Custodian Farmers of
Agricultural Biodiversity
Putting Theory into Practice: What can we
learn from custodian farmers of
a...
Inter and intra specific diversity of
Mangifera sp., Nephelium sp., and
Gracinia sp.

Unique and rare fruit diversity!

So...
Diversity in orchards and home
gardens of custodian farmers
Few basic questions?
• Why making so much fuss about custodian
farmers?
• What we really mean by custodian farmers?
• How ...
Why is it important to identify
and define custodian farmers?
• Little research done on effective methods
how to strengthe...
What we really mean by
custodian farmers?
How can we identify
them?
Who are Custodian Farmers?
Custodian farmers are those conserver
farmers who actively maintain, adapt
and disseminate agri...
WHAT are the Key Characteristics
of Custodian Farmers?
1. Driven by conservation ideology
2. Knowledge holder of traits
3....
WHAT are the Essential Roles and
Functions of Custodian Farmers?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Maintenance
Adaptation/innovation/selection
...
Typology of Custodian Farmers
What are the Key Roles of
Custodian Farmers?
Role

Description

Indicators

Maintain

Richness of species/varieties/ trait...
Sources of Motivation
• personal (driven by passion or sensitivity
regarding the need for conserving diversity to
future g...
Geographic Locations of Case
Studies of Custodian Farmers
Methodology
Result: Who Maintains Diversity and How?
Custodian farmers of Malihabad site
Community
Kasmandi Kalan

Gopramau

Sarsanda
...
Policy support of custodian
farmers

Key issues
• How could we consolidate roles of CF
as conserver, dynamic innovator and...
Key Questions
• How could society continue to motivate
such farmers, generation after
generation?
• Could custodian farmer...
So, the Purpose
1. to develop deeper understanding of the
roles and functions of custodian farmers in
conservation, use an...
Specific Objectives
• Discuss and refine the concept and
methodology to identify custodian farmers.
• Consolidate the role...
Expected Outputs of the
Workshop
• A draft strategy that contribute to work
plans of ICAR-Bioversity International and
oth...
Format of Workshop Methodology
A dynamic mix of
• Brief self introduction of custodian farmers;
• Short talks on a concept...
1-day Focus Interactive Group
Discussions
Custodian farmers

1.
2.
3.
4.

Motivations (drivers)
Functions (roles)
Challeng...
Brs 2-concept and practice of custodian farmers-11-2-13 f
Brs 2-concept and practice of custodian farmers-11-2-13 f
Brs 2-concept and practice of custodian farmers-11-2-13 f
Brs 2-concept and practice of custodian farmers-11-2-13 f
Brs 2-concept and practice of custodian farmers-11-2-13 f
Brs 2-concept and practice of custodian farmers-11-2-13 f
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Brs 2-concept and practice of custodian farmers-11-2-13 f

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  • Farmer cultivating 3-4 species together in high mountain himalays
  • Intra-specific diversity of peralmillet in dryland of India
  • Diverse portfolio of unique and rare fruits in Sarawak Maaysia, Indonesia and Thailand
  • Someone who is responsible for looking after something valuable or important…
  • There are four types of custodian farmers and their sphere may change with access to more information and knowledge and should be intergal part of community based management
  • In the context of on-farm conservation, custodian farmers play four key roles to transfer knowledge and materials to next generations.
  • Source of motivation are diverse and they could be multiple.
  • Brs 2-concept and practice of custodian farmers-11-2-13 f

    1. 1. Custodian Farmers of Agricultural Biodiversity Putting Theory into Practice: What can we learn from custodian farmers of agricultural biodiversity in situ ? Bhuwon Sthapit, Hugo Lamers & Ramanatha Rao Bioversity International
    2. 2. Inter and intra specific diversity of Mangifera sp., Nephelium sp., and Gracinia sp. Unique and rare fruit diversity! Source: Salma Idris, Malaysia
    3. 3. Diversity in orchards and home gardens of custodian farmers
    4. 4. Few basic questions? • Why making so much fuss about custodian farmers? • What we really mean by custodian farmers? • How we can identify them? • What are the characteristics of such custodian farmers? • What are current roles and functions of such farmers? • Are there different types of custodian farmers? • What role they can play for the national PGR system? • Why this workshop? Why this theme is important global consultation issue?
    5. 5. Why is it important to identify and define custodian farmers? • Little research done on effective methods how to strengthen on-farm conservation or guide interventions • Seems effective and efficient approach for on-farm conservation interventions • These farmers play a key role: – Linking traditional knowledge to scientific knowledge – Linking formal sector to informal seed exchange sector
    6. 6. What we really mean by custodian farmers? How can we identify them?
    7. 7. Who are Custodian Farmers? Custodian farmers are those conserver farmers who actively maintain, adapt and disseminate agricultural biodiversity over time and space, including the culture and institutions in which it is embedded, and the knowledge needed for its use and cultivation http://www.futurepolicy.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Axel/Genetic_Res ources/Regulation_germplasm_bank_custodian_Tuscany.pdf
    8. 8. WHAT are the Key Characteristics of Custodian Farmers? 1. Driven by conservation ideology 2. Knowledge holder of traits 3. Community recognition 4. Highly motivated and self-directed 5. Consistent and unshaken commitment 6. Willing to share knowledge and materials
    9. 9. WHAT are the Essential Roles and Functions of Custodian Farmers? 1. 2. 3. 4. Maintenance Adaptation/innovation/selection Promotion/dissemination Continuity Note: Genetic resources are deeply embedded in knowledge and practices of farmer’s livelihood and food culture
    10. 10. Typology of Custodian Farmers
    11. 11. What are the Key Roles of Custodian Farmers? Role Description Indicators Maintain Richness of species/varieties/ traits Guardian of at least 1 unique/rare/ special/difficult to propagate Adapt Rich ecological knowledge of diversity, heritability and selection Selection of specific crop, varieties and trait adapted to local conditions; needs; adversity Promote High frequency of exchange of seed and associated knowledge Community members frequently cite source of seed from a particular node Continuity Over time ensure land use system that harbor portfolio of species and varieties Sets of traits maintained when old varieties are replaced Transfer of knowledge and practice to younger generation Ensure alternative options that under threat
    12. 12. Sources of Motivation • personal (driven by passion or sensitivity regarding the need for conserving diversity to future generations; hobby) • social (driven by the desire to conserve particularly relevant crops for festivity and food culture) • economic (driven by the need for safeguarding diversity for economic options of the HH) • agro-ecology (driven by the natural assets) • cultural (driven by the awareness regarding the intimate link between genetic and cultural diversity)
    13. 13. Geographic Locations of Case Studies of Custodian Farmers
    14. 14. Methodology
    15. 15. Result: Who Maintains Diversity and How? Custodian farmers of Malihabad site Community Kasmandi Kalan Gopramau Sarsanda Mohammad Nagar Taluqedari Total Name of the farmer Mr Nawab Hasan Mr Parmeshwar Sharma Mr Amir Mr Chhote Lal Kashyap Mr Jamuna Prasad Mr Tulsi Ram Mr Rameshwar Mr Mohan Lal Mr Ram Asre Mr Ramesh Chandra Rafeeq Mr Ram Chandra Number of varieties 40 30 24 135 70 30 45 35 25 09 10 08 461 (Source: Rajan et al 2012, TFT Project)
    16. 16. Policy support of custodian farmers Key issues • How could we consolidate roles of CF as conserver, dynamic innovator and promoter of diversity? • Could such custodian farmers be recognized as community gene bank and be publicly supported?
    17. 17. Key Questions • How could society continue to motivate such farmers, generation after generation? • Could custodian farmers contribute to a national conservation strategy? • How policy could support for their roles in use and conservation?
    18. 18. So, the Purpose 1. to develop deeper understanding of the roles and functions of custodian farmers in conservation, use and dissemination of agricultural biodiversity; 2. to highlight their contribution to the national plant genetic resources system and overall sustainable agriculture development; and 3. to raise their visibility and recognition in the field of genetic resources management.
    19. 19. Specific Objectives • Discuss and refine the concept and methodology to identify custodian farmers. • Consolidate the role of custodian farmers for conservation and availability of/access to ABD through recognition, visibility and creating linkages (policy support). • Formulate an action plan to support custodian farmers and recognize their contributions to the society.
    20. 20. Expected Outputs of the Workshop • A draft strategy that contribute to work plans of ICAR-Bioversity International and other countries’ genebanks as a strategy for on-farm conservation. • Methodology for identification and recognition • Publication of a book or peer reviewed paper - Custodian farmers of tropical fruit tree diversity
    21. 21. Format of Workshop Methodology A dynamic mix of • Brief self introduction of custodian farmers; • Short talks on a conceptual framework for custodian farmers; • Country case studies, and experiences from custodian farmers; • Expert opinions; • Sharing of overview results from profile documentation; • Sharing outcome of questionnaire surveys to set round-table discussions and interactive focus group workshops agenda; • Action plans and publication
    22. 22. 1-day Focus Interactive Group Discussions Custodian farmers 1. 2. 3. 4. Motivations (drivers) Functions (roles) Challenges Support required Suradet Tapuan

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