Communication Theories BY MANISHA VAGHELA email@example.com BY:- MANISHA VAGHELA 1
Western Communication Theories1. Lasswell Model of CommunicationLaswell saw communication as performing 3 functions:surveillance of environment, correlation of components ofsociety, cultural transmission between generations.Primary goal here was Influence through persuasion. firstname.lastname@example.org m BY:- MANISHA VAGHELA 2
2. Shannon and Weaver Model Effects oriented approach5 parts: information source, a transmitter, a channel, the receiver andthe destination.Plus noise email@example.com m BY:- MANISHA VAGHELA 3
3. Osgood and Schramm ModelSchramm defined communication as ‘sharing of information, ideas orattitudes.’He endorsed 3 important elements of communication i.e. source,message and destination.He emphasised on the encoding and decoding of the message.He suggested communication is circular where both the sender andreceiver are involved in encoding and decoding and equal partners inexchange. firstname.lastname@example.org m BY:- MANISHA VAGHELA 4
4. Ritual Model of CommunicationJames Carey an American anthropologist promoted thismodel.‘Role of ritual in societies’.All members of public not just the senders are actorscontributing in some way to the pattern of meaning of anation or a region.Objective of Communication/ transmission of messages isfor the purpose of Social Control.Communication is thus seen as a process of creation,representation and celebration of shared belief.5. Communication as DialogueBrazilian educationist, Paul FriereCommunication as a dialogic and ‘participatory’. email@example.com m BY:- MANISHA VAGHELA 5
They key elements here are ‘liberation’, ‘participation’ and‘conscientization’.This model challenges the Aristotelian model of communicationwhich focusses on ‘transmission’ and ‘transportation’.6. Communication as Power RelationshipThis perspective has it’s basis in Marxist ideology which sees‘conflict’ and class differences rather than consensus as thefunction of communication.In some situations, Communication is an exercise in powerrelations, the power of one individual over another, of anindividual over a group, and of mass media owners andproducers/professionals over audiences. firstname.lastname@example.org m BY:- MANISHA VAGHELA 6
Indian Communication Theories• In recent years communication scholars in India and Sri Lanka have made attempts to develop theories of communication based on Indian classical texts and on popular Indian culture.• Indian theory of communication forms a part of Indian poetics; and can be traced to a period between second century B.C. and first century A.D. in the works of Bharata. email@example.com m BY:- MANISHA VAGHELA 7
• It draws it central idea from the concept of Sadharanikaran (which is quite close in meaning to the Latin term communis, commonness, from which the word communication is derived.)• The most important assumption in the process of sadharanikaran is that it can be achieved only among sahridayas, i.e. only those who have a capacity to accept a message. This is an innate ability acquired through culture, adaptation and learning. Thus communication is an activity amongst sahridayas. firstname.lastname@example.org m BY:- MANISHA VAGHELA 8
1. Bharata Muni’s Theory• As per this theory human psyche is composed of ‘sthaibhava’ (permanent moods). These moods are of capable of arousing a corresponding state of feeling, rasa.• There are nine permanent moods and they give rise to nine rasas or forms of aesthetic pleasures.Permanent Mood1) Bhayanaka -- Bhanayak (Anger)2) Hrsha -- Hasya (Humour)3) Din – Karuna (Compassion)4) Saumya – Shant (Peace)5) Shringar – Prem (Love)6) Raudra (Terror)7) Bibhatsa (Disgust)8) Adbhuta (Wonder)9) Vir – Shaurya (Valor/Heroism) email@example.com m BY:- MANISHA VAGHELA 9
2.Hindu Theory (Philosophical View)Second Indian Theory of Communication is from the Hinduphilosophical perspective.Indian concept takes into account the place of an individual in theuniversal context and considers one’s relationship with other livingand nonliving elements of the environment.Hindu concept of universe is based on the ‘Virat Purush’ (cosmicman) view. i.e. that Dharma is the basic principle of the wholeuniverse and is existing eternally. This natural law of Dharmaregulates human existence and governs relations of individualbeings; communication too is governed by the same law. firstname.lastname@example.org m BY:- MANISHA VAGHELA 10
3.Buddhist TheoryWimal Dassanayaka draws on the Vedas, the Upanishads,and non-philosophical tradition.The primary focus of this model is how the receiver makessense of the stimuli he receives so as to deepen his selfawareness.He argues in Indian tradition, ‘communication is an inwardsearch for meaning – a process leading to self-awareness,then to freedom, finally to truth.’ email@example.com m BY:- MANISHA VAGHELA 11
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