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  • 2. • A combination of a number of discoveries of electro magnetic waves, radio waves, the wireless telegraph and the triode amplifier valve by scientists and technicians from different countries gave rise to the development of wireless telegraphy and later to radio broadcasting.• WWI prompted the industrialization of wireless telegraphy. In US the radio created a communication environment in which amateurs could operate freely.• Radio Broadcasting needed the mass production of receivers and marketing for it to be commercially viable. WWI military requirements facilitated this.• Earliest radio transmission in 1915 were by universities to disseminate news. By: MANISHA VAGHELA 2
  • 3. • First radio stations were set up in Pittsburg, New York and Chicago in 1920s to broadcast election news, sporting events and even opera performances.• By mid 1923 as many as 450 stations sprouted across US• In Europe, public service oriented broadcasting supported by taxes or license fees rather than advertising oriented commercial broadcasting found widespread favour.• Thus as CBS Columbia Broadcasting Station and NBC National Broadcasting Stations in the US were established as private stations, the British Government took the initiative to set up BBC in 1920 as an autonomous public service corporation. By: MANISHA VAGHELA 3
  • 4. Development of Radio in India• Broadcasting was introduced in India by amateur radio clubs in Calcutta, Bombay, Madras and Lahore.• Before the clubs launched their ventures, several experimental broadcasts were conducted in Bombay and other cities.• The Times of India records that a broadcast was transmitted from the roof of it’s building on August 20, 1921.• By the mid-1930s, there were around 20 amateur radio operators in India• Amateur radio operators played an important part in the Indian independence movement with the establishment of illegal pro-independence radio stations in the 1940s. By: MANISHA VAGHELA 4
  • 5. • The three decades after Indias independence saw only slow growth in the numbers of operators until the then Prime Minister of India and amateur radio operator, Rajiv Gandhi, waived the import duty on wireless equipment in 1984.• Since then, numbers have picked up, and as of 2007, there were more than 16,000 operators in the country.• Amateur radio operators have played a vital role during disasters and national emergencies such as earthquakes, tsunamis, cyclones, floods, and bomb blasts, by providing voluntary emergency communications in the affected areas. By: MANISHA VAGHELA 5
  • 6. All India Radio• All India Radio (AIR), officially known since 1956 as Akashvani is the radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati. Established in 1936, it is the sister service of Prasar Bharatis Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster. All India Radio is one of the largest radio networks in the world.• In British India, broadcasting began in June 1923 with programmes by the Radio Club of Bombay and other radio clubs.• According to an agreement of 1926, the private Indian Broadcasting Company (IBC) was authorized to operate two radio stations; the Bombay station began on 23 July 1927, and the Calcutta station followed on 26 August 1927. By: MANISHA VAGHELA 6
  • 7. • On 1 March 1930, however, the company went into liquidation.• The government took over the broadcasting facilities, beginning the Indian State Broadcasting Service (ISBS) on 1 April 1930 (on an experimental basis for two years, and permanently in May 1932). On 8 June 1936 the ISBS was renamed All India Radio.• When India became independent in 1947 the AIR network had only six stations (in Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Lucknow, and Tiruchi); the total number of radio sets at that time was about 275,000.• On 3 October 1957 the Vividh Bharati Service was launched, to compete with Radio Ceylon.• Television broadcasting began in Delhi in 1959 as part of AIR, but was split off from the radio network as Doordarshan on 1 April 1976.• FM broadcasting began on 23 July 1977 in Madras, and was expanded during the 1990s. By: MANISHA VAGHELA 7
  • 8. AIR Services Vividh Bharati Prasar Bharati Regional Services:The headquarters of the Regional Deputy Directors General arelocated at Delhi and Chandigarh (NR), Lucknow and Bhopal(CR), Guwahati (NER), Kolkata (ER), Mumbai and Ahmedabad(WR), Chennai and Bangaluru (SR). By: MANISHA VAGHELA 8
  • 9.  External Services:The external services of All India Radio broadcast in 27 languages to countries outside India. The first broadcasts were in Pushto, beamed to Afghanistan and the North-West Frontier Province. Soon broadcasts began in other languages including Dari, Persian, Arabic, English, Burmese, Japanese, Chinese, Malay and French. The external services broadcast in 16 foreign and 11 Indian languages, with a total program output of 70¼ hours per day on medium- and shortwave. News-On-Phone Service:All India Radio launched news- on-phone service on 25 February 1998 in New Delhi; it now has service in Chennai, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Indore, Patna and Bangalore. The service is accessible through STD, ISD and local calls Direct-To-Home Service:Direct-to-home (DTH) service is offered on 21 channels via Insat. FM By: MANISHA VAGHELA 9
  • 10. AIR Programmes News Bulletins NewsReels Documentaries/Radio features Radio Plays Radio Talks Music Programmes Movie trailers Quizzes By: MANISHA VAGHELA 10
  • 11. Vividh BharatiThe Vividh Bharati Service of All India Radio wasconceptualized to combat Radio Ceylon in 1957.Within no time it proved to be a popular channel ofevery household. Vividh Bharati radio channel waslaunched on October 3, 1957. The service providesentertainment for nearly 15 to 17 hours a day.Vividh Bharati is one of the best-known services ofAIR. Its name roughly translates as "Multi-IndianService", and it is also known as the CommercialBroadcasting Service (CBS).It is the most commercially-accessible of the AIRnetworks and is popular in Mumbai and other largecities. By: MANISHA VAGHELA 11
  • 12. Vividh Bharati offers a wide range of programmes includingnews, film music and comedy programs.It operates on different medium wave-band frequencies foreach city.40 Vividh Bharati stations across the country down-linkedthese programmes through captive earth stations providedat each of these AIR stations.These 40 Vividh Bharati stations are known as CommercialBroadcasting Service Stations and are located at all majorand commercially vibrant cities covering 97% of the Indianpopulation.Some programs broadcast on Vividh Bharati are:Hawa-mahal: Radio plays based on novels and plays By: MANISHA VAGHELA 12
  • 13. Prasar Bharati• Prasar Bharati is Indias largest public broadcaster. It is an autonomous body set up by an Act of Parliament and comprises Doordarshan television network and All India Radio which were earlier media units of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.• Prasar Bharati was established on November 23, 1997 following a demand that the government owned broadcasters in India should be given autonomy like those in many other countries. The Parliament of India passed an Act to grant this autonomy in 1990, but it was not enacted until September 15, 1997. By: MANISHA VAGHELA 13
  • 14. Functions and ObjectivesIt shall be the primary duty of the Corporation to organise andconduct public broadcasting services to inform, educate andentertain the public and to ensure a balanced development ofbroadcasting on radio and television. By: MANISHA VAGHELA 14
  • 15. By: MANISHA VAGHELA 15