Cognitive development theories

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Cognitive development theories

  1. 1. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORIES Jean Piaget Jerome Bruner Lev Semanovich Vygotsky
  2. 2. JEAN PIAGET’S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY  Believes that children are neither driven by undesirable instinct nor molded by environmental influences  Views children as constructivists, that is, as curious active explorers who respond to the environment according to their understanding of its essential features  Divides intellectual development into four major periods
  3. 3. SENSORIMOTOR (BIRTH TO TWO YEARS)  Infants use sensory and motor capabilities to explore and gain a basic understanding of the environment.  At birth, they have only innate reflexes with which to engage the world. By the end of the sensorimotor period, they are capable of complex sensorimotor coordination.  Infants learn that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight (object permanence) and begin to internalize behavioral schemata to produce images or mental schemata.
  4. 4. PREOPERATIONAL (TWO TO SEVEN YEARS)  Children use symbolism (images and language) to represent and understand various aspects of the environment.  Thought is egocentric, meaning, that children think everyone sees the world in much the same way as that they do.  Children become imaginative in their play activities. They gradually begin to recognize that other people may not always perceive the world as they do.
  5. 5. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL (SEVEN TO ELEVEN YEARS)  Children are no longer fooled by appearances. By relying on cognitive operations, they understand the basic properties of and relations among objects and events in the everyday world.  They are able to solve concrete (hands-on) problem in logical fashion.  They understand laws of conservation and are able to classify and understand reversibility.  They become much more proficient at inferring motives by observing others’ behavior and the circumstances in which it occurs.
  6. 6. FORMAL OPERATIONAL (ELEVEN YEARS AND BEYOND)  They are able to solve abstract problems in logical fashion.  They become more scientific in thinking.  No longer is logical thinking limited to the concrete or the observable; children enjoy pondering hypothetical issues and as a result may become rather idealistic.  They are capable of systematic, deductive reasoning that permits them to consider many possible solutions to a problem and pick the correct answer.
  7. 7. PIAGET ON COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT “The principle goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done.” -Jean Piaget
  8. 8. JEROME BRUNER’S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY  The human mind gains inputs through the senses, processes them through cognitive abilities, and produces outputs employing language and creative expression. It involves three stages. • Children respond to sensory stimuli. Enactive stage (0- 18 months) • Children view the world through concrete representations. Iconic stage (18 months-6 years) • The individual can handle abstract representations using his thinking skills to understand things. Symbolic stage (6 years onwards)
  9. 9. LEV SEMANOVICH VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOHISTORIC- COGNITIVE/LINGUISTIC-COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY  Cognitive development is dependent on the child’s interaction with those around him; social stimulation aids mental and language development.  The child acquires new skills and information with the zone of proximal development (ZPD), the distance between a child’s actual development level and a higher level of potential development obtained through an adult guidance.  This theory suggests that, in addition to providing a stimulating environment, early childhood educators need to promote discovery explaining and providing suggestions to suit each child’s zone of proximal development.
  10. 10. VYGOTSKY ON COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT “The teacher must orient his work not on yesterday’s development in the child but on tomorrow’s.” --Lev Semanovich Vygotsky

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