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Mcgregor’stheoryxandtheoryy Mcgregor’stheoryxandtheoryy Presentation Transcript

  • MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND THEORY Y 1 BY MANISHA VAGHELABY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • FLOW OF PRESENTATION 2  INTRODUCTION  MEANING  THEORY X  THEORY Y  ASSUMPTION  COMPARISON X & Y  IMPLICATIONS OF THEORY X & YBY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 3 DIFFERENCE CONCLUSION REVIEW OF THE TOPIC BIBLIOGRAPHYBY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • INTRODUCTION 4  Professor Douglas McGregor of the U.S.A. Has presented his views on above theories in the famous book “The Human Side of Enterprise” in 1960. He has given the name „Theory X‟ to the old and traditional management belief and „Theory Y‟ to the modern management belief.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 5  He has developed these two theories while observing employees at work. He found that the management of various enterprises were seen believing in either Theory X or Theory Y.  Modern Scientists argue that man by nature is not what Theory X assumes.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 6 On the contrary, it is the circumstances, the philosophy of getting things done and the work environment which make man behave the way the theory postulates. In other words, this behavior is not the result of man‟s inherent nature.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 7 Accordingly, McGregor rejected theory X and proposed Theory Y or the integration of the individual and organization goals‟ approach.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • THEORY X 8 Meaning :- The old and traditional approach of management is that a worker does not like to work. Hence, they must be dealt with very strictly. McGregor called this approach as Theory X, which emphasizes the negative aspect of employee‟s behavior.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • THEORY Y 9  Meaning:-  McGregor has called Theory Y a modern theory. It is exactly opposite to the traditional Theory X. In Theory Y, the worker is given a pride of place and active co- operation between workers and management is emphasised to enable the organisation toBY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 10  Accomplish its goals. According to this theory, a worker by nature has integrity; he works hard towards the objectives of enterprise, wants his organisation to succeed, is not passive. Theory Y can be said to be positive and optimistic whereas Theory X is negative and pessimistic.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • ASSUMPTION OF THEORY X 11 The average man is by nature indolent. He works as little as possible and will avoid it, if he can. He avoids to accept any responsibility. There is need to make him aware of the dreadful consequences of his inaction.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 12 As the worker has no instinctive liking for work, there is a need for monetary incentive to make him work harder. He lacks integrity. He avoids making decisions whenever possible.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 13 He lacks ambition, dislikes responsibility prefers to be lad. He is inherently self- centered, indifferent to organisational needs. He is, by nature, resistant to change.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 14 Average human beings have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if they can. Average human beings prefer to be directed, wish to avoid responsibility, have relatively little ambition, and above all want security.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  •  McGregor is of the opinion that 15 assumptions about human nature under Theory X are not true. The behaviour of employees as assumed by Theory X is due to environment. It is the responsibility of management to provide proper environment. Then employees would work enthusiastically.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  •  They would be 16 prepared to take responsibility. Their needs must be satisfied to create such atmosphere.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • ASSUMPTION OF THEORY Y 17 Work is as natural as pay or rest and work may be a source of satisfaction to him. Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intelligence of the average human being is only partially utilised.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 18  It is not correct to think that the worker is incompetent for the job and cannot make the right decision.  In the present- day industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of an average human being are not utilised fully.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 19  The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as pay or rest.  The degree of commitment to objective is in proportionBY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 20 To the size of the rewards associated with their achievement. Average human beings learn, under proper conditions not only to accept responsibility but also to seek it.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  •  The assumptions of Theory Y suggest a new approach in 21 management. It emphasises on the co-operative endeavour of management and employees. The attempt is to get maximum output with minimum amount of control and direction. Generally, no conflict is visible between organisational goals and individual goals.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • 22  Thus, the attempts of employees which are in their best interests are also in the interests of organisation.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • COMPARISON OF THEORIS X & Y 23 Theory X assumes human beings to be inherently distasteful towards work. Theory Y assumes that for human beings work is as nature as play. Theory X emphasises that people do not have ambition and try to avoid responsibilities in jobs.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 24 The assumption under Theory Y are just the reverse. According to Theory X, most people have little capacity for creativity while according to Theory Y, capacity for creativity is widely distributed in the population.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 25 Theory X emphasises autocreative leadership; Theory Y emphasises democratic and supportive leadership styles.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • IMPLICATIONS OF THEORY X & Y 26 McGregor‟s assumptions in terms of Theory X and Theory Y are based on Maslow‟s need hierarchy model. In the beginning, when the concept of „economic man‟ was accepted , some writers emphasised only on the satisfaction of physicological and safety needs. These were the basicBY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 27 constitutents of the motivation model. However , because at changes in the value systems and social systems, higher-order needs were emphasised for human beings and these needs mostly replaced lower- order needs as constituents of motivation model. Similarly, assumptions under theory xBY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 28 are being replaced by assumptions under theory Y. This is being reflected in the managerial styles and techniques. Today we emphasise management by objective, management by integration and self-control, supportive management, decentralisation job enrichment etc.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 29  These techniques are applicable in the organisations where self- motivated, self-controlled, mature, and responsible people work. McGregor believes, that recent researches in the behavioural sciences have shown that the assumptions of what he calls Theory Y may be more valid then the precepts of Theory X.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 30  The major implications of theories X and Y may be seen in the management process which are presented in Table 8.2. it may be mentioned that these processes are not based on any conclusive proof of research studies but present a conjectural view based on assumptions of theories X and Y.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • DIFFERENCE BETWEEN X & Y 31  Theory X  Theory y  Only superiors set  Subordinates are objective and associated with subordinates have to managers in setting fulfil them. objective.  Management adopt  Management frames its policy accordingly. policy accordingly.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 32  Subordinates try to  Subordinates try to achieve the goals laid achieve objective of down due to fear of organisation with self- punishment. control and initiative.  There develops a sense  The management and of distrust among are prepared to accept subordinates. their plans and policies.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 33  There is a rigid  Control system is self- system of control impose and no rigid emphasis is laid on control is there. control from outside.  The chain of  Communication become communication fiows a two way process. It from upper level to flows from above to lower level. below and from bottom to top.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 34 Concept of co-  Co-partnership is partnership is not adopted. acceptable. Motivating factors are  Motivating factors are lower level needs. higher level needs.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONCLUSION 35 Theory X and Y are not the only two possible theories of management. They are just two examples among many theories of management. The two theories are not managerial strategies.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 36 They are underlying beliefs about the nature of man that influence managers to adopt one strategy rather than another.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • REVIEW OF THE TOPIC 37 INTRODUCTION MEANING THEORY X THEORY Y ASSUMPTIONBY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 38 COMPARISON X & Y IMPLICATION OF THEORY X & Y DIFFERNCE CONCLUSIONBY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY 39 Business Organisation and ManagementAuthor:- C R BasuTata Mc Graw - Hill Publishing Company Limited New DelhiBY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 40 Business Organisation and ManagementAuthor:- M.C. ShuklaS.CHAND & COMPANY LTD RAM NAGAR , NEW DELHIBY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 41 Business Organisation and Management-1Author:- Prin. T.J. Rana Prof Jyoti D. ShahSudhir Prakashan Ahmedabad.BY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 42 Organisational Behaviour Author:- L. M. PrasadSultan Chand & Sons Educational Publishers New delhiEssentials of ManagementAuthor:- Harold Koontz Heinz weihrichBY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • CONTINUE… 43 Tata Mc Graw - Hill Publishing Company Limited New Delhi. Essentials Of Management Author:- P. N. ReddyHimalaya Publishing HouseBombay Delhi NagpurBY: MANISHA VAGHELA vaghela_manisha13@yahoo.com
  • vaghela_manisha13@y BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 44 ahoo.com