Ppe group ii assignment


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Ppe group ii assignment

  1. 1. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) Ankit Agarwal (08) Karan Gupta (39) Navin Singh (45) Phani Mulakala (49) Tirathnath Sharma (73) Vinay Tewari (76) MBA (O&G),IV Sem 1
  2. 2. What is PPE Personal protective equipment shall mean all equipment designed to be worn or held by the worker to protect him against one or more hazards likely to endanger his safety or health at work, and any addition or accessory designed to meet this objective. The purpose of PPE is not to carry out a task or activity but to protect the worker from the risks involved in that task or activity. PPE must be a protective element for the person who uses it, not for the protection of other persons or products. The Requirement for PPE To ensure the greatest possible protection for employees in the work place,the cooperative efforts of both employers and employees will help in establishing and maintaining a safe and healthful work environment. In general, employers are responsible for: Performing a "hazard assessment" of the workplace to identify and control physical and health hazards. Identifying and providing appropriate PPE for employees. Training employees in the use and care of the PPE. Maintaining PPE, including replacing worn or damaged PPE. Periodically reviewing, updating and evaluating the effectiveness of the PPE program. The cardinal principle in controlling an unsafe condition is to remove the hazard. This could be achieved through better design, change of process or guarding by mechanical means. In spite of care taken to design safety into all systems and operations in the oil industry, the risk of failure of engineering controls, materials, equipment and even that of safety devices cannot be fully eliminated. There are also some operations and situations like welding and cutting etc., where engineering controls are not feasible and use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is done compulsory. The use of personal protective equipment is also helpful in the following conditions: Reduce the risk of dangerous situations (e.g. safety belts). Provide a physical barrier between the user and the hazard (e.g. apron,face shield). Render a hostile environment friendly albeit for limited period of time(e.g. breathing apparatus). Reduce the probability of accidental situations 2
  3. 3. Selection of Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs) PPEs are only a barrier between person and the hazard, and if the barrier fails or turns ineffective due to one reason or other, the person using the equipment will be victim. Hence the following requirements are essential for selecting the equipments. 1. Adequate protection against the hazards to which the worker will be exposed. 2. Maximum comfort and minimum weight. 3. No restriction of essential movements. 4. Durability and susceptibility of maintenance at the premises, where it is used. 5. Construction in accordance with the accepted standards of performances and materials. 6. Attractive looking Type of Personal Protective Equipments Personal protective equipments may be defined into two basic groups. Non -respiratory PPEs Respiratory PPEs Non-Respiratory Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs) The common non-respiratory safety appliances are: helmet, face shields ,goggles, hand gloves, ear plug/muff, aprons (leather, asbestos, PVC, etc.),safety boots, leg guard and partition covers, etc. The various types of non respiratory PPEs are given in detailed subsection: Eye and Face Protection Thousands of people are blinded each year from work-related eye injuries. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), nearly three out of five workers are injured while failing to wear eye and face protection. Protectors should meet the following requirements: 3
  4. 4. Provide adequate protection against the particular hazards for which they are designed. Be reasonably comfortable when worn under the designed conditions. ● Fit snugly and shall not unduly interfere with the movement of the wearer. Be durable. Be capable of being disinfected. Be kept clean and in good condition. Persons whose vision requires the use of corrective lenses/spectacles and who are required by this standard to wear eye protection, shall wear goggles or spectacles of one of the following types: Goggles that can be worn over corrective spectacles without disturbing the adjustment of the spectacles. Goggles that incorporate corrective lenses mounted behind the protective lenses. Contact lenses are not a substitute for safety apparel and eyes/face must be protected by the proper type of goggles or face shield. Every protector shall be distinctly marked to facilitate identification of the manufacturer. When limitations and precautions are indicates by the manufacturer, they shall be explained to the user and care taken to see that such limitations are known and precautions are strictly observed. Head Protection Head house is the command center of our central nervous systems that controls all the movements, senses and basic body functions. An injury to the head can pose a serious threat to the brain. Head injuries at work places in industry may result from ● Falling objects ● Persons hitting their heads on fixed objects Fall of persons Contact of head with bar live electrical conductors e Splashes of hot, cryogenic or corrosive liquids Flying hard particles 4
  5. 5. Injuries such as perforation of the skull fracture of the skull or of the cervical vertebrae and brain lesions without fracture of the skull can be fatal. Wearing appropriate head protector while at work in industry is, therefore essential. There are also personnel dedicated to fire fighting duties where the nature of work requires the use of particular types of protectors. In order to reduce the destructive effects of shocks to the head, a safety helmet should:  Limit the pressure imposed on the skull by spreading the load over the maximum possible surface. The shell must resist deformation and perforation. Deflect falling objects by having a suitably smooth and rounded shape. Dissipate and disperse energy that may be transmitted to it in such a way that the energy passed on to the head and neck is largely reduced. Hard hats must have a hard outer shell and a shock-absorbing lining that incorporates a headband and straps that suspend the shell from 1 to 1 ¼ inches (2.54 cm to 3.18 cm) away from the head. This type of design provides shock absorption during an impact and ventilation during normal wear. Hard hats are divided into three industrial classes: Class A-hard hats provide impact and penetration resistance along with limited voltage protection (up to 2,200 volts). Class B- hard hats provide the highest level of protection against electrical hazards, with high-voltage shock and burn protection (up to 20,000 volts). They also provide protection from impact and penetration hazards by flying/falling objects. Class C hard hats provide lightweight comfort and impact protection but offer no protection from electrical hazards. Foot and Leg Protection Employees who face possible foot or leg injuries from falling or rolling objects or from crushing or penetrating materials should wear protective footwear. Also, employees whose work involves exposure to hot substances or corrosive or poisonous materials must have protective gear to cover exposed body parts, including legs and feet. If an employees feet may be exposed to electrical hazards, non-conductive footwear should be worn. On the other hand, workplace exposure to static electricity may necessitate the use of conductive footwear. Examples of situations in which an employee should wear foot and/or leg protection include: 5
  6. 6. Rolling of heavy objects Piercing of objects through soles of your shoe Foot and leg protection choices Leggings protect the lower legs and feet from heat hazards such as molten metal or welding sparks. Safety snaps allow leggings to be removed quickly. Metatarsal guards protect the instep area from impact and compression. Made of aluminum, steel, fiber or plastic, these guards may be strapped to the outside of shoes.  Toe guards fit over the toes of regular shoes to protect the toes from impact and compression hazards. They may be made of steel, aluminum or plastic.  Combination foot and shin guards protect the lower legs and feet, and may be used in combination with toe guards when greater protection is needed.  Safety shoes have impact-resistant toes and heat-resistant soles that protect the feet against hot work surfaces common in roofing, paving and hot metal industries. The metal insoles of some safety shoes protect against puncture wounds. Safety shoes may also be designed to be electrically conductive to prevent the buildup of static electricity in areas with the potential for explosive atmospheres or nonconductive to protect workers.  Electrically conductive shoes provide protection against the buildup of static electricity. Employees working in explosive and hazardous locations such as explosives manufacturing facilities or grain elevators must wear conductive shoes to reduce the risk of static electricity buildup on the body that could produce a spark and cause an explosion or fire. Conductive shoes must be removed when the task requiring their use is completed. Note: Employees exposed to electrical hazards must never wear conductive shoes.  Silk, wool and nylon socks can produce static electricity and should not be worn with conductive footwear.  Foundry Shoes: In addition to insulating the feet from the extreme heat of molten metal, foundry shoes keep hot metal from lodging in shoe eyelets, tongues or other shoe parts. These snug-fitting leather or leather-substitute shoes have leather or rubber soles and rubber heels. All foundry shoes must have built-in safety toes. 6
  7. 7. Hand and Arm Protection If a workplace hazard assessment reveals that employees face potential injury to hands and arms that cannot be eliminated through engineering and work practice controls, employers must ensure that employees wear appropriate protection. Potential hazards include skin absorption of harmful substances, chemical or thermal burns, electrical dangers, bruises, abrasions, cuts, punctures, fractures and amputations. Protective equipment includes gloves, finger guards and arm coverings or elbow-length gloves. Types of Protective Gloves  Leather gloves protect against sparks, moderate heat, blows, chips and rough objects.  Aluminized gloves provide reflective and insulating protection against heat and require an insert made of synthetic materials to protect against heat and cold.  Aramid fiber gloves protect against heat and cold, are cut- and abrasive-resistant and wear well.  Synthetic gloves of various materials offer protection against heat and cold, are cut- and abrasive-resistant and may withstand some diluted acids. These materials do not stand up against alkalis and solvents. Fabric and Coated Fabric Gloves  Fabric gloves protect against dirt, slivers, chafing and abrasions. They do not provide sufficient protection for use with rough, sharp or heavy materials. Adding a plastic coating will strengthen some fabric gloves.  Coated fabric gloves are normally made from cotton flannel with napping on one side. By coating the unnapped side with plastic, fabric gloves are transformed into general-purpose hand protection offering slip-resistant qualities. These gloves are used for tasks ranging from handling bricks and wire to chemical laboratory containers. When selecting gloves to protect against chemical exposure hazards, always check with the manufacturer or review the manufacturer.s product literature to determine the gloves. effectiveness against specific workplace chemicals and conditions. 7
  8. 8. Chemical-resistant gloves are made with different kinds of rubber: natural, butyl, neoprene, nitrile and fluorocarbon (viton); or various kinds of plastic: polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylene. These materials can be blended or laminated for better performance. As a general rule, the thicker the glove material, the greater the chemical resistance but thick gloves may impair grip and dexterity, having a negative impact on safety. Body Protection Personal protective equipments required to be used for protection of human body in oil and gas industries include items such as aprons, suits and safety belts. Suits Following types of suits are commonly used: Boiler Suits Aluminized Fabric Suits Chemicals Protection Suits Boiler Suit It may be in one piece or two pieces. It is used by Maintenance and Inspection Personal. It is preferably made up of cotton fabric to retain the comforts of air permissibility and moisture transmission. It shall not propagate flame, have after glow, be self extinguishing, shall retain basic characteristics of the fabric, shall be durable to natural detergent washings, dry cleanings and be environment friendly. Where persons may be exposed to sparks, flame or heat, fire retardant clothing or suits may be used. For TEL handling, white colour suit shall be used. Aluminized Fire Fighting Suits These are of following types: Fire proximity suit Fire Entry Suit Fire Proximity Suit 8
  9. 9. It allows the fire fighter to work next to the flames i.e. radiant heat and occasional flame lick for the purpose of rescue work and knockdown fire fighting operations in proximity of flames but not actually in flames. Fire Entry Suit It allows the firemen to work in the flames i.e. complete static immersion but for a very short duration of 20-30 seconds. Chemical Protection Suit It may be of PVC, Butyl, Viton or a combination of Butyl and Viton, etc. The suit shall be complete in one piece with gas tight zip and all joints shall be seam welded and with a hood visor providing a large field of vision and complete with safety boots and gloves. There should be a provision for wearing respiratory protective device internally. There should be a provision for inflating the head protection cap.  shall be able to provide gas tight and chemical resistant cover for full It body and equipment protection. It shall be able to produce personal air ventilation inside the suit to reduce heat stress. It shall be able to build positive pressure inside the suit that prevents the penetration of chemicals when leakages occur. As far as possible, it should be lightweight. It shall be easy in donning for fast response to emergencies and shall provide easy movement in confined places. Seam with high tear resistance be adapted to suit material. Double seam be provided on both sides for gas tightness. It shall have integral safety boots with toecap, steel sole and ankle protection. Wrist seals shall be provided, supplementary seals optional. Zip fastener used shall be gas tight, sturdy, covered with teeth inside, vertically located at front. Back Pack Padding shall be provided in the backpack area for protection against impact. 9
  10. 10. Water Based Gel Blanket Water based gel blanket consists of woven pure wool, impregnated with sterile water based gel and provides a shield against the flame, heat and smoke. It may be draped around the body of the person trying to escape through fire. Period of its exposure to heat should be limited to that to that of the specified period. It may be draped around the body of a burning person. It reduces the pain and trauma of wounds/burns. It reduces the risk of further infection by physically covering the burns. It can also be used to extinguish small fire by providing a cover. The blanket should be kept inside the specified box with proper cover in a cool and hygienically clean place. It should not be handled with infectious hands. It should be used only before its expiry period. Selection of Material The material shall be non-flammable, light-weight and flexible having sufficient heat reflecting properties. Such treatment shall not be handled with infectious hands. It should be used only before its expiry period. The material shall be durable, shall not disintegrate when subjected to intense radiated heat and/or flame and any garment made out of these, particularly, its outer layer, shall retain its strength to remain in position during its normal intended use. Where it is necessary to use a material impervious to water in the outer layer of clothing assembly, the material shall not deteriorate by repeated contact with water and shall not be affected adversely by fire fighting foam. Reflective coating shall be of such quality that it shall not crack or chip during normal usage of the garment. Protective clothing comes in a variety of materials, each effective against particular hazards, such as:  Paper-like fiber used for disposable suits provide protection against dust and splashes.  Treated wool and cotton adapts well to changing temperatures, is comfortable and fireresistant and protects against dust, abrasions and rough and irritating surfaces.  Duck is a closely woven cotton fabric that protects against cuts and bruises when handling heavy, sharp or rough materials.  Leather is often used to protect against dry heat and flames.  Rubber, rubberized fabrics, neoprene and plastics protect against certain chemicals and physical hazards. When chemical or physical hazards are present, check with the clothing manufacturer to ensure that the material selected will provide protection. Ear Protection 10
  11. 11. Generally, the louder the noise, the shorter the exposure time before hearing protection is required. For instance, employees may be exposed to a noise level of 90 dB for 8 hours per day (unless they experience a Standard Threshold Shift) before hearing protection is required. On the other hand, if the noise level reaches 115 dB hearing protection is required if the anticipated exposure exceeds 15 minutes. Protective headgear must meet ANSI Standard Z89.1-1986 (Protective Headgear for Industrial Workers) or provide an equivalent level of protection. Helmets purchased before July 5, 1994 must comply with the earlier ANSI Standard (Z89.1-1969) or provide equivalent protection. Hearing Protection Equipment Some types of hearing protection include: Single-use earplugs are made of waxed cotton, foam, silicone rubber or fiberglass wool. They are self-forming and, when properly inserted, they work as well as most molded earplugs. Pre-formed or molded earplugs must be individually fitted by a professional and can be disposable or reusable. Reusable plugs should be cleaned after each use. Earmuffs require a perfect seal around the ear. Glasses, facial hair, long hair or facial movements such as chewing may reduce the protective value of earmuffs. Respiratory Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs) Respiratory Protective Equipments are based on two main principles: 1. Decontamination of local air by filtration, absorption etc., using respirators. 2. Segregated external supply using .breathing apparatus.. Breathing apparatus may be subdivided into the following classes: a) Short distance fresh air breathing apparatus; b) Compressed air line breathing apparatus; c) Self contained breathing apparatus. 11
  12. 12. Obviously an external breathing supply is essential in an oxygen deficient atmosphere therefore breathing apparatus should be specified whenever oxygen level are below 20% volume. Even perfect respiratory protection may not always prevent contaminants entering the body and a relatively large number of substances will penetrate unbroken skin on liquid or vapour contact. Since respiratory protection depend upon the proper use of the equipments (particularly under emergency conditions), all prospective user must be carefully trained for its uses. The respiratory equipment that is suitable for use with TEL consists of a face piece covering the face from chine to forehead and held in place by straps passing over the head. As these face pieces are normally manufactured to a standard size, it is impossible to get aclose fit to the face of very individual. When the wearer inhales, there is a reduction of pressure inside the face piece and if it does not fit properly, leakage may cause toxic vapours to be inhaled. Air-supplied respiratory equipment overcomes this problem by maintaining a positive pressure inside the face piece. Air-supplied respiratory equipment should not be supplied with air from hand-blowers, as they do not provide an adequate margin of excess air flow. Respiratory equipment is tiring to wear for long periods, so the working day should be restricted to eight hours to prevent undue fatigue. Self-Contained Breathing Respirator In case of fire involving TEL, self-contained breathing apparatus with positive pressure is most suitable as it gives complete mobility to the wearer. The apparatus is also suitable for emergency use in case of TEL spills. Only equipment which permits air from the cylinder to be fed continuously to the face piece should be used, thus maintaining a positive pressure. Equipment fitted with a demand valve is not recommended. The life of the cylinder charge depends on the amount of work performed by the wearer. Breathing rates will vary according to the rate of work and will generally be between 32-40 lpm, using standard 1200 liters air cylinder. A full cylinder will not last more than 20 mins. for light work and 10 minutes for hard work. References 1. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_protective_equipment 2. www.osha.gov/SLTC/personalprotectiveequipment 3. www.mallcomindia.com 4. www.hse.gov.uk 5. www.free-training.com/osha/ppe 6. www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci 7. www.ilofip.org 12