain• In 1565, Miguel López de Legazpi arrived in Philippines and consolidated Spanish rule in the islands, which remained a colony of Spain for more than 300 years• 1898-The islands were ceded by Spain to the United States for US$20 million in the 1898 Treaty of Paris• 1942-1945-Japan occupied Philippines• On July 4, 1946, the Philippines finally attained its independence
Four official waves • The FIRST Wave: Galleon Era (1565-1905)of Filipino migration • Manila Acapulco Galleon Trade (1565-1815)to the United States • From Open Borders to 50-Per Year • The Second Wave: Soldiers and War Brides (1906-1934) • Filipinos’ Call For Action • Filipinas’ Call to Duty • Open borders to 100-Per Year • The Third Wave: Professional and Their Families (Naval Era-1965) • Open borders to 2000/yr • The Fourth Wave: Immigration Act of 1965-present) • Open borders to 20,000/year
Immigration to US -First Wave• 1565 to 1815, during the Manila- Acapulco Galleon Trade, Filipinos were forced to work as sailors and navigators on board Spanish Galleons.• 1587- First documented Filipino arrives to Morro Bay, CA, fifty years before the first English settlement of Jamestown was established.• 1763- Filipinos made their first permanent settlement in the bayous and marshes of Louisiana.• 1781-Antonio Miranda Rodriguez Poblador, a Filipino, along with 44 other individuals was sent by the Spanish government from Mexico to establish what is now known as the city of Los Angeles.
Manila Bayou of Louisiana clip• http://filipinoamericanlibrary.org/timeline.html
Second Wave- 1906-19342 types of immigrants1. Laborers• Hawaiian Sugar Plant Association recruits young men to work in sugar cane fields in Hawaii• Alaskan fishing men Alaskeros• Domestic workers in big cities, including San Francisco• Shipyards (Mare Island, Vallejo and Hunter’s Point, San Francisco)2. Pensionados• Students sponsored under 1903 Pensionado Act
Third Wave: Naval Era-1965• Join Navy• War Brides Act• Professionals (nurses, medical professionals)• Strikes at SFSU• International Hotel, San FranciscoFourth Wave:• The 4th wave of Filipino Immigration began after the passing of the Immigration Act of 1965 and continues to the present day. This allowed the entry of as many as 20,000 immigrants annually
Continued Immigration Journey• The Visa Priority Date• Evading the Three-and Ten-Year Bar• The Continuing Push for Immigration Reforms• The Guest Worker Program or its Equivalent• The Different Perspective• A Century of Service
Current OppressionDiscriminationRacismInternalized OppressionStereotypesTerminology
• Filipinos are lazy, dumb, unnationalist • Filipinos eat dogsStereotypes • All Filipinos do karaoke • Filipinos are all sellouts and will do anything to become part of the elite • The women are promiscuous • A lot of Filipino men are gay or transvestites
Psychological Impact • Suicide • Depression • Alcohol Abuse • Substance Abuse • Race related stress • Work related stress
Psychological and • Filipino American adolescents have one ofMental Health the highest rates of suicidal ideations andPrevalence attempts in the United States (President’s Advisory Commision on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, 2001) • Filipina American adolescents have highest rate of suicide ideations among all racial and ethnic groups (Wolf, 1997) • Filipina American adolescents have a higher depression rate than other Asian American female adolescents (Kim & Chun, 1993) • Filipino American adults have higher depression rates than White Americans (Kuo, 1984) • 98-99% of Filipino Americans reported experiencing daily and lifetime racism (Alvarez, Juang, & Liang, 2006)
Psychological Impact of Oppression-Geriatric population• Veterans of World War II denied benefits until 2009- Obama signs The American Recovery Act and Reinvestment of 2009
Psychological Impact of Oppression:Within group diversity• Gay and Lesbian community “Tomboys and Baklas” (Nadal & Corpus, 2012)Domains and Themes from collective focus groups 1. Religious influence on sexual and gender identity 2. Family influence on gender and sexual identity 3. Experiences with race 4. Process of negotiating multiple identities 5. Variant experiences between Filipino subgroups • Distinct from other Asian-Americans
3 primary cultural characteristics thatdecipher Filipino-Americans from otherAsian-Americans1. Stronger affiliation with Latino values over Eastern Asian values2. Equally patriarchal and matriarchal society3. Phenotypic appearances
Median Household Income Educational Attainment: 2004The American Community — (Percent of Population 25 and Older)AsiansHousehold Income Ethnicity High SchoolEthnicity 2004 2009 BachelorsIndians $60,600 $88,538 Grad Rate or moreFilipinos $39,700 $75,146 Asian Indians 90.2% 67.9% Filipinos 90.8%Chinese $52,000 $69,037 47.9%Japanese $48,400 $64,197 Chinese 80.8% 50.2%Koreans $42,000 $53,025 Japanese 93.4%Total US Population 43.7% Koreans 90.2% $34,100 $50,221 50.8% Total US Population 83.9% 27.0%
Cultural Mistrust and Mental Health Help-Seeking Attitudes Rates are perplexing given that FilipinoCurrent trend in MH help-seeking Americans have• Utilize only about 1/3 of what • the lowest poverty rate among might be expected compared to Asian Americans (Tewari, 2009) population • Have a median household income• True across a variety of settings that is higher than White American (inpatient, outpatient, emergency population and ranks second room and case management, child among Asian Americans welfare and juvenile services, and • Have second highest English general community proficiency rate of Asian• Low rates not attributable to racial Americans differences in rates of • Are the only Asian American ethnic psychopathology group with a history of being colonized by the US, and therefore highly familiar with American cultural values
• Adaptive • Accepting responsibilityCoping Strategies • Religious copingAdaptive • Problem solving with community membersMaladaptive • Rituals (Cotillion, Filipino Heritage Month) • Performance and graphic art • Maladaptive • Alcohol Abuse • Substance Abuse • Distancing • Escape Avoidance
Sikolohiyang Pilipino (Filipino Psychology)Filipino Psychology locates the identity of the individual in terms of the web of his social relations.For instance, the experience may be a response to colonial oppression (Philippines was a colony ofSpain for 300 years, USA for 30 years and Japan for 3 years during the occupation). In terms of areasof protest, Sikolohiyang Pilipino is against a psychology that perpetuates the colonial status of theFilipino mind.
Culturally sensitive approach to treatmentof Filipino Americans• Pay attention to immigration history and regional orientation• Determine the underlying reason for treatment• Ensure adequate understanding of the diagnosis and treatment plan, bearing in mind that social inhibitions and nonverbal cues can mislead the practitioner• Use visual cues and communicate in a collaborative manner• Facilitate dialogue, inquiring about physical as well as mental health complaints• Utilize the family and identify the patients power hierarchy• Allow the patient time to process any information given• Respect personal space• Note mannerisms without making assumptions about their meaning• Do not be misled by the presenting affect• Maintain judicious use of medications• Engage the client by actively focusing on the individuals symptoms