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Vroom's expectancy theory of motivation

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    Vroom's expectancy theory of motivation Vroom's expectancy theory of motivation Presentation Transcript

    • Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Of Motivation By Manisha Vaghelavaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 1ahoo.com
    • ContentsIntroduction Of Motivation Various Defecation Of Motivation Important Elements Of Model Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Product of Valence and Expectancy Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Vroom’s model Conclusion Bibliographyvaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 2ahoo.com
    •  Introduction Of Motivation Motivation is the force that drives a person into action.In the context of business, when we say that a manager motivates aperson, it means he inspires him to do a particular task that will lead to theaccomplishment of organizational goal. The person concerned inturn, shall perform that task only if he feels that such an action wouldsatisfy his personal needs. A person initially joins an organization for themonetary benefits. Once his financial needs are reasonably satisfied helooks forward to the satisfaction of his behavioral needs. A person whoworks at a position where enough financial rewards are offered but thelevel of job satisfaction is low. Will perhaps look for another job. vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 3 ahoo.com
    • Motivation, is often a very complex task becausethe factors that motivate an individual to work are themselves very complex andcomplicated. Financial incentives may be important for one worker while non-financial incentives may be important for the other. The managermust, therefore, be well equipped in the skills of determining as to what motivatesthe human behavior. In fact, motivation is an aspect of management wheremanagers themselves need to be trained before they set in to motivate theirsubordinates. An individual works or performs a particularbehavioral activity, in the first instance, not because he wishes the organizationalgoals to be achieved but probably because that work will give him some financialrewards through which he can satisfy his own needs and desires. The need, istherefore, the main driving force that motivates human behavior towards aparticular action. vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 4 ahoo.com
    •  Various Defecation Of Motivation Definitions of motivation given by different management thinkers are given below: According to Gibson “Motivation may be defined as thestate on of individual tie which represents the strength of his or her propensity tountoward some particular behavior.” According to Dubrin “motivation refers to expenditure ofefforts towards a go”. According to Steers and porter “motivation is the force thatenergizes behavior, gives direction to behavior and underlies the tendency topersist.” According to Weihrich And Koontz:- “ motivation is a generalterm applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similarforces. To say that managers motivate there subordinates is to say that theydo those things which they hope will satisfy these drives and desires andinduce the subordinates to act In a desired manner”.vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 5ahoo.com
    • According to Pearce And Robinson “ Motivation is theout come of the process by which a manager induces others to work to achieveorganizational objectives as means of satisfying their own personal desires”. According to Encyclopedia of management, themotivation is defined as, “the degree of readiness of an organization to pursuesome designated goal and implies the determination of the nature and locus offorce, inducing the degree of readiness.” vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 6 ahoo.com
    •  Important Elements Of Model This model is based upon the assumption that the man is a rational being and will try to maximize his pay off. He will choose an alternative that would give him the most benefit . This approach assumes that motivation to work is strongly determined by an individual‟s perception that a certain type of behaviour will lead to a certain type of outcome and his personal preference for that type of out come .There are three important elements in this model:- 1)Expectancy:- This is a person‟s perception of the likelihood that a particular outcome will result from a particular behaviour or action. The likelihood is probabilistic in nature and describes that relationship between an act and an outcome. For example, if a person works hard, he may except to perform better and increase productivity. Similarly, if a student works hard during the semester, he expects to do well in the final examination. vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 7 ahoo.com
    • 2) Instrumentality:- This factor relates to a persons belief and expectation that his performance will lead to a particular desired reward . it is the degree of association of first level outcome of a particular effort to the second level outcome – which is the ultimate reward for example , working hard may lead to better performance, which is the first level outcome ,which may result in a reward like raise in pay or promotion or both, which is the second level outcome. If a person believe that his performance will not be recognized or lead to expected rewards , he will not be motivated to work hard to improve on his techniques of teaching and communication (first level outcome) in order to get promotion and tenure (second level outcome) Accordingly to ,the instrumentality is the performance- reward relationship3) Valence:- Valence is the value a person assigns to his desired reward. He may not be willing to work hard to improve performance, if the reward for such improved performances not what he desires. It is not the actual value of the reward but the perceptional value of the reward in the mind of the work hard, not to get pay raise but to get recognition and status. Another person may be more interested in job security than with status. vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 8 ahoo.com
    • Accordingly, according to this model of motivation, the person level of effort (MOTIVATION) depends upon:- a) Expectancy:- A worker must be confident that his efforts will result in better productivity and that he has the ability to perform the task well. • Instrumentality: - The worker must be confident that such high performance will be Instrumental in getting desired rewards. a) Valence: - The worker must value these rewards as desired and satisfactory. Hence motivation is related to all these three factors as: Motivational Force (M) =Expectancy (E) x Instrumentality (I) x Valence (V) or M= (E X I X V).vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 9ahoo.com
    • Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Product of Valence and Expectancy:-  Vroom‟s expectancy theory – vroom theory asserts that motivation is a product of valance and expectancy. MOTIVATION OR FPRCE = valance *expectancy  Force is the motivation that influences an individual to act or behave in the given manner Valence is how strong an individual holds about the outcome of his action. “it is the preference an individual places on an outcome.” Valance may be positive or negative depending on his preference for an outcome. It ranges from -1 to +1. if a particular action of employee is followed by a promotion, he will prefer doing that action. Since the outcome has a positive value, valence shall be +1. if his action shall result into his transfer or demotion, he would avoid such an outcome and therefore, shall place negative value to the outcome. The valance for the outcome is -1. If an individual action is not affected by any outcome, a routine behaviour, foe examples, which is neither followed by outcomes of promotion or demotion, the valence shall be zero (0). vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 10 ahoo.com
    •  Expectancy is a belief that an action shall lead to an outcome. It ranges from 0 to 1. if an employee believes that his action will lead to an outcome, his expectancy is 1 and if the probability that his action shall not lead to any outcome is high, the expectancy shall be more towards zero. Two types of expectancies have been talked of:-vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 11ahoo.com
    • vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 12ahoo.com
    • 1) Efforts-performance expectancy: - It is the expectation of the employee that is efforts shall lead to a desire performance. For example, an individual may feel that if he works for 2 hours overtime every day, he shJall be able to produce more. If the employee feels that his efforts shall lead to the desire performance, he shall perform task.2) Performance:- It is outcome expectancy It is the expectation of the employees that if the desired performance is achieved, it shall be followed by a positive outcome. Greater the probability that the performance shall be followed by a positive outcome, greater shall be the desire of the individual to perform that action. In the above example, the employee shall put in 2 hours of overtime every day only if he expects an increase in his salary. If the management dose not give him any extra benefit for producing more, his expectancy shall be zero (0)and he shall not be motivated to perform that action.vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 13ahoo.com
    •  Vroom’s Expectancy Theory:- This theory tells us that simply making motivation factorsavailable to people is not enough. People must believe that by working , they willreceive reward that are important to them. People‟s actions are based on theirexpectations as well as their needs. Unless there is a positive expectation of areward that well satisfy a need ,an individual will not take action. To illustrateconsider a person who is thirsty .there may be need for water, but the action ofgoing to the faucet and getting a drink occurs only if he expects will result inobtaining water. The experience of one manufacturing company indicates the importance of expectations. The management head decided to expand the company, and it knew that a number of supervisors would be needed to prepare for the expansion, the company decided to run a training programmed for its employees (non-supervisors) to prepare them to become supervisors. the programmed was open to all employees at no cost. When the programmed started ,only three people attended the programmed. Management interviewed the employees who did not participate to find out the reasons for their poor participation. Many employees stated that they would like to be promoted but did not feel that attending the programmed would help." promotion is based on whom you know," was the commonly expressed opinion. in other words although promotion was a motivating factor to employees, they did not participate in the training programmed because they Manisha Vaghela it would help them in getting vaghela_manisha13@y by: did not believe 14 ahoo.com promotion.
    • Similarly, how hard people work is affected by their needs andwhether or not they expect a good job performance to result in rewards that willsatisfy their needs. To be motivated, people must believe that by workinghard, they will fulfill the needs that are important to them. in short, we can say, thatif a manager wants to motivate his employees, he should do the following:- 1. Try to offer rewards (motivation factors) that are important to his employees. 2. Create positive expectations.THE VROOM THEORY AND PRACTICE:- One of the great attractions of the Vroom theory is that itrecognizes the importance of various individual needs and motivations. It thusavoids some of the simplistic features of the maslow and Herzberg approaches.It dose seem more realistic. it fits the concept of harmony of objectives(explained in chapter 14):individuals have personal goals different fromorganizational goals, but these can be harmonized.furthermore,Vroom‟s theory iscompletely consistent with the system of managing by objectives. vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 15 ahoo.com
    • The strength of Vroom‟s theory is also its weakness. Hisassumption that senses of value vary among individuals at different times and invarious places appears to fit real life more accurately. It is consistent also with theidea that a manager‟s job is to design an environment forperformance, necessarily taking in to account the differences in various situations.On the other hand vroom‟s theory is difficult to apply in practice. Despite itsdifficulty in application, the logical accuracy of Vroom‟s theory indicates thatmotivation is much more complex than the approaches of Maslow and Herzbergseem to imply. This theory developed by victor h. vroom and it expands upon thosedeveloped by Maslow and Herzberg. It views motivation as a process governingchoices. Thus, if an individual has a particular goal, in order to achieve thegoal, some behavior must be performed. The individual, therefore, weights thelikelihood that various behaviors will achieve the desired goal, and if certainbehavior “is expected to be more successful than others ,that type of behavior willlikely be selected. An important contribution of vroom‟s theory is that it explainshow the goals of individuals influence their effort and that the behavior in goals ofindividuals influence their effort and that the behavior individuals select dependsupon their assessment of the probability that the behavior will successfully lend tothe goal. For example, all members of an organization may not place the samevalue on such job factors as promotion, high pay, job security, and workingconditions. In other words, they may rank them differently. Vroom believes that whatis important is the perception and value the individual places upon certain goals.16 vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela ahoo.com
    • The expectancy theory argues that the strength of atendency to act in a certain way depends in the strength of an expectation that theact will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of the outcomeof the individual. it includes three variables (which vroom refers to asvalence,*Instrumentality, and Expectancy :- ) 1. Attractiveness:- The importance or the strength that the individual places on potential outcome or reward that can be achieved on the job this considers the unsatisfied needs of the individual. 2. Performance-reward linkage:- The degree to which the individual believes that performing of particular level will lead to the attainment of each job outcome. 3. Effort performance linkage:- The perceived probability by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lend to performance. vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 17 ahoo.com
    • In other words, a person‟s desire to produce at any given time depends on his particular goals and his perception of the relative worth of performance as a path to the attainment of these goals. The strength of a persons‟ motivation to perform (effort) depends upon how strongly he believes that he can achieve what he attempts. The four steps inherent in vroom‟s theory are:1. What outcome dose the job offers the employee? The important issue to be considered is what individual employee perceives the outcome to be. Outcomes may be positive - such as pay security, companionship, trust, fringes benefits, a chance to use talents or skills, congenial relationship-or negative, such as fatigue, boredom, frustration, anxiety, harsh supervision, threat of dismissal, etc.2. How attractive Do employees view these outcomes? This issue is related to the individual and considers his likes and dislikes. If a particular outcome is found to be attractive (positive) individual would prefer attaining it to attaining it. It if is negative, he would prefer not attaining it to attaining it. Additionally, he may be natural. vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 18 ahoo.com
    • 3. What kind of behavior must the employee produce in order to achieve these objectives? The outcomes can be effective only when the employee knows clearly what he must do in order to achieve them – i.e., he should know what are the criteria on the basis of which his performance would be judged.4. How dose the employee view his chance of doing what is asked of him? After knowing his competencies and his abilities the individual should ascertain the probability of his successful attainment of the job. In sum, vroom emphasizes the importance of individual perceptions and assessments of organizational behavior. The key to “expectancy” theory is the “understanding of an individual‟s goals” – and the linkage between “efforts” and “performance” , between “performance” and “rewards” „ and between “rewards" and “individual-goal satisfaction.” It is a contingency model, which recognizes that there is no universal method of motivating people. Because we understand what needs an employee seeks to satisfy dose not ensure that the employee himself perceives high job performance as necessarily leading to the satisfaction of these needs. vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 19 ahoo.com
    • Vroom’s model:-VROOM‟S MODEL has brought forward the following particulars: 1. Its emphasis is on pay of or rewards. In other words, the rewards an organization offers aligns with what the employee wants: 2. We have to be concerned with the attractiveness of rewards, which requires understanding and knowledge of what value the individual puts on organization payoff. Individual should be rewarded with those he value positively. 3. It emphasizes expected behaviors i.e.; the individual should know what is expected of him and how he will be appraised. 4. It implies that management should counsel subordinates to help them grasp a realistic view of their competency. 5. The management should support the subordinates in developing that skill that are important in leading to better performance. 6. It also implies that management should make extended efforts of demonstrating confidence in individual that they can perform well. vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 20 ahoo.com
    • 7. It has been used to explain specific forms of employee behavior; for example, the turn – over of younger workers, during pre-job training.From management‟s point of view, the implications of this theory are two-fold: First, it is important to determine what needs each employee seeks to satisfy. This knowledge will be useful to management while attempting to align rewards available to the employee with the needs that the employee seeks to satisfy. It is necessary to individualize rewards to each employee, for rewards that are valuable for some may not be appealing to others. Second, management should attempt to clarify the path for the worker between efforts and needs satisfaction. Individual motivation will be significantly determined by the probabilities the worker assigns to the following relationship: His effort leading to performance – performance leading to rewards, and these rewards – satisfying personal goals. vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 21 ahoo.com
    • Vroom‟s theory, in sum, indicates only the conceptualdeterminants of motivation and how they how related. It does not provide specificsuggestions on what motivation humans in organization, as did the maslow andherzberg models. It is, however, of value in understanding organizational behavior.It clarifies the goals between individual and organizational goals. It attempts only tomirror the complex motivation process; it does not attement to describe howmotivational decisions are actually made or to solve actual motivational problemsfacing manager. It needs further testing to prove its validity. vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 22 ahoo.com
    •  Conclusion:- The Expectancy Theory of Victor Vroom deals withmotivation and management. Vrooms theory assumes that behavior resultsfrom conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximizepleasure and minimize pain. Together with Edward Lawler and LymanPorter, Vroom suggested that the relationship between peoples behavior at workand their goals was not as simple as was first imagined by other scientists. Vroomrealized that an employees performance is based on individuals factors suchas personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities.vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 23ahoo.com
    • Finally I conclude my all the main topics which are explained before you in detailed, and my topics are:-Introduction Of Motivation Various Defecation Of Motivation Important Elements Of Model Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Product of Valence and Expectancy Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Vroom’s model Conclusion Bibliographyvaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com by: Manisha Vaghela 24
    • Bibliography:-i. Management Theory of Practice - J. S. Chandanii. Students guide to Management - Dr. N. Vasisthiii. Essentials of Management - Harold Koontz - Heinz Weihrichiv. Essentials of Management - P. N. Reddy - P. C. Tripathi - H. R. Appannaiavi. Personnel Management - C. B. Mammoriavaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 25ahoo.com
    • vaghela_manisha13@y by: Manisha Vaghela 26ahoo.com