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The human behavior scool of throught The human behavior scool of throught Presentation Transcript

  • THE HUMAN BEHAVIOR SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS BY: MANISHA VAGHELA BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.1 com
  • FLOW OF PRESENTATION1. INTRODUCTION OF MANAGEMENT.2. MEANING OR DEFINATION OF MANAGEMENT.3. INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN BEHAVIOR SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS.4. MEANING OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.2 com
  • CONT…..5. BRANCHES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS.6. FEATURES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS.7. CONTRIBUTIONS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.3 com
  • CONT…..8. LIMITATIONS/ SORTCOMINGS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS.9. CRITICISM OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS.10. CONCLUSION OF THE TOPIC. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.4 com
  • CONT…..11. REVIEW OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS.12. BIBLIOGRAPHY. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 5 com
  • INTRODUCTION OF MANAGEMENT.“No job is more vital to our society than that of the manager. It is the manager who determines whether our social institutions serve us well or whether they squander our talents and resources.” - HENRY MINTZBERG BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 6 com
  • CONT…..Today’s world consist of many tiny, small, big, giant, local, national, multinational, global organizations. This includes: - Social - Political - Religious - Cultural - Business organizations. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 7 com
  • CONT…..Success of all this depends on their effective and efficient management.Therefore, management plays a most powerful and crucial role in the success and survival of the whole world.Consequently, management has emerged as a powerful “institution” a great “resources” and important “discipline of learning” in the modern world. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 8 com
  • CONT…..PETER DRUCKER, the world’s well known management guru, has aptly remarked that “ the emergence of management as an essential, a distinct and a leading institution is a pivotal event in social history. Rarely, if ever, has a new basic institution, a new leading group, emerged as fast as has management since the turn of his (Twentieth) century. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 9 com
  • CONT….. Rarely in human history has a new institution proven indispensable so quickly; and even less often has a new institution arrived with so little opposition, so little disturbance, so little controversy.” BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.10 com
  • CONT….. Management is regarded as the most crucial factor in the success or failure of any business organization. It plans organizes, directs and controls, the activities and resources for the purpose of achieving common objectives. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 11 com
  • CONT….. It mobilizes and utilizes human, physical, financial and information resources effectively and efficiently. It makes things happen in the organization.Management plays a significant role in the welfare of the society as a whole. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 12 com
  • MEANING OR DEFINATION OF MANAGEMENT.“Management is the dynamic life-giving element in every business. Without it the resources of production remain resources and never become production.” -PETER DRUCKER vaghela_manisha13@ya BY:MANISHA VAGHELA 13 hoo.com
  • CONT….. Management is the process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives in a changing environment. Central to this process is the effective and efficient use of limited resources. -KREITNER BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.14 com
  • CONT…..“Management is simply the process of decision- making and control over the actions of human- beings for the express purpose of attaining predetermined goals.” - STANLEY VANCE Management is “The process by which managers create, direct, maintain and operate purposive organizations through coordinated and cooperative human effort.” - MCFARLAND 15 BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. com
  • INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN BEHAVIORSCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTSHawthorne studies (1924-1932) by George Elton Mayo and his team members gave rise to a new movement which is known as the Human Relation Movement.It may be recalled that Hawthorne studies revealed that better physical environment and more economic benefits were not sufficient to motivate workers for higher productivity BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 16 com
  • CONT….. that socio-psychological needs have aIt showed powerful influence on the productivity of workers.Moreover, these studies also revealed that informal/social relationship, informal supervision at work also play a crucial role in increasing in productivity.These conclusion of the studies gave birth to HUMAN BEHAVIOR MOVEMENT. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 17 com
  • MEANING OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR SCHOOLOF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS.Management could rightly be thought of as the process of getting things done through or with people.If that be so, any organization could be compared to a building that is made up of bricks of people. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 18 com
  • CONT…..The relationship among these people are the cementing force that bind them together in pursuit of common objectives. According to this school of thought, management is the study of BEHAVIOR of people at work.The school had its origins in a series of experiments conducted by professor “ELTON MAYO” and his associates at the BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 19 com
  • CONT….. HARVARD SCHOOL OF BUSINESS at the Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne works, near Chicago. These studies brought out for the first time the important relationship between social factors and productivity. Hitherto productivity of employees were considered to be a function only of physical condition of work and money, wages paid to them. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 20 com
  • CONT….. For the first time it was realized that productivity depended heavily upon the satisfaction of the employees in work situations. Those who subscribe to the human behavior of thought are of the view that the effectiveness of any organization depends upon the quality of relationships among the people working in the organization. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 21 com
  • CONT….. Apart from the study of formal organization and techniques used by such organizations, this school studies the psychological processes in the organizations, group dynamics, informal organizations, conflict, change, motivation and relationship and the various techniques of achieving organizational development by improving the BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.22 com
  • CONT….. relationships among various groups of people constituting organization and the climate of the organization. Thus, it may be said in summary that this school concentrate on people and their behavior within formal and informal organization. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 23 com
  • BRANCHES OF HUMAN BEHAVIORSCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS.Human behavior school stresses the importance of interpersonal and group behavior and of treating people as human beings.Since management involves “getting things done with and through people”, the study of management must revolve around human behavior. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 24 com
  • CONT…..It is centered on human interactions and group behavior patterns.It lays emphasis on the “human side” of enterprise. It is also called “people oriented school”This school had its origins in a series of experiments conducted by ELTON MAYO BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 25 com
  • CONT…..Human behavior school has two branches as under: - Human relation school. - Group and organizational behavior school.Now let us study about both these school in details. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 26 com
  • CONT….. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLThe most and pioneering work carried out in this field of management was the Hawthorne studies at The Western Electric Company in Chicago.These studies were carried out over the period 1924-1936. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 27 com
  • CONT…..Originally designed to draw conclusion between the working environment and work output they finished as major studies of work groups, social factors and employee attitudes and values, the effect of these at the place of work.The conclusion derived from those studies were as follows: BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 28 com
  • CONT…..a) Individuals need to be given importance in their own right, and must also be seen as group or team members.b) The need to belong at the work place is of fundamental importance, as critical in its own way as both pay and rewards and working conditions. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 29 com
  • CONT…..c) There is both a formal and informal organization, with formal and informal groups and structures; the informal exerts a strong influence over the formal.d) People respond positively to active involvement in work. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 30 com
  • CONT…..This approach emphasizes exactly what the classical theory ignored-the human element.The Hawthorne studies conducted by ELTON MAYO and his associates, gave rise to concept of social man and human relations at the work place. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 31 com
  • CONT…..They were the first to place importance on them and to set concept of groups, behavior, personal value and identity importance in industrial and commercial situation.The purpose of this school was not to replace the classical school of thought but to re-orient its thinking from the financial to the human factor. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 32 com
  • CONT…..It draws its backing heavily from the field of social psychology and other related fields. Theorists like ARGYRIS, BARNARD, MARCH, SIMON, LIKERT, MC GREGOR, and others have made valuable contributions to this school of thought. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 33 com
  • CONT…..This approach contends that an employee must be treated as a “human being” and not as a mere factor of production.The human relation movement was supported by three different historic influences: BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 34 com
  • CONT…..a) THREAT OF UNIONIZATION : From the late 1800s to the 1920s, the industries in Europe grew by leaps and bounds as they attempted to satisfy the many demands of workers. It was assumed that satisfied employees would be less inclined to join unions. Managers began adopting morale-boosting techniques as a union-avoidance tactic. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 35 com
  • CONT…..b) HAWTHORNE STUDIES : These studies created managers interest in the psychological and sociological dynamics of the workers. These promoted a more humanistic view of “social man” in industry. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.36 com
  • CONT…..c) PHILOSOPHY OF INDUSTRIAL HUMANISM: A philosophy of human relation was needed to provide a basis for treating employees better. ELTON MAYO urged managers to provide to work that can foster satisfaction to the workers. He called for a new social order to stimulate individual cooperation. Follet believed managers had to recognize the BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.37 com
  • CONT…..Individuals motivating desires. MCGREGOR viewedthe typical employee as an energetic and creativeindividual who could achieve great things if giventhe opportunity. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.38 com
  • CONT….. GROUP AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR SCHOOLIt emphasizes behavior of people in groups. It is based on social psychology. It is also know as organizational behavior approach. It attempts to determine the causes of human work behavior and translates the results into effect management techniques. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 39 com
  • CONT….. This approach brought two new dimensions to the study of management: It advanced and even more sophisticated view of human beings and their drives than did Mayo. It applied the scientific methods to study how people behaved in groups or organizations as whole entities. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 40 com
  • CONT…..Maslow, McGregor, March, and Simon, were the main advocates of this approach. They pioneered the behavioral movement towards a better understanding of people at work in organizations.Group and organizational behavior school is identified by following features: BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 41 com
  • CONT….. a) SCIENTIFIC METHOD BASE: It increased the use of scientific method to predict and explain the behavior and performance, although armchair speculation and common sense are not completely disregarded. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.42 com
  • CONT…..b) INTERDISCIPLINARY NATURE: It has borrowed concepts, theories, models and the orientation of the behavioral science in understanding behavior.c) ANALYSIS LEVEL: It is concerned with in-depth analysis of individuals, groups and formal organizations. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.43 com
  • CONT…..d) CONTINGENCY ORIENTATION: It has no universally applicable set of solutions. Instead, its action is based on the situation and the people involved.e) CONCERN FOR APPLICATION: It is suited for the practicing managers in an organization. It has practical theories and models understood by the managers. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 44 com
  • CONT…..e) HOLISTICVIEW: It takes a holistic view of a behavior and addresses individuals, group and organizational processes. Human relations enjoys its peak of acceptance from 1931 to the late 1940s. Organizational behavior emerged in the late 1950s and is presently of great interest to managers and researchers. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 45 com
  • FEATURES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR SCHOOLOF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS.It assumes that organization is a social system.It regards that this system is composed of many interacting groups.It believes that many informal groups or cliques (social groups) emerge at the work place and they have a great impact BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 46 com
  • CONT..... on the behavior of the members of that group. These informal groups can control the workers at work.It believes that workers do not behave rationally always. They sometimes also behave non-rationally, under the effect of their emotions, feelings, sentiments, values etc. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 47 com
  • CONT…..It believes that monetary gains alone cannot motivate workers. Satisfaction of socio- psychological needs also has a powerful influence on the motivation of the workers. It believes that for congenial environment in organization, conflict should be avoided. If at all it arises, it should be resolved immediately BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.48 com
  • CONT…..It considers that workers participation in planning and decision making can boost both moral and productivity of workers. It believes that a sound to-way communication system is essential for a healthy working climate in an organization. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 49 com
  • CONT…..It regards that development of people- oriented skills in managers is essential. It will help in inculcating a filling of belongingness among the workers. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.50 com
  • CONTRIBUTIONS OF HUMAN BEHAVIORSCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS.This school forced a reassessment of simplistic machine model view. It provided a better explanation of why people in organizations behave as they do.It humanized the work place and made it clear that group relationships are the key to behavior. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 51 com
  • CONT…..It recognizes the vital influence of the environment affecting behavior.It stressed social needs and focused on teaching behavioral skills, as opposed to technical skills.It made it clear that “management is really applied behavioral science”. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 52 com
  • CONT…..It opened the door to the academic field of organizational behavior.It provided important insights into motivation, group dynamics and other interpersonal processes in organizations.It challenged the view that employees are tools and promoted the belief that employees are valuable resources. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 53 com
  • CONT…..A workers does not work for money only. Non- financial rewards (such as the affection and respect of his co-workers) also significantly affect his behavior and largely limit the effect of economic incentive plan.Employee-centered, democratic and participative style of supervisory leadership is more effective than task-centered leadership. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 54 com
  • LIMITATIONS/ SORTCOMINGS OF HUMANBEHAVIOR SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENTTHOUGHTS. It is a swing in the opposite direction and as much incomplete as the scientific management and administrative management approaches. If Taylor and Fayol viewed task and structure as their central tenets and ignored the human variable, the human behavior writers saw only the human variable as critical and ignored other variables. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 55 com
  • CONT….. Theimpact belief of this approach that an organization can be turned into one big happy family where it is always possible to find the solution which satisfies everybody is not correct. Every organization is made up of a number of diverse social groups with incompatible values and interests. These groups might cooperate in some spheres and compete and clash in others. Two groups within the organization whose interest frequently come into conflict are management and workers. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 56 com
  • CONT…..Thus, in a recession, the management of a companymay clash with the workers if it decides to lay offsome of them. No amount of “human relations” cansugarcoat this reality indefinitely. Management canonly put off its decision for some time. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.57 com
  • CONT…..This approach over-emphasizes the importance of a symbolic rewards and underplays the role the material rewards. One must realize that for symbolic rewards to be effective, the recipient must first identify with the granting organization and, even more important, the symbols must be appreciated by the recipients “significant others” BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 58 com
  • CONT….. i.e. his wife, friends, neighbors, etc many times the worker in a factory is ridiculed by his coworkers on receiving a symbolic rewards from his employers. Hence such reward generally fail to achieve there objective of higher production. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.59 com
  • CONT…..This approach provides an unrealistic picture about informal groups by describing them as a major source of satisfaction for industrial workers. Many organizational researchers have shown that workers do not come to the factory to seek affection and affiliation and that the formation of informal groups among them is not very common. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 60 com
  • CONT….. Moreover, informal groups, wherever they exist, can only make the worker’s day more pleasant and not his task, which continues to remain repetitive, monotonous and uncreative.This approach is in fact production-oriented and not employee-oriented as it claims to be. Many of its techniques tricks workers into a false sense of happiness but there is no improvement in their well- being. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 61 com
  • CONT…..This approach makes an unrealistic demand on the superior. It wants him to give up his desires for power. So it is a main reason for the people to become managers.It has not produced a complete body of management. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 62 com
  • CONT…..It considers human relations not as a part of a manager’s job but as the totality of management.Human relations theories cannot predict behavior arising out of highly complex situations.The complexity of individual behavior makes predication of that behavior difficult. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 63 com
  • CONT….. Many behavioral concepts have not yet been put to use because some managers are reluctant to adopt them. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.64 com
  • CRITICISM OF HUMAN BEHAVIORSCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS.It over-emphasizes on keeping workers happy whereas happiness alone cannot make workers more productive.It emphasizes on manipulation of workers emotions for the organizational purposes. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.65 com
  • CONT…..It over-emphasizes the importance of socio- psychological factors and undermines the importance of monetary incentives in the productivity of workers.It overlooks the impact of others environmental factors on productivity of workers. The other factors include technology, trade unions etc. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.66 com
  • SCHOOL OFMANAGEMENT SCHOOL. The main aim of these theory is to find out the impact of “ what is achieved how it is achieved and why it is achieved on people in the organization”. The approach also emphasizes on the fact that “Management does not do, it gets others to do”. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 67 com
  • CONT…..Thus, when the focus of management is human being and human behavior, the morale of workers goes up and is positively reflected in increased productivity and efficiency of the organizations. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.68 com
  • CONT…..“Human relations refer to the ways in which managers interact with their subordinates”. Managers must know the factors that motivate the employees to act in a positive and rational manner so that good human relation are developed in an organization. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 69 com
  • CONT…..The human behavior theory created an impact on the organizations efficiency by focusing on the fact that-social needs of the workers were more important than other needs and that the fulfillment of these needs was reflected in increased output. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 70 com
  • CONT…..The workers are seen as a part of the whole group were informal communication and leadership proves to be more effective than the formal one.The managers can get better results by following a change in their management style; a participative approach proves to be more effective than an authoritarian approach; managerial skills are more important than the technical skills. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 71 com
  • CONT…..Financial incentives are not always as rewarding as the non-financial incentives in affecting the human behavior. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 72 com
  • REVIEW OF HUMAN BEHAVIORSCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS.So we understand the following topics regarding human behavior school of management thoughts: - INTRODUCTION OFMANAGEMENT. - MEANING OR DEFINATION OF MANAGEMENT. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo. 73 com
  • CONT….. - INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN BEHAVIOR SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS. - MEANING OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.74 com
  • CONT…..- BRANCHES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS.- FEATURES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS.- CONTRIBUTIONS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.75 com
  • CONT…..- LIMITATIONS/ SORTCOMINGS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS.- CRITICISM OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS.- CONCLUSION OF THE TOPIC. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.76 com
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY.PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT, DR.R.L.NOLAKHA, RAMESH BOOK DEPOT, NEW DELHI.PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT, P.C.TRIPATHI, P.N.REDDY, TATA MC GRAW-HILL PUBLISING COMPANY LTD., NEW DELHI. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.77 com
  • CONT…..FUNDAMENTALS OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS AND MANAGEMENT, Y.K.BHUSHAN, PUBLISHED BY SULTAN CHAND AND SONS.STUDENTS GUIDE TO MANAGEMENT BY DR.NEERU VASISHTH, PUBLISHED BY TAXMAN ALLIED SERVICES PVT. LTD., NEW DELHI. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.78 com
  • CONT….. MANAGMNET CONCEPTS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR BY G.S. SUDHA, RBSA PUBLISHERS, SMS HIGHWAY, JAIPUR. BY:MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.79 com
  • THANK YOU.vaghela_manisha13@yaho BY:MANISHA VAGHELA 80o.com