Suez Canal, a ship canal in Egypt and a major navigational route for world trade. It crosses the Isthmus of Suez and links the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez, an arm of the Red Sea, thus eliminating the long voyage around Africa for ships traveling between East and West. Since World War II the canal has twice been closed because of war between Egypt and Israel. When in normal operation, it is one of the world's busiest waterways. In its course of slightly more than 100 miles (160 km), the Suez Canal crosses a sandy desert and passes through several natural bodies of water, including Lake Timsah and the Bitter Lakes. The canal has no locks, there being virtually no difference in the levels of the Mediterranean and Red seas. Throughout most of its length, the canal can handle only one-way traffic. Bypasses in the Bitter Lakes and at Ballah permit ships sailing in opposite directions to pass. Widened and deepened over the years, the Suez Canal can accommodate all ships other than the largest crude-oil supertankers. Constant dredging is required to maintain the channel. The canal is operated by the Egyptian government through the Suez Canal Authority, headquartered at Ismailia. More than a dozen stations along the shore help regulate traffic. Special pilots take ships in and out of port at Port Said and Suez and navigate the canal proper. Average transit time is about 15 hours.
CHAPTER 17The Age of ImperialismSection 2: European Claims in North AfricaObjectives:Explain European nations’ motives for establishing colonies or spheres of influence in North Africa.Describe the type of control that France exercised over Algiers and Tunis.Describe Britain’s interests in Egypt and the Sudan.
SECTION 2 European Claims in North Africa“France . . . cannot be merely a free country . . . she ought topropagate [spread] [her] influence throughout the world andcarry everywhere that she can her language, her customs,her flag, and her genius.” Jules Ferry France’s Minister of Foreign Affairs 1883
SECTION 2European Claims in NorthAfricaIn 1830 France began to expand its Second Empire looking towardNorth Africa (the Barbary Coast) -Algiers – a Muslim stateof the Ottoman Empire Algiers had vast areas of fertile cropland, as well as immense reserves of petroleum products (which were becoming more and more important). France wanted BOTH!
SECTION 2European Claims in NorthAfricaAlgiers experienced 40 years of almostcontinuous rebellionsMany Europeans,especially theFrench, would settlein Algiers. Frenchofficials took overthe government in1830.
SECTION 2European Claims in NorthAfricaTunisia1881 ~ unlike Algiers, Tunisia becamea French protectorate
SECTION 2European Claims in NorthAfrica Morocco Very important because of the Strait of Gibraltar Made a protectorate of France 1912
SECTION 2 European Claims in North AfricaThe British in North Africa 1854 ~ French began Suez Canal http://www.britishpathe.com/record.php?id=75163
SECTION 2European Claims in NorthAfrica1882 REBELLION IN EGYPT!British navy attacks Alexandria ~ troops are sent to the Suez Canal.British protectorate until 1922.Great Britain will occupy theSuez until 1954.
SECTION 2European Claims in NorthAfrica Fashoda Crisis Between 1881and 1885, Muhammad Ahmed al-Mahdi led a successful revolt against Egypt in the Sudan. The British defeated the rebels in 1898 and set up a protectorate over the Sudan. The French in the area did NOT like the British in control of Sudan, but backed down rather than risk war with England.
CHAPTER 26Chapter Wrap-Up 1. What evidence is there that an industrialized country can control a country that is not industrialized? 2. What evidence is there to show that areas were colonized because they met the transportation needs of other, more powerful countries? 3. What evidence is there to show that areas were colonized for natural resources?