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Pre scientific management theory


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  • 3. MANAGEMENT BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo3 .com
  • 4. INTRODUCTION  Thousands of years ago, the Chinese, the Babylonians, the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Hindu philosophers wrote extremely interesting books and pro -pounded theories which are followed even today. From the military come many examples of early management thought . With the advent of industrial revolution management of enterprises assumed an increasingly important role. Some of the BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo4 .com
  • 5. CONTINUE…  persons who, before Taylor, made considerable contribution to the development of management thought were James Watt, Mathew R. Boulton, Robert Owen and Charles Babbage. Perhaps the most important contributor to management thought before Taylor was Henry Varnum poor, editor of the American Railroad Journal in the latter half of the 19th century. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo5 .com
  • 6. CONTINUE…  The systematic study of management, as a separate field of endeavour, started only in the second half of the nineteenth century, but management in some form or the other has been of concern to all organized efforts of man ever since the dawn of civilization. Evidence of the use of principles of management is to be found in the administration of Mohenjodaro and Harappa Cities of ancient Aryans. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo6 .com
  • 7. CONTINUE…  However, much use of the management techniques in the conduct of business affairs was perhaps not made till the second half of the nineteenth century, as the structure of industry was simple and had not advanced like the city, church or defence organizations. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo7 .com
  • 8. CONTINUE… ROBERT OWEN made valuable contributions to the development of management concepts in pre-scientific management phase. Although he did not propose a formal theory of management, his work provided foundations of some thoughts which all managers share today. A stage was set by the end of the nineteenth century for making a systematic study of management and a beginning was made by Fredrick Taylor at the beginning of the BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo8 .com
  • 9. CONTINUE…  present century whose thoughts came to be known as scientific management. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo9 .com
  • 10. MEANING & SCOPE  Broadly speaking, scientific management is the art of knowing exactly what is to be done and the best way of doing it. Under this system the method of work is scientifically thought out, the workers scientifically selected and trained to perform the task, and the most efficient speed is scientifically determined. According to person the term “scientific management” characterises that form of organisation and procedure... Which rests on principles or laws derived by the BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo10 .com
  • 11. CONTINUE… process of scientific investigation and analysis, instead of on tradition or policies determined by the process of trial and error. Indeed, it is a process of transference of skill from management to worker. Scientific management is also knows as Taylorism, because Frederic Winslow Taylor, who is also known as the father of scientific management, was the first to introduce scientific method at the workshop level. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 11 .com
  • 12. CONTINUE… As the Chief Engineer in a steel mill, Taylor noticed wastage of time and energy on the part of workers. He found that workers were deliberately slack in performing their work. Time –rate, being the basis of wage payment , was not conducive to hard work. He was amazed at the employers who paid no attention to this wastage. The methods used for performing the task were crude and unscientific so that a worker could not produce to the maximum of his capacity. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 12 .com
  • 13. CONTINUE… Gilbreth has also contributed considerably to the development of scientific management. Gilbreth was a building contractor. He noticed that the old and traditional methods of bricklaying were inefficient, because a bricklayer lost much time in examining and turning bricks in his hand and in making a number of movements to pick up the bricks and putting enough mortar on the wall etc. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 13 .com
  • 14. CONTINUE… The scientific method consists of (a) observation ,(b) measurement , (c) experimentation, and (d) inference. As Lawrence Appley puts it, “scientific implies the existence of a specific body of knowledge, possession of certain necessary skills, and an orderly, disciplided approach. According to Harlow person, “The term scientific management characterises that form of organisation and procedure in purposive collective effort which rests on principles or BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 14 .com
  • 15. CONTINUE… Laws derived by the process of scientific investigation and analysis, instead of on tradition or on policies determined empirically and casually by the process of trial and error.” BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 15 .com
  • 16. ELEMENTS & FEATURES(1) Scientific task setting : It means allotment of work to each worker on the basis of the capacity of an average worker functioning in normal working conditions. He should be able to complete the work in a working day. If there is no scientific task setting, the workers will work below their capacity. Taylor called it as a „a fair day‟s work‟.(2) Work study : Work study refers to the systematic critical assessment of efficiency required to do the job. It varies from one job to BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 16 .com
  • 17. CONTINUE… another job.(3) Methods study : The entire process of production is taken into account under this study. Efforts are made to reduce the distance passed by materials and improvement in handling, transportation, inspection and storage of raw materials and finished goods. Best tools and machinery are provided to ensure best possible results.(4) Time study : Time study refers to the act of BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 17 .com
  • 18. CONTINUE… measuring the time required to perform a particular job. A standard time is fixed by conducting the time study. If the standard time is fixed, all the work is performed in the fixed time and control over it becomes easy.(5) Rate setting : F.W. Taylor emphasized upon fair wages to workers, and had recommended differential piece rate wage system. The reason is that differential piece rate wage system may act as an incentive to lazy and less efficient workers. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 18 .com
  • 19. CONTINUE…(6) Standardisation : Standardisation is made in respect of tools and instruments, working hours, volume of work, working conditions or atmosphere, cost of production etc. These are fixed on the basis of job analysis.(7) Scientific selection and training : The workers should be selected scientifically. Next, the appointment should be given to each worker according to the nature of the job requirement and his qualifications. Adequate training should be given to new as well as existing workers in BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 19 .com
  • 20. CONTINUE… order to update their knowledge. A job is assigned to suit his capacity best.(8) Economy : The techniques of cost estimates and control should be considered in order to obtain economy. The available resources are used to the fullest possible maximum extent to eliminate wastage. Maximum profit is earned through this process. Various ways are given in scientific management to get economy in production and for maximizing profits. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 20 .com
  • 21. PRINCIPLES(1) Science not rule of thumb : It means the replacement of old method of doing work scientifically. The nature of work performed by each worker should be clearly determined. It includes the allotment of fair work to each worker, standardization in work, adoption of differential piece rate of payment system and the like.(2) Harmony in group action : F.W. Taylor has emphasized peace and friendship in group action. In other words, dissatisfaction of any BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 21 .com
  • 22. CONTINUE… worker is to be avoided in the group action. The dissatisfaction is eliminated through scientific selection, training and strategic placing of workers.(3) Co-operation : There should be a co- operation between management and workers and vice versa. Workers should help the management to get larger profits, better quality products and lower cost of production. Management should give fair wages to workers, recognize the performance of work and BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 22 .com
  • 23. CONTINUE… acknowledge the indispensability of workers in raising productivity. Then, better co-operation will be achieved.(4) Maximum output : Maximum output is achieved through division of work and assumption of responsibility by the management and workers jointly. Maximum output results in the increasing profit to the management and wages and bonus to the workers. Management should provide standard materials, tools and working conditions to BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 23 .com
  • 24. CONTINUE… perform the work economically and efficiently.(5) Improvement of workers : Under scientific management, all the workers should be given opportunity to the fullest extent possible. It is necessary for the development of the company. Workers are scientifically selected and provided with the job training, so, the management should find out the physical, educational and psychological requirement of each job and find suitable persons to each job. Systematic training can shape the workers in relations to BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 24 .com
  • 25. CONTINUE… the job assigned to them. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo25 .com
  • 26. CRITICISM(1) The term scientific refers to something new. People raised their voice against the use of the word scientific before the management. The reason is that F.W. Taylor does not find anything new in management. Taylor had only made scientific approach to management.(2) According to scientific management, workers are forced to work hard to produce maximum output . At the same time, this concept of management fails to consider the physical and mental well-being of workers. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 26 .com
  • 27. CONTINUE…(3) He laid much emphasis on production management. But, he does not give any weightage to financial management, sales management, management accounting and the like.(4) Tools and equipments, and materials are supplied to each worker. The foreman issues detailed instructions regarding the performance of the job and methods of performing them. Under such circumstances, the workers do not have any chance to show their ability and find BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 27 .com
  • 28. CONTINUE… new improved ways to perform the same job effectively.(5) According to Taylor, maximum productivity is achieved only through employing first class workers. In practice, all the workers cannot be expected to be excellent.(6) Increase in production is possible in scientific management. But, the wages of workers are not increased in direct proportion to increased production. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 28 .com
  • 29. CONTINUE…(7) It was argued that the time study, motion study, fatigue study, standardisation of wage rates etc. were not scientifically measured.(8) The principle of division of work is adopted in scientific management. Each worker is to do a portion of work of an entire process. The worker does not know how his work contributes to the manufacture of the final product.(9) Workers are treated as irresponsible and unambitious persons under scientific management. The workers are working under BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 29 .com
  • 30. CONTINUE…strict control and supervision, and so any slight change inthe methods of production and working environment areopposed by the workers. In spite of the above cited criticisms from varioussections of people, Taylor‟s scientific management wassupported by Henry L. Gentt, Carl B. Barth, Frank B. andLillian M. Gilbreth. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo30 .com
  • 31. CONTRIBUTION1) James Watt and Boulton : These two men took charge of the management of the soho Engineering foundry when it was established in 1796 in great Britain. Watt was incharge of organisation and administration, and Boulton was responsible for the sales or commercial activities. They developed many management techniques. Prominent among them were market research an forecasting in marketing areas; planned machine layout in terms of workflow requirements, production planning, BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 31 .com
  • 32. CONTINUE… production-process standards, and standardisation of product component in production area; calculation of cost and profit for each machine and department in costing area; training and development of workers and executive, work study and payment by results, welfare programme and constitution of a committee to administer it in personnel area.2) Robert Owen : He carried out most of his experiments in the area of personnel management when he was engaged in BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 32 .com
  • 33. CONTINUE… managing the textile mills in Scotland between 1800 and 1828. Owen improved working conditions in the factory, provided meals to employees in the factory, provided housing and marketing store facilities to the employees. His main philosophy was that good personnel management paid dividends to the employer and it was in essential part of every manager.3) Charles Babbage : Babbage was a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University (1818-39) and took keen interest in the problems of BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 33 .com
  • 34. CONTINUE… manufacturing operations. He is best remembered for his book „on the Economy of machinery and manufactures‟ published in 1832. He was specially interested in the economics of division of labour and development of scientific principles to govern a manager‟s use of facilities, materials and labour to get the best possible results.4) Henry Varnum poor : He was editor of „American Railroad Journal‟ in the latter half of nineteenth century. While on this position he BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 34 .com
  • 35. CONTINUE…watched and analysed the progress of American Railroadsystem. He visualized the scope for effective managementto bring railroad in the light direction. He gave manyrecommendations many of which might be termed as mostmodern. He felt the need for a managerial system with aclear organisation structure in which people have clearresponsibility and can be held accountable. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo35 .com
  • 36. CONTINUE…5) James Montgomery : He was a textile owner- manager in Scotland. He concentrated on the importance of planning, organising and controlling of the business units and wrote the management texts for their efficient working.6) Andrew ure : He was an English industrialist. He believed in the theory of educating managers by imparting training and moral education to them. This, he felt would positively contribute to organisational goals. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 36 .com
  • 37. CONTINUE…7) Charles Dupin : He was an industrial educator in France. According to him, it was not enough for managers to possess technical knowledge for contributing to organisational output; they needed to acquire broader management skills to maximise the industrial output. He emphasised more on management education than technical education. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo37 .com
  • 38. BENEFITS By planning the entire work on the basis of results of scientific investigation and by ensuring that every one does his work in the given time according to instructions, all types of wastages and losses are avoided, output is maximised and costs are lowered. The detailed prescription of work methods and simplification of work-cycles have reduced the skill requirements for much industrial work. This shortens the period of learning or apprenticeship and renders individual workers BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 38 .com
  • 39. CONTINUE… more nearly inter- changeable in fact as well as in theory. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo39 .com
  • 40. SUMMARY If we look back at the recorded history, a number of monumental examples of management can be traced. The Sumerian civilisation, Egyptian, Chinese, Greek and Roman civilizations represent significant practices in management. Though famous even today, they do not provide any significant information about the way they managed these civilisations and subsequently, the business organisations. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 40 .com
  • 41. CONTINUE… In short, No important tools and techniques were available until the end of the fifteenth century to help managers solve the organisational problems. It was in 1494 that the techniques of double entry book-keeping was introduced. It was further in 1800‟s that, as a result of industrial revolution, the management theories began to develop as systematic field of knowledge. Until a formalised set of management theories developed, the pre- BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 41 .com
  • 42. CONTINUE… scientific management theories contributed to the evolution of management thought whereby the management thinkers laid the foundation for subsequent development of principles of management. In the later period, contributions were made by Charles Babbage, James Montgomery, James Watt, Robert Owen, and Charles Dupin. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo 42 .com
  • 46. BY: manisha vaghela vaghela_manisha13@yahoo46 .com