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Philippine Islands• 7,100 islands with land area of 115,707 square miles• 92 million Filipinos in the Philippines• 7th most populated Asian country• 12th most populated country in the world• 12 million Filipinos overseas• Multiple ethnicities are found throughout the islandFilipinos in the United States• 1.1% of US population• 3.4 million people• second-largest self-reported Asian ancestry group
List of U.S. Metropolitan Areas with large FilipinoAmerican populations (from 2010 Census): Filipino American % Filipino Rank City Population American Los Angeles-Long Beach- 1 Riverside, California CSA 606,657 2.8 San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, 2 California CSA 463,458 5.1 3 New York, New York CSA 232,980 0.9 San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, 4 California MSA 182,248 4.7 5 Honolulu, Hawaii MSA 158,624 14.9 6 Chicago, Illinois CSA 131,388 1.1 7 Seattle, Washington MSA 118,538 1.9 8 Las Vegas, Nevada CSA 108,668 4.4 Washington, District of Columbia 9 (DC-MD-VA) CSA 99,901 0.9 10 Sacramento, California CSA 77,262 2.2
Brief History• In 1521, arrival of Ferdinand Magellan marked the era of Spanish interest and eventual colonization• In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy Lopéz de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Phillip II of Spain• In 1565, Miguel López de Legazpi arrived in Philippines and consolidated Spanish rule in the islands, which remained a colony of Spain for more than 300 years• 1898-The islands were ceded by Spain to the United States for US$20 million in the 1898 Treaty of Paris• 1942-1945-Japan occupied Philippines• On July 4, 1946, the Philippines finally attained its independence
Four official waves • The FIRST Wave: Galleon Era (1565-1905)of Filipino migration • Manila Acapulco Galleon Trade (1565-1815)to the United States • From Open Borders to 50-Per Year • The Second Wave: Soldiers and War Brides (1906-1934) • Filipinos’ Call For Action • Filipinas’ Call to Duty • Open borders to 100-Per Year • The Third Wave: Professional and Their Families (Naval Era-1965) • Open borders to 2000/yr • The Fourth Wave: Immigration Act of 1965-present) • Open borders to 20,000/year
Immigration to US -First Wave• 1565 to 1815, during the Manila- Acapulco Galleon Trade, Filipinos were forced to work as sailors and navigators on board Spanish Galleons.• 1587- First documented Filipino arrives to Morro Bay, CA, fifty years before the first English settlement of Jamestown was established.• 1763- Filipinos made their first permanent settlement in the bayous and marshes of Louisiana.• 1781-Antonio Miranda Rodriguez Poblador, a Filipino, along with 44 other individuals was sent by the Spanish government from Mexico to establish what is now known as the city of Los Angeles.
Manila Bayou of Louisiana clip• http://filipinoamericanlibrary.org/timeline.html
Second Wave- 1906-19342 types of immigrants1. Laborers• Hawaiian Sugar Plant Association recruits young men to work in sugar cane fields in Hawaii• Alaskan fishing men Alaskeros• Domestic workers in big cities, including San Francisco• Shipyards (Mare Island, Vallejo and Hunter’s Point, San Francisco)2. Pensionados• Students sponsored under 1903 Pensionado Act
Third Wave: Naval Era-1965• Join Navy• War Brides Act• Professionals (nurses, medical professionals)• Strikes at SFSU• International Hotel, San FranciscoFourth Wave:• The 4th wave of Filipino Immigration began after the passing of the Immigration Act of 1965 and continues to the present day. This allowed the entry of as many as 20,000 immigrants annually
Continued Immigration Journey• The Visa Priority Date• Evading the Three-and Ten-Year Bar• The Continuing Push for Immigration Reforms• The Guest Worker Program or its Equivalent• The Different Perspective• A Century of Service
Current OppressionDiscriminationRacismInternalized OppressionStereotypesTerminology
• Filipinos are lazy, dumb, unnationalist • Filipinos eat dogsStereotypes • All Filipinos do karaoke • Filipinos are all sellouts and will do anything to become part of the elite • The women are promiscuous • A lot of Filipino men are gay or transvestites
Psychological Impact • Suicide • Depression • Alcohol Abuse • Substance Abuse • Race related stress • Work related stress
Psychological and • Filipino American adolescents have one ofMental Health the highest rates of suicidal ideations andPrevalence attempts in the United States (President’s Advisory Commision on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, 2001) • Filipina American adolescents have highest rate of suicide ideations among all racial and ethnic groups (Wolf, 1997) • Filipina American adolescents have a higher depression rate than other Asian American female adolescents (Kim & Chun, 1993) • Filipino American adults have higher depression rates than White Americans (Kuo, 1984) • 98-99% of Filipino Americans reported experiencing daily and lifetime racism (Alvarez, Juang, & Liang, 2006)
Psychological Impact of Oppression-Geriatric population• Veterans of World War II denied benefits until 2009- Obama signs The American Recovery Act and Reinvestment of 2009
Psychological Impact of Oppression:Within group diversity• Gay and Lesbian community “Tomboys and Baklas” (Nadal & Corpus, 2012)Domains and Themes from collective focus groups 1. Religious influence on sexual and gender identity 2. Family influence on gender and sexual identity 3. Experiences with race 4. Process of negotiating multiple identities 5. Variant experiences between Filipino subgroups • Distinct from other Asian-Americans
3 primary cultural characteristics thatdecipher Filipino-Americans from otherAsian-Americans1. Stronger affiliation with Latino values over Eastern Asian values2. Equally patriarchal and matriarchal society3. Phenotypic appearances
Median Household Income Educational Attainment: 2004The American Community — (Percent of Population 25 and Older)AsiansHousehold Income Ethnicity High SchoolEthnicity 2004 2009 BachelorsIndians $60,600 $88,538 Grad Rate or moreFilipinos $39,700 $75,146 Asian Indians 90.2% 67.9% Filipinos 90.8%Chinese $52,000 $69,037 47.9%Japanese $48,400 $64,197 Chinese 80.8% 50.2%Koreans $42,000 $53,025 Japanese 93.4%Total US Population 43.7% Koreans 90.2% $34,100 $50,221 50.8% Total US Population 83.9% 27.0%
Cultural Mistrust and Mental Health Help-Seeking Attitudes Rates are perplexing given that FilipinoCurrent trend in MH help-seeking Americans have• Utilize only about 1/3 of what • the lowest poverty rate among might be expected compared to Asian Americans (Tewari, 2009) population • Have a median household income• True across a variety of settings that is higher than White American (inpatient, outpatient, emergency population and ranks second room and case management, child among Asian Americans welfare and juvenile services, and • Have second highest English general community proficiency rate of Asian• Low rates not attributable to racial Americans differences in rates of • Are the only Asian American ethnic psychopathology group with a history of being colonized by the US, and therefore highly familiar with American cultural values
• Adaptive • Accepting responsibilityCoping Strategies • Religious copingAdaptive • Problem solving with community membersMaladaptive • Rituals (Cotillion, Filipino Heritage Month) • Performance and graphic art • Maladaptive • Alcohol Abuse • Substance Abuse • Distancing • Escape Avoidance
Sikolohiyang Pilipino (Filipino Psychology)Filipino Psychology locates the identity of the individual in terms of the web of his social relations.For instance, the experience may be a response to colonial oppression (Philippines was a colony ofSpain for 300 years, USA for 30 years and Japan for 3 years during the occupation). In terms of areasof protest, Sikolohiyang Pilipino is against a psychology that perpetuates the colonial status of theFilipino mind.
Culturally sensitive approach to treatmentof Filipino Americans• Pay attention to immigration history and regional orientation• Determine the underlying reason for treatment• Ensure adequate understanding of the diagnosis and treatment plan, bearing in mind that social inhibitions and nonverbal cues can mislead the practitioner• Use visual cues and communicate in a collaborative manner• Facilitate dialogue, inquiring about physical as well as mental health complaints• Utilize the family and identify the patients power hierarchy• Allow the patient time to process any information given• Respect personal space• Note mannerisms without making assumptions about their meaning• Do not be misled by the presenting affect• Maintain judicious use of medications• Engage the client by actively focusing on the individuals symptoms