Satellite orbit and constellation design

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Description about Satellite Orbits

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Satellite orbit and constellation design

  1. 1. Orbit and Constellation Design Dr. Andrew Ketsdever MAE 5595 Lesson 6
  2. 2. Outline • Orbit Design – Orbit Selection – Orbit Design Process – ΔV Budget – Launch • Earth Coverage • Constellation Design – Basic Formation – Stationkeeping – Collision Avoidance
  3. 3. Orbit Design • What orbit should the satellite be put in? – Mission objectives – Cost – Available launch vehicles – Operational requirements • Orbit Design Process – 11 Step Process – Wide variety of mission types which will be unique in the orbit selection process
  4. 4. Orbit Design Process • Step 1: Establish Orbit Types – Earth referenced orbits • GEO, LEO – Space referenced orbits • Lagrange points, planetary – Transfer orbit • GTO, Interplanetary – Parking orbit • Temporary orbit for satellite operational checks, EOL
  5. 5. Orbit Design Process
  6. 6. Orbit Design Process • Step 2: Establish Orbit-Related Mission Requirements – Altitude • Resolution  Lower altitude is better • Swath width  Higher altitude is better – Inclination • Ground station coverage – Other orbital elements • J2 effects on RAAN and AoP – Lifetime – Survivability (ambient environment) • Must be able to survive the entire orbital profile (e.g. transit through Van Allen Radiation Belts)
  7. 7. Orbit Design Process
  8. 8. Orbit Design Process • Step 3: Assess Specialized Orbits – Typically set some orbital parameters (e.g. semi-major axis, inclination) • Geosynchronous, Geostationary • Semi-synchronous • Sun synchronous • Molniya • Lagrange points
  9. 9. GEO • 24 hr period – co-rotation with Earth • Solar/Lunar pertubations – N/S drift – Pointing requirements • J2 perturbations – E/W drift – 10% of ΔV required for N/S – Important due to neighboring slots • Early 1990’s – 50% of launches to GEO • Overcrowding is a constant issue
  10. 10. Sun Synchronous Orbit • J2 causes orbit to rotate in inertial space – Rate is equal to average rate of Earth’s rotation around the sun – Position of Sun relative to orbital plane remains relatively constant – Sun Synchronous orbits can be achieved around other central bodies • Usually near 90º inclinations
  11. 11. Molniya Orbit • Highly elliptical orbit with i=63.4º (zero rate of perigee rotation) • Can have a large (up to 99%) fraction of the orbit period between • Any orbital period can be obtained  change apogee altitude • Satellite constellations in these orbits can provide very efficient coverage of high (or low) latitudes  27090 ≤≤ν
  12. 12. Orbit Design Process • Step 4: Select Single Satellite or Constellation Architecture – Single satellite • Advantages – Reduced overhead (single system) – More capability per copy • Disadvantages – Limited coverage (potential) – Reliability – High cost – Constellation • Advantages – Enhanced coverage – Survivability – System simplicity • Disadvantages – Higher operational and launch costs (potential) – Limited capability
  13. 13. Orbit Design Process • Step 5: Mission Orbit Design Trades – How do orbital parameters affect the mission requirements? – How are satellites in a constellation phased throughout the orbital plane(s)? – Constellations • Typically at the same altitude and inclination • Drift characteristics – At different altitudes and inclinations, satellites in a constellation will drift apart
  14. 14. Orbit Design Process • Step 6: Evaluate Constellation Growth and Replenishment or Single-Satellite Replacement Strategy – Constellation • Growth – Time consuming (several months to years) – Operational without full constellation • Graceful degradation (reduced level of service) • Replenishment – Single Satellite • Single point failure • Degradation • Replacement
  15. 15. Orbit Design Process • Step 7: Assess Retrieval or Disposal Options – Retrieval is typically not an option (Shuttle) • On-orbit servicing – Disposal (De-orbit) may be a requirement soon • Orbital debris • Limited useful operational orbits • Re-enter (LEO) • Disposal orbit (GEO)
  16. 16. Orbit Design Process • Step 8: Create a ΔV Budget – Orbital maneuvers • Launch Vehicle may not get you directly to the desired orbit • Transfer orbit ΔV – Orbit size – Orbit inclination – RAAN • Stationkeeping • Rephasing • De-orbit
  17. 17. The ΔV Budget • Maneuvers requiring ΔV – Orbital transfer – Plane change – Drag make-up – Attitude control – Stationkeeping – Rephasing – Rendezvous – De-Orbit
  18. 18. The ΔV Budget • Start with the ideal rocket equation • Mpropellant for a particular burn is the difference in initial mass and final mass • High Isp is desirable, but it must be weighed versus the “cost” of the higher value (e.g. higher power, higher dry mass, etc.) • Investigate concepts that reduce ΔV requirements – Aerobraking – Solar Sails – Tethers         =∆ f i osp M M gIV ln
  19. 19. Environment Interactions
  20. 20. Orbit Design Process • Step 9: Assess Launch and Orbit Transfer Cost – Availability of LV – Cost – Mass to particular orbit = $$$
  21. 21. Orbit Design Process • Step 10 and 11: Document and Iterate
  22. 22. Earth Coverage • Earth coverage refers to the part of the Earth that a spacecraft instrument can “see” • Field of View: Actual area the instrument can “see” at any moment • Access Area: Total area on the ground that could potentially be seen at any moment.
  23. 23. Footprint
  24. 24. Hellas-Sat 2
  25. 25. Footprint • ASTRIUM Eurostar 2000+ Platform • Payload – 30 x 36 MHz transponders, onboard – 8 x 36 MHz redundant • 12 on fixed beam F1, 6 on fixed beam F2, up to 12 on beam S1 and 6 on beam S2. • Footprints – Fixed over Europe – Steerable over Southern Africa, Middle East, Indian subcontinent, South East • Frequencies – Downlink Ku-Band • 10.95-11.20 GHz (F2) • 11.45-11.70 GHz (S2) • 12.50-12.75 GHz (F1, S1) – Uplink Ku-Band • 13.75-14.50 GHz • Services – Audio/Video Broadcasts – Telephone Relay – Internet Access – Business Teleconferencing F1 S1
  26. 26. Footprint • Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) – GOES 8: Decommissioned – GOES 9: Operational (Japan) – GOES 10: Operational, Standby, Drifting – GOES 11: Operational, West – GOES 12: Operational, East
  27. 27. Sirius Radio
  28. 28. Earth Coverage • Earth Coverage Figures of Merit – Percent Coverage: Number of times that a point is covered by one or more satellites divided by a time period – Maximum Coverage Gap: Longest of the coverage gaps (no coverage) encountered for a particular point – Mean Coverage Gap: Average of the coverage gaps (no coverage) for a particular point – Mean Response Time: Average time from a random request to observe a particular point
  29. 29. Earth Coverage
  30. 30. A Different Kind of Gap? • A U.S. Government Accountability Office report on a new polar- orbiting environmental satellite program has concluded that cost overruns and procedural difficulties could create a gap in important national weather data derived from the satellites that could last at least three years, beginning in late 2007. • Polar-orbiting environmental satellites provide data and images used by weather forecasters, climatologists and the U.S. military to map and monitor changes in weather, climate, the oceans and the environment. The satellites are critical to long-term weather prediction, including advance forecasts of hurricane paths and intensity. • The current U.S. program comprises two satellite systems - one operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and one by the Department of Defense - as well as supporting ground stations and four central data processing centers. The new program, called the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System, or NPOESS, is supposed to replace the two systems with a single, state-of-the- art environment-monitoring satellite network. • NPOESS - to be managed jointly by NOAA, DOD and NASA - will be critical to maintaining the continual data required for weather-forecasting and global climate monitoring though 2020. The problem is the last NOAA polar-orbiting satellite in the existing program is scheduled to be launched in late 2007, while the first NPOESS launch will not be until at least late 2010. If the earlier satellite fails, its data capability would be difficult, if not impossible, to replace during the interim.
  31. 31. Swath Width
  32. 32. Earth Coverage
  33. 33. Earth Coverage (-) for subscript 1, (+) for subscript 2
  34. 34. Earth Coverage
  35. 35. Constellation Design • Constellation: Set of satellites distributed over space intended to work together to achieve a common objective • Satellites that are in close proximity are called clusters or formations • Constellation architectures have been fueled by recent development of small, low cost satellites
  36. 36. Constellation Design • Coverage – Principle performance parameter – Minimize gap times for regions of interest • Entire Earth • North America • Colorado • US Air Force Academy • Number of Satellites – Principle cost parameter – Achieve desired coverage with the minimum satellites • Example – GPS requires continuous coverage of the entire world by a minimum of four non-coplanar satellites
  37. 37. Constellation Design • Number of Orbital Planes – Can be a driver for coverage – Satellites spread out (typically evenly) throughout plane – Plane changes require large amounts of propellant – Meet requirements with the minimum number of orbital planes – Rephasing can be accomplished with less propellant in a single plane
  38. 38. Constellation Design • Constellation Build-Up, Replenishment, and End of Life – Typically a constellation is in a “less-than-complete” form – Build-up can be a several year process with multiple launches – Re-Configuration of the constellation is necessary when satellites fail – Dead satellites need to be removed from the active constellation • Collision avoidance
  39. 39. GlobalStar • LEO Cellular Phone Constellation • 48 satellites in 8 planes • h=1414km • i=52º • Latitude coverage: ±70º • 7 Boeing Delta II Launches • 6 Russian Soyuz Launches • Each launch vehicle carried 4 satellites • On-orbit spares • Two additional Deltas were purchased to ferry spares to the constellation General Characteristics: Total weight - 450kg, Number of Spot beams - 16 Power - 1100W Lifetime - 7.5 years
  40. 40. Constellation Coverage
  41. 41. Street of Coverage Swath 2λstreet where coverage will be continuous
  42. 42. Street of Coverage • Adjacent Planes
  43. 43. Iridium (Atomic No=77) 66 active satellites, 6 planes Reduced to 6 orbital planes (from a proposed 7) by Increasing the orbital altitude slightly.
  44. 44. Iridium Satellite Constellation
  45. 45. Constellation Design
  46. 46. The Walker Constellation • Symmetric • T = total number of satellites • S satellites evenly distributed in each of P orbital planes • Ascending Nodes of the P orbital planes are uniformly distributed about the equator • Within each plane, the S satellites are uniformly distributed in the orbit • Relative phase between satellites in adjacent planes to avoid collisions
  47. 47. Stationkeeping • Approaches to perturbations – Leave perturbation uncompensated – Control the perturbing force the same for all satellites in the constellation – Negate the perturbing force • Example: h=700 km, i=30º and 70º – Node rotation rate of 2.62º /day and 6.63º /day – Relative plane movement of 4º /day – Makes construction of long term constellation difficult • Coverage requirements • Active rephasing may be necessary
  48. 48. Collision Avoidance
  49. 49. Microsatellite Constellations

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