MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE Compiled by: Gp Capt KW Kirinde (Retd), psc July 2005
The word motivation actually comes from the latinword ‘movere’ which means ‘to move’. What is motivation?
You have a car with a full tank of petrol, a well tunedengine, good set of tires, quadraphonic CD system,and a sleek, polished exterior. There it sits. This carhas incredible potential. However until a driver sitsbehind the wheel, puts the key in the ignition, andcranks it up, the car doesn’t function. The KEY isMOTIVATION. Source: Internet
In a managerial context motivation is getting peopleto exert a high degree of effort on their job.
Organisation and MotivationAn organization is a group of people working toachieve a common aim. Here the people should bemotivated to work towards the aim.
Management and MotivationManagement is getting a job done by working withand through people. Here too the people should bemotivated to do the work assigned to them.
In RealityAs far as people are concerned “motivation”becomes a difficult exercise both in terms of“organisation” and “management” because,
In RealityOrganisation is a group of ordinary people trying todo or doing extra ordinary things.
In RealityManagement is getting people to do things thatthey don’t like to do.
But we have to learn and practice what has beenwritten on motivation. WHY?To get,• Ordinary people to do extra ordinary things.• People to do things that they don’t like to do.
Performance and MotivationHigh performance is related to,• Effort - Amount of physical and mental energyspent• Abilities - Knowledge, skills, techniques rightattitudes and experience• Environment – Totality of all the forces andinstitutions that are external
Therefore a motivated person in relation toperformance is,• A person who works hard• A person who sustains the pace of hard work• A person whose behavior is self directed towardimportant goals
Hence from an organisational and a management pointof view the best way to motivate a person is by bridgingthe gap between organizational goals and personalgoals.Organisational goals -- Personnel goals • High income • Career development • Training and development • Job satisfaction • Recognition • Opportunities for achievement
Now we will study the subject of motivation in a theoretical sense
Process of motivationNeed - A felt deficiency of some basic satisfactionDrive - The behavioral out come of the needBehaviour - The personal conductGoal - The fulfillment of the needReward - Something received in return for satisfyingthe need
Theories of motivation• A.H. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory -based on human needs• McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y – based onassumptions• Fredrich Herzberg’s two factor theory – basedon a study of need satisfactions
A.H. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Self Actualisation Becoming what one is capable of becoming- realizing one’s potential Esteem Needs Self Acceptance, Recognition, Status, Influence, Respect Social Needs Love, Togetherness, Association, Friendship Safety or Security Needs Protection from Physical Harm, Ill Health, Economic Disaster and the Unexpected and Job SecurityPhysiological NeedsFood, Water, Air, Shelter, Clothes, Sex, Sleep
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory YTheory X (Traditional assumption)- The typical person dislikes work and will avoidit if possible.- The typical person lacks responsibility and haslittle ambition and seeks security above all.- Most people must be coerced; controlled andthreatened with punishment to get them work.
Theory Y (Human relations assumption) * Work is natural as play and rest. * People are not inherently lazy. They have becomethat way as a result of experience. * People will exercise self-direction and self controlin the service of objectives to which they arecommitted. * People have potential under proper conditions.They learn to accept and seek responsibility. Theyhave the imagination, ingenuity and creativity that theycan apply to work.
Fredrich Herzberg’s two factor theory Dissatisfiers• Company policy and administration• Supervision• Relationship with Supervisor• Work conditions• Salary• Relationship with peers• Security
Satisfiers• Achievement• Recognition• Work itself• Responsibility• Advancement• Growth