PROFILE OF INDIAN PORTS
Ports are commonly known as places of safe shelter with necessary infrastructure for
the purpose of the trade. In the view there are airports and seaports. Seaports are gateways to
the world. Seaport is essential link in the international marine transport chain. Seaports play a
very important role in country‟s growth. At present over 80% of all international trade goes by
In the case of developing countries like ours there is imperative need for growth of
foreign trade. Certain important equipment has to be imported to earn foreign exchanges to buy
machinery and equipment.
Thus international trade is the principal generator of economic growth. Growth occurs
when trade increases, while growth itself creates more trade. In this international ride, Seaports
a have to function efficiently with least cost to ensure the transfer of cargo between inland and
maritime transport and also and also allow goods to flow in and out of the country as quickly
as possible. Thus seaports and our ports also in the essential link in the maritime transport
Ports are meant to provide sea borne vassals, some basic services such as clock harbor
or berth facilities for the ships and launching facilities for the passengers and cargo. Apart from
this, ports provide cranes, warehouse, labor for cargo handling and transport. Thus today ports
become a very complex organization.
MEANING AND DEFINATION OF PORT
“A port is a transshipment point between sea and surface transport and an entry and exit
for import trade which play as unique role in the country‟s transport system”.
CLASSIFICATION OF PORTS:
Ports in India are classified into three categories:
Technically speaking a major port is the one which handles not less than half a
millions of cargo annually and which posses labor and other facilities to receive ships of 4000
This type of port is the one, which handles not less than 1500 toners of cargo annually
and is independent from the point of view of passengers of traffic defense and customs.
A minor port is the one which handles not less than 500 toners of cargo annually and
which is not considered from any other point of view is termed as minor port.
Major ports governed by the Major ports Act 1963and the Indian ports Act 1908. The
chairman of each major port trust is appointed by the central government besides, chairman,
the port trust board comprises of deputy chairman, representatives of customs, railways,
defense, state government, ship owner, shippers etc., all members of board other than chairman
are part time members. Our country is having a coast about 6000kms and the major ports and
the minor ports are situated along the coast line and at sea, island. These are 12 major ports and
163 minor ports and intermediary ports.
ABOUT 12 MAJOR PORTS
MAJOR PORTS SITUATED ON THE WEST COAST
Name of the port
Mumbai Port Trust
Kandla Port Trust
Jawaharlal Nehru port
Cochin port trust
MAJOR PORTS SITUATED ON THE EAST COAST
Name of the Port
Calcutta port trust
Chennai port trust
Tuticorn Port Trust
Ennore Port trust
Intermediate Port is one, which handles not less than 1500 tons of cargo annually.
A port handling less than 1500 tones of cargo termed as minor port.
EX: Machilipatnam etc.
This port is established in 1875 in Maharashtra state. It is a leading Indian port. It is a
commercial gateway and premier port of India. Bombay port is a truly link great multipurpose
port capable of handling dry nulls, co-author food grains state.
Kandla port trust:
This port is established in 1955 and geographically situated in Gujarat state. It is “sea
areas of north west India.” This port has the special features of highest productivity rates
among India‟s port.
Jawaharlal Nehru Port trust:
There is another port trust in New Bombay. It is an international trade partner the most
modern port of India with fully automatic and computer controlled facilities for handling inport of day bulk cargo and import and export of containers of cargo and machines.
New Mangalore Port Trust:
This port is established in 1974. This is also called as the gateway of Karnataka situated
on the west coast of India.
Mormugal port trust:
This port is established in 1962. This is gateway of Golden Goa. Marmu Goa port is the
point of Goa‟s rich maritime transactions.
Cochin port trust:
This port was established in 1930 at willing ton island. This is leading port on west coast of
India. The port has the following facilities i.e., berthing facilities in the placid back water
through out the year.
Calcutta port trust:
This port is established in 1893 in west Bengal. Calcutta port was contributed to India‟s
economic development. Traditionally Calcutta port has been a terminal port; vessels bang
imports to Calcutta and after necessary repairs if any undertaken take first lead of cargo export.
Paradip port trust:
This port is established in the year 1966 in cuttack of Orissa state. The port has four general
cargo berths. Merchandised iron ore handling plant with wagon tipplers and a cap tine berth for
handling raw materials for fertilizer plant located closely.
Chennai port trust:
This port is established in 1976 in Madras at Tamil Nadu state. This is eastern gateway of
India. A port with two modern floating dry docks providing under water repairs to vessels in
Tuticorn port trust:
This is established in 1976. The port has many features i.e., the ideal position for your
extracting business needs, no congestion no ideal man or delay here because work bustle on
every pier documentation producer facilities formalities smoothed and accelerated.
Visakhapatnam port trust:
This is natural port. The port has specific features of quick turn round of ships, better
labor productivity, coast affective cargo handling fast clearance of easiest better ideas trials
relation, exemption of levy on export cargoes local point of Goa‟s rich maritime treaties.
Newly constructed port. Main activities in the port are privatization.
DEVELOPMENT OF PORTS:
The problem associated with Indian ports are lack of adequate capacity to the traffic
growth (against a traffic of 251 mn ton in 1997-98, the capacity stood at 215mn ton)poor labor
productivity leading to poor turnaround of ships, lack of modernization and lack of adequate
drafts to ships of large size. The capacity requirement of ports at the end of the ninth plan
(2001-2002)is estimated to be 424mn ton. This indicates a huge gap to be bridged. A part of
that gap is expected to be met by increasing productivity. Hence, to improve productivity the
up gradation of existing cargo handling equipment is necessary. Ports can be turned into
specific commodity handling centers.
To make such ports operationally efficient, corporation of major ports is expected to be
under taken. JNPT and HALDIA ports are expected to run on the basis.Mechanization, training
of port personnel, the multiplicity of agencies at ports has to be eliminated for unified cargo.
handling labor. The beginning has already been made at Mumbai and some other port by
merging dock labor board with port trusts.
Development of minor ports is also considered essential. The central government will be
provide technical assistance to the state government for development of minor ports & finally,
attempts are begin made to attract private investments of ports. The government has issued
detailed guidelines to ensure transparency and uniformity in private sector participation.
GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND INITIATIVES
India embarked on the bold economic program to integrate the economy with the
global economy, in 1991. The government has opened up infrastructure areas to private to
investments, with a view to bring in more resources and infuse better management skills to
facilities private sector participation, a number of policy initiatives have been announced. To
upgrade facilities and equipment in existing ports and to build new facilities, investments have
come from domestic as well as.
International players and were largely the result of major reform in the Indian economy
and the government‟s policy of giving a greater importance to trade and commerce. In
additional, the ever-increasing gap between demand and supply of port facilities coupled with
chronic congestion and delays are factors that have encouraged investments in port sector.
At present, around 15 projects are under various stages of implementation, while
another 60 are under consideration, called for investment of Rs, 45,000 crores.
Private sector participation:
India ports have the potential to encourage as Asians hubs, both quantitative qualitative
and improvement in the port infrastructure cannot be achieve without some sort of autonomy to
the ports and exposing them to competition by way of private sector participation private sector
participation needs be encouraged because of the following reasons.
Improvement of efficiency and customer satisfaction
Limited resource available with the government
Attract new technology
Expenditure implementation of development schemes
Revenue generation and augmentation of financial viability
A significance legal change, which the government has agreed upon, is to introduce
legal amendments or to enact new laws to facilities corporation of ports, ensuring a smooth
transportation of port trust into companies. This was aimed at providing independent decision
making, promoting investments, speedy execution of project and professional management.
For this, the viability of each port has to be studied and the major port trust act, 1963, needs to
be amended. The government is making efforts to evolve public-private partnerships and
restructure traffics to attract domestic and foreign investors.
Recent efforts to corporation the ports of JNPT and HALDIA are steps in the
right direction, but the process needs to be expedited so that existing ports can effectively
compete with upcoming private ports.
The main sources of revenue from cargo traffic are:
1. Wharefage / handling fees, cargo related charges.
2. Crane hire charges
3. Rental from warehouse
4. Demurrage charges
Similarly the main sources of revenue from ship traffic are:
1. Port dues
4. Survey and measuring fees
5. Ship repairs in dock areas, charges for water supply
The main activities of port are:
1. Maintenance of port approaches, navigable channels and long side berths, dredges,
conservancy, hydrographic surveys.
2. Pilot age, towage, berthing and unearthing of visiting ships.
3. Handling, warehousing and transportation of goods in port area.
4. Civil, electrical, mechanical engineering maintenance of harbor crafts and plants.
5. Fire fighting and fumigation.
7. Medical, welfare, housing of employees.
8. Management of port properties and estates.
PROFILE OF VISAKAPATNAM PORT TRUST
Visakhapatnam was an ancient port city, which had trade relations with Middle East
Visakhapatnam port is one of the leading ports of India which was act up in the year
1993 originally concerted as an outlet for manganese exports. It has gone strength adapting
itself to the need of changing environment, strategically located at the east-coast was not only
was not only serving for commercial purpose but also promoting industrialization of the
hinterland by acting as a catalyst for various types of post based industries.
Visakhapatnam port, one of the 12 major ports of India, is ideally located in the state of
ANDHRA PRADESH at a attitude of 17.41‟N and longitude of 83.18‟E on the shore of bay of
Bengal, 780kms, madras and 880kms, from Kolkata. The VPT has occupied a total area of
10394,in which 741 acres is of water speed, 9591acres is of land area 62 acres of area
To be the most preferred port in South Asia offering services of global standards.
To be a major partner in meeting the logistics requirements of the importers and
exports of the region.
Island Break-water, constructed by scuttling two old ships JANUS and
WELLESDON which form the skeleton around which a rubble mound is formed.
It is a natural port endowed with deep water basins formed by a high promontory into
the sea, known as
Dolphin‟s Nose Hill to the south and Ross Hill to the North of the
The only port in India and first of its kind in South Asia to have a Cavern facility for
LPG – a mined rockCavern at a depth of 200 meters. below sea level (capacity: 60,000
Visakhapatnam is one of the best, natural port in India and its location provides
protection from cyclones, which strikes the east coast regularly during May/November. The
“dolphin nose” hill which is to the south of the entrance channel, Ross and Durga hill which
are to the north of the entrance channel are land forms which provides tranquil waters for the
port for the outer harbor, to artificial break water provides necessary conditions for tranquil
waters. This low range of a maximize of 1.82 meters this section of the sea is advantages for
the location of the port.
The need for a port of the country was emphasized as early as in 1858 in a report of
British survey party. This was underlined in the report titled “Vizag, the port of central
provinces (1877).Mr. E.S. Thomas, while submitting the proposals for creation of the port in
1872 described it as the most natural and most easily formed port‟ on the east coast of India.
The daughter of sir Arthur cotton described the harbor as a natural outlet for northern India by
a direct railway to Allahabad and observed the location as a strategic point on the eastern coast
where incomparably the „best harbor‟ can be made by a single break-water run out from the
bold promontory of the dolphin‟s nose.
It was only in 1914 that the proposal for construction of a harbor at Visakhapatnam was
initiated by the then Bengal Nagpur railway and in 1922 a proposal of col.H. Cartwright Reid
of British admirably for the construction of a harbor at the mouth of river Meghadrigedda was
The construction work, which started in 1927 contributed up to 1933, and the first
commercial vessel S.S.JALADURGA of M/s. schindia steam navigation co., entered the port
on the 7th October 1933 providing initially a sea outlet for manganese ore.
The saga of the construction of the harbor particularly forming of entrance channel,
sinking of two old ships JANUS and WELLESDONE to form break-water instead of building
a wall in the sea were all feet‟s in engineering and are subjects of discussion even today.
Mr.W.C Ash and Mr. D.B.Ratter berry were the engineers who played prominent role in
constructing this beautiful harbor. The port was formally inaugurated by his Excellency lord
willing don, the then viceroy and governor general of India on 19th Dec. 1933.
Nestling among a chain of hills, the Vizag harbor is really one of the wonders of the
nature, as if god that a man in this area must benefit by a very safe anchorage to ships has
intended it. The entrance channel is protected by, two massive rock hills, namely dolphins nose
on the southern side and Ross hill on the north side and these two hills shelter a bay, which
processed sufficient depth for the ships, which were engaged in sea trade up to 1950s. The high
promontory of the dolphin‟s nose hill into the sea provides protection from cyclones that strike
the east coast
The port has striking similarities with Durban port of Africa in the sense that the later is
also surrounded by a hill on the south side. It is due to that reason that engineer Mr. W.C.Ash
studied Durban Port before developing this port. Mr . Chalapathi Roan, one of the famous
writers described the Docks and Harbor of this Port as PICASSO‟s cubist pictures.
The port administration which was under Bengal-Nagpur railway in 1933 passed
through different departments of ministries of the government of India till its transfer to the
port trust in Feb. 1964 under the major port trusts act, 1963 as shown below:
WAR TRANSPORT DEPARTMENT
DEFENCE (WAR) DEPARTMENT
BENGAL NAGPUR RAILWAYS
MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT
TRUST UNDER MPT ACT
When opened for sea going vessels in 1963, the port had only three berths with a cargo
handling capacity of 0.3 million tons. The chronological events of developing are described in
the succeeding paras.
The first BOT project – container terminal at outer harbor –commenced its operations
in June 2003 which was concessioner to Visakha container terminal Pvt Ltd., a joint venture
company owned by Dubai port international and J.M.Baxi PVT LTD. Two new berths in the
extended northern arm of inner harbors (EQ.8 &EQ.9)were developed on BOT basis by
M/s.Vizag sea port Pvt Ltd., a joint venture between Portia management services, U.K. & M/s.
Gammon India ltd., Mumbai and commissioned on 29th July 2005 by Honble minister for
shipping , road transport and high ways.
150 tons BP tug was commissioned in the year 2000-01. Ten no‟s of 15 ton electric
wharf cranes were commissioned in 2001. Mechanized dust suppression system designed and
erected by MECONS was commissioned on 5th June 2002. One rail mounted stacker of 2700
TPH capacity was commissioned on 28th May, 2003. One No. fire float of Agni class-1 was
commissioned on 2nd September, 2003. Four wharf cranes of 20 tons were commissioned in
2004-05. One FRP launch was commissioned on 2nd January, 2005. One dredger built by M/s.
Hindustan shipyard Ltd., was commissioned on 9th Feb, 2005. Information technology was
introduced into port operations 1st .April 20.
GROWTH OF THE PORT:
Planned development of the port started with the commencement of our country‟s fiveyear plans. Huge investments were made during different five year plan periods for providing
more facilities, such as construction of additional berths, modernization of cargo handling
facilities development of the trade. Thus with humble beginning Visakhapatnam has carved the
place of prestige, in the realm of ports by having a number of developments.
In the first plan, four alongside berths were constructed and cargo-handling facilities
During second five-year plan, two oil berths were commissioned for the benefit of oil
refinery. During third and fourth five-year plan, mechanized ore handling, plant for export of
iron ore, was commissioned in 1995. Further, two or more quay berths to handle bulk cargoes
and specialized further berths to handle raw materials for the use of entrance M/s C.F.L were
Besides the above, augmentation, certain other infrastructural facilities like widening and
depending channel, procurement of higher cargo handling equipment and reorganization of
railway system were also taken up.
During fifth five year plan for export of large quantities of iron ore to Japan, and outer was
established to accommodate large vessels such as 1,50,000 D.W.at a cost Rs. 110crores and
iron ore loading facilities were augmented to load iron ore at a rate 8,000 T.P.H.
In sixth and seventh five year plans, oil morning was developed to accommodated carries
large crude of 1,50,000 D.W.T. was direct discharge facility at a very high rate hour from the
ship to refinery commissioned a general cum bulk cargo was commissioned in 1985.
During eighth plan, outer harbor the country‟s biggest and most modern fishing to
accommodate 96 trawlers and 300 mechanized boats has been developed in three phases.
Visakhapatnam port started with a traffic level of 1.3 lakh tones in 1933-34 witnesses a
phenomenal growth of 34.5 million tons in 1996-1997.
The development schemes included in 9th plan are construction of multipurpose berths in
north of northern arm of inner harbor at a cost of Rs.120 crores and development of railway
system etc. The total outlay projected for 9th plan for Visakhapatnam port trust is about Rs.
To have further development, port has drawn up a perspective plan for capacity
augmentation and organization efficiency enhancement in pursuance‟s of the above; it has been
taken for development of container of port railways infrastructures etc., with such as handle 47
million tons of cargo.
Visakhapatnam port trust attained a very sound financial status over the year. The port is
itself sufficient to finance its all development projects from its internal sources. The traffic
levels are relatively low compared to other port of our country. Results oriented performance
and optimization of resources is the guild lined philosophy of our port.
Visakhapatnam port trust is helpful development especially in Visakhapatnam, where so
many notable industries were established in Visakhapatnam, such as Hindustan petroleum Ltd.,
(HPCL), Bharat Heavy Plates & Vessels Ltd., (BHPV), Hindustan Zinc Ltd., and export
processing zone, steel plant, Hindustan shipyard & Coramandel Fertilizers Ltd.
Harbor facilities in Visakhapatnam port trust:
Water spread area – 100 hectares,
Land area – 3,881 hectares,
The inner harbor has eleven quay berths i.e., multi commodity and 3 JETTY berths and one
Water spread area – 200 hectares,
Land area – 25 hectares,
The outer harbor has a protected tranquil base of 200 hectares encompassed by a set break
locates on the eastern, southern and northern sides of the basin.
As an adjacent to and as a byproduct of the outer harbor a modern fishing harbor has
come to existence. The protected water in the fishing harbor is 24 hectares with a draft of 7.5
meters. Visakhapatnam was a minor port, ships were anchored in the open off shore area and
the cargo transported in small boats. It gained the status of major port in 1963 and it was in
February 1964 that the Visakhapatnam port was constituted.
Visakhapatnam port berths
GCB(General cum bulk cargo)
(OSTT- off shore tanker terminal)
New oil mooring
In the first five year plan 4 berths were constructed and cargo handling facilities
strengthened. During second 5 years plan 2 oils berths were commissioned for the benefit of oil
ore commissioned in 1965 further the quay.
A full pledged port railway with 183.80 kms of board guage is aimed,
maintained and operated by the port. It is functioning as a terminal agent for the south
eastern railway facilities for direct receipt and dispatch of goods from and to any point
of country 20 B.G locomotives are owned by port railway.
There are 8 shipping tugs with ballard pull varying from 30 tones to 32 tones
for towing the ships and also two smaller tugs. There are 14 launches with varying
Hindustan petroleum for various purpose and 300 mechanized boats. It has a 65-meter
wide entrance depth of 7.5 meters
The port has 25 electrical wharf cranes of varying from 3 to 10. Two No‟s of
50 ones of gantry cranes for handling containers, 2 floating cranes, one of 150 tones
capacity self propelled floating cranes “BHEEMA” and 50 tones capacity floating crane
“HANUMAN” , the mobile cargo handling equipment is utilized for loading of cargo
into the wagon, lorries etc.
PERSPECTIVE PLAN FOR VISAKHAPATNAM PORT 1996-2020
The port desires to ahead & peeps into the future to enable it to formulate
appropriate development, operational and managements strategies to fulfill to avowed policy of
providing a high standard & efficient port services to its customer‟s clientele.
Accordingly, the planning department of port trust was entrusted with the task of
preparing the perspective plan in consultation with the other developments of the port &
concerned authorities associated with port industry. The study divided into 4 parts.
The main aim of the perspective plan is to provide qualitative services, a service no way
second to that of services provided by the other party in the world to it‟s customers, through
adequate & efficient that meet & fulfill the demand from the port to year.
The growth of Visakhapatnam city & port depends to a large extent on the regional
potentialities. Hinterland is a German word, which means „back country‟ & is referred to the
territory beyond to the coastal district over which the colonial power claimed jurisdiction.
Subsequently geographers adopted the word. The growth & the change of maritime transport,
port activity & road transport have altered the traditional concept of port hinterland.
The pattern & volume of traffic of any port & its capacity to grow depend to a large
extent upon the nature & extent of economic activity in the hinterland. Hence the size and
shape of the economic hinterland determined by is physical geography set pattern of trade,
location of industry, and transport facility for movement of raw materials.
Port serves hinterland of Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar, Maharashtra & Utter Pradesh
playing vital role in fastening the countries foreign trade & rapid industrialization of the
In recognition of the outstanding contribution, made by the port, A.P. pollution
central board was presented a certificate for „Best Green Belt Development‟ to Visakhapatnam
port on 5-6-2002, the World Environment Day.
QUALITY POLICY (ISO 9001-2000):
VPT is committed to prompt, efficient and safe services at optimum cost for
ensuring quick turnaround of sea, rail, road borne cargo and carries, maintaining total
transparency in all the transactions of port users.
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY OF VPT (ISO 14001-2004)
VPT is committed to minimizing the adverse impact of its operations on the
environment. Towards this end, it shall endeavor to.
Install, maintain and operate port facilities to comply with applicable environmental
rules and laws.
Continuous improvement of environment of environmental performance by a system
Set sound environmental objectives and targets.
Ensures awareness among employees and the port users on environment related
OBJECTIVES OF PORT:
The main objectives of working of the port is to import & export cargo on
ships. By this the very benefit that occurs to the nation is as follows.
CORPORATE OBJECTIVES OF PORT:
1. To fulfill its role in the promotion of international trade, particularly of export trade and
of economic and industrial development of the nation.
2. To anticipate and respond to the economic, trading and technological development and
provide the necessary port and harbor facilities in time.
3. To provide provide prompt efficient and sale services on water and on shore at
optimum cost and ensure quick turn round of ships, rail wagons and road vehicles.
4. To simplify systems, rules and procedure in respect of all port activities leading to
optimum utilization of capital, man, material and time.
5. To maintain optimum requirements of human and technological needs.
6. To development human resources, with a view to acquire attitudes and skill required
meeting managerial operational and technological needs.
7. To evolve a participate style of management resulting in a safe healthy working
environment, increased production and productivity and goodwill among all employees.
8. To motive employees towards increased productivity through wage, incentive and
equitable share in the gains of productivity and fair wages.
9. To sure and adequate return the capital invested and generates internal resources to
finance further development.
10. To design a suitable organization structure under which will enable the employees to
functional to the best of their ability and capacity as the managerial personal made
accountable for achievement of operational and cost objectives.
11. To strive towards improving the quality of employees and their families.
KEY OBJECTIVES OF VPT:
1. To emerge as high tech port at par with international standards.
2. To explore new markets and to be innovative.
3. To provide prompt efficient and services on water and shore at optimum cost and
ensure quick turnaround of ships, rail wagons and road vehicles.
4. To develop human resources with a view to acquire attitudes and skills required to
meet managerial, operational and technological needs.
5. To simplify the rule and procedures in respect of all port activities leading to
optimum utilization of capital, men, material and time.
6. To anticipate and respond to the economic trading and technological developments
and provide the necessary port and harbor facilities in time.
7. To ensure the organizational effectiveness.
SOCIAL OBLIGATIONS AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT:
`Visakhapatnam port trust conscious of social obligation has been taken interest in
community development as a corporate citizen. To mention for the development projects taken
up by port are sports & culture complex, aqua sports complex etc. , VPT extends financial
support for the improvement of facilities in hospital and educational institutions, for promotion
of libraries and various other welfare projects of the city. VPT gives almost importance to the
environmental protection and development green plantation in and around port premises.
To have further development, Visakhapatnam port trust has drawn up a prospective plan for
capacity augmentation and organization efficiency enhancement, in purchase of the above
measures have been taken for development of container handling facilities, computerization of
material management system, re-organization of port railway infrastructure etc., with such a
growth, it is estimated that by end of the country, the port would handle 47 million tones of
cargo. VPT was recorded with income and expenditure of Rs.273.75 crores and Rs.181.25
crores respectively during 1998-99. Hence VPT is playing a vital role in development export
and import business of our country as well as contributing growth to the Indian economy.
FUNCTIONS OF VPT:
1. To keep administration all books of accounts / ledger records
of the board
with reference toA. All receipt and disbursements of money and the manner in respect of
which receipts and distribution take place.
B. All bills for the services rendered and related transactions.
C. All purchases of stocks, stores and materials and equipment.
D. All assets and liabilities
2. To fix rents / leases rates / charges fees dues in respect of buildings, land rented /
leased and plant rates equipment hire for the various services rendered to the
trade and connected parties there.
3. To check assessment, watch and purse the collection of all trusts due fees
charges on goods imported and exported from the port and for the services
rendered to vessels crafts, equipment and leaving the port.
4. To scrutinize/verify/pre-audit all payments with reference to the sanction
agreement, contracts, etc., and order payments etc., certified and passed by the
department concerned on behalf of the board.
5. To arrange for proper and prompt disbursement of moneys on the basis of bills
dully checked and passed by various sections of FA&CAO‟S department.
6. To arrange for loans on behalf of board as and when necessary for the purpose of
capital development programs.
7. To build up reserves funds and administration thereof.
8. To ensure that the cash and funds balances of the board and invested in a manner
most advantageous to board.
9. To prepare monthly / quarterly statements showing the progress of capital works
and submission of the same for the information of board.
10. To complete monthly/quarterly accounts revenue and expenditure and
submission of same for perusal of chairman/board.
11. To prepare annual budgets of revenue and capital for the approval of the board
and for onwards transmission of the government of sanction.
12. To exercise control over the progress of expenditure by means of the budgetary
control and responsibility.
13. To complete annual accounts and administration reports and submission of the
same to government certified by the audit.
14. To provide the board with the management information, such as cost analysis
statements and management accounting statements at such intervals as may be
15. To submit the necessary financial returns by the chairman/board/government
from time to time.
Only Indian port having three international accreditations –ISO9001, ISO14001,
The port is ISPS compliant. Emergency control center, Fire control office and
CISF Control office works round the clock
Record cargo throughput of 64.60MMT during 2007-08.
Highest annual railway traffic among major ports – 35.5 MMT in 2007-08.
MAJOR IMPORTS & EXPORTS
Marinate of potash
Iron & steel
Sugar edible oil
Set-up of the organization:
Each major port has a board of trusties representing various interests connected with the
port operations & shipping industry. The chairman of each major port is appointed by central
government besides chairman the port trust board comprises deputy chairman, representatives
of customers, railway, defense, state government, ship owners, shippers etc. All members other
than the chairman &deputy chairman are port time members.
There are 10 departments in Visakhapatnam port trust and those departments are
categorized under 2 heads:
a. Administrative department
b. Finance department
c. Personal department
d. Research‟s planning department
e. Material department
f. Medical department.
2. Operational department:
b. Traffic department
c. Mechanical department
d. Engineering department
FUNCTIONS OF DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS:
1. Administrative department:
The secretary heads it. The functions of this departments are like Administrative
policy, board matters, legal matters & co-ordination of all departments.
2. Finance department:
Financial adviser & chief accounts officer head this department. The functions of
this department are managing finance matters, preparation and computation of budgets;
inter audit and revenue realization etc.
3. Personal department:
This department is headed by manager (operations). The matters related to
personnel policies and the recruitment of employees, sanctioning of posts, their welfare,
needs, training an personal matters & industrial etc. it is responsible for creating and
conducting harmonized relations in the organizations, so as to achieve maximum
productivity & better facilities in the work.
4. Research’s planning department:
This department consists of compiling information, port statistics, project capital
budgeting, forecasting trade, traffic analysis trade promotion and data processing of
wage bills etc.
5. Material department:
Chief material manager heads this department. The function of this department is
procurement of materials, storage of stores & supply to all departments as per
requirements as per requirements & norms.
6. Medical department:
Chief medical officer heads this department. It provides health, sanitary & medical
facilities to the employees of all departments of port trust.
7. Marine department:
This is under the control of deputy conservator. It is responsible for safe
navigation of vessels and berthing, pilot age, maintenance of dredging a port, fire
services and other functions of this department.
8. Traffic department:
Traffic manager heads this department. The activities of this department are
responsible for smooth flow of traffic by allotting berths to the ships visiting the port &
collects berthing charges, rail traffic operations.
9. Mechanical department:
This department is under the control of chief mechanical engineer. It maintains
all electrical & mechanical equipment and executed projects works regarding purchases
& installing of electrical or mechanical equipment.
10. Engineering department:
Chief engineer heads this department. The functions of this department are
construction of project work and maintenance of civil works like building quarters &
mainly berths etc..
RESEARCH AND PLANNING DEPARTMENT
MECHANICAL & CIVIL
Port of Visakhapatnam is under administrative control of the Ministry of
shipping, government of India, governed by board of trusties headed by the
SENIOR MANAGEMENT TEAM
AJEYA KALLAM, I.A.S.
G.V.L.SATYA KUMAR, IRTS
CHIEF VIGILANCE OFFICER
P.M. MOHAN, I.P.S
FA & CAO
TRAFFIC MANAGER (i/c)
Dr. K. SATYNARAYANA RAO
Capt. S. MATHUR
D. NARESH KUMAR
CHIEF MEDICAL OFFICER
Dr. G. RAMANJANEYULU
K. RAMACHANDRA RAO
CHIEF MECHANICAL ENGINEER
An organization structure is the structural relationship between the various factors in an
enterprise. Organizational structures are designed to overcome the limitation of people and to
create an environment in which men‟s energies will be recluse to concentrate on the work at
hand moreover organization is concerned with building, developing and maintaining a structural
of working relationship in order to accomplish the objectives of the enterprise. Organization at
the same time denotes both structure and process. As a structural organization is structural
relationship among various departments in an enterprise. In an enterprise, organization is the
process of harmony co-ordinates & combination of individual effort for the accomplishment of a
set predetermined goals.
The major port is under the direct administrative control of central government. The
port administered by 18board of trustees under the major port trust act, 1963 assisted in day-today administration by the heads of departments. Previously, the port trustees number of major
port trust act, 1963.
One trustee is representing the customs department.
One trustee is representing the railway
One trustee is representing the state government
One trustee is representing the central government
One trustee is representing the defense.
Two trustees are representing the labor.
One trustee is representing the steamship owners association.
One trustee is representing the A.P chamber of commerce.
One trustee is representing the Visakhapatnam chamber of commerce.
One trustee is representing the HPCL.
Four trustees is representing others.
ORGANISATION STRUCTURE OF VPT
BOARD OF TRUSTEES
HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT
DEPUTY HEADOF THE DEPARTMENTS
DEPUTY HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENTS
To facilitate navigation of panama vessels with 11mts draft in 2006 and 14mts draft in
2008in to inner harbor.
To introduce night navigation to suezmax tankers.
To install integrated mechanized handling facility for cooking coal, alumina, steam
To upgrade outer harbor facilities for cater to 2 lakh DWT vessels by 2008.
To achieve 100 MT in cargo throughput by 2010
To improve organizational effectiveness with a view to reducing the transactional cost
to the user.
To upgrade the logistics with special emphasis on rail and road connectivity, stack
To extend scope of the information technology in to berth allocation planning, EDI
1. IN 1997 – 98 Mumbai handled a peak 6.01 lack TEUS which has now reduced to 3.07
lack in2001 – 02. This down trend may continue in view of lack of facilities at Mumbai.
They have some plans to construct off shore berths under BOT concept which has nor
materialized since 2 years.
2. JNP, not surprisingly, in view limited berth space4 and bulk dividing, have proposed
conversion of their 3 berths into container berths under BOT , concept for Rs.700 crores.
The proposal to double the railway line from port is also actively being pursued. This is
bound to materialize and become operational in another 2-3 years.
3. in Chennai the container berth are privatizes to P & O a year before after legal battles
with the employee‟s worker union results have started flowing Chennai has potential to
become a hub port.
4. Visakhapatnam and Tuticorin have also leased their berths under privatization and hence
there is scope for increased handling of containers.
5. Cochin has developed container terminal with ADB funding and they have plans to
development vallanpadam terminal as a Transshipping Port under privatization.
6. Kandla port lost their chance of container handling improvements by P&O under
privatization concept, due to negative attitude shown by their employees. The
privatization scheme hence feel through loss of this is a gain for Mudra Port where again
P&O is involved, in equipping and operating the container terminal with 2 berths. Mudra
port has 15 m draft and hence would cause impact in container traffic at Kandla.
Emerged as "Top Ranking Port" of the country for the second year in successor with highest
throughout among major ports (44.343) m i l l i o n tons).
A clear lead of 6.4 M i l l i o n tons over 2m highest throughout of Candela Port.
Highest throughout of 74.04 laky tones through ore handling complex - lst time since
inception of the plan in 1965.
Zero demurrage on port account to the iron ore ships launched at the port – an event unheard
in the history of port.
Savings to the exchanger to the t u n e of about Rs.76 cores through improved performance
of tire handling complex.
Lowest ever pre-berthing detention of 57 hours and lowest ever turn round time of 3.51 days.
Highest ever Avg. berth day output of 10,772 tones surpassing the provided best throughout
of 9.799 tons by 10%.
Highest compound annual growth rates ol' 13.98% in the berth any output during the 9lh plan
- Higher among major ports.
Highest ever container through put of 21,517 Toe's.
The deficiencies in Visakhapatnam Port Trust as well as many other ports generally are
as follows these are the major deficiencies that hinder the growth of ports.
Ships have to wait for long in the channel for berthing
The Productivity of unloading/ loading are so low that ships waiting at berth Increases
quite considerable compared to international standards.
Ports handling is labour intensive hence susceptible for not only low productivity but also
to the whims of labour lack of mechanized handling for bulk cargo.
Desire to change the outmoded system lacking.
Available equipments are outdated and hence have low efficiency.
Capital Maintenance dredging is not adequate.
Berthing of ship navigation wait for high tides.
Night navigation is not available, hence the ships have to wait for daylight.
Adequate and proper cranes are not available for handling container.
Insufficient yard for stacking/handling containers.
Where cranes are available, the productivity is low, operators lack experience or the
maintenance is lacking.
The railways do not provide adequate rakes for easy movements of cargo/containers.
Lack of ICDs facilities, where exists are insufficient.
Due to resource crunch the developments needed are lacking. Port Trust Official lack
authority and flexibility.
The following are some measures suggested to overcome and improvise the deficiencies
some of these measures have been implemented and have shown remarkable improvements the
same is an ongoing process.
Increase the productivity by elimination of labor and adopt mechanical handling.
Replace the old equipments to modern hi-tech type.
Streamline the maintenance aspects and spare parts of equipments.
Training at all levels to induce better mindset commitment efficiency, professionalism
Construct additional berths. Berth should wait for ships and not the reverse.
Capital and maintenance Dredging of channels to bring in deep drafted vessels.
Provisions of adequate equipments, yards, storage areas for container handling which
requires special attention.
Developments of additional ICDs for aggregation movement of container traffic.
Improving the navigation management system, Measures for enabling night navigation.
The Concept of r-engineering and process should be given a thrust in port operation,
maintenance and development.
Introduction of automation and computerization in various operations, documentations