4. ib enviorment
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

4. ib enviorment

on

  • 68 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
68
Views on SlideShare
68
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

4. ib enviorment Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Managing in a Global Environment Chapter4
  • 2. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 2 Importance of International Business If you are not thinking international, you are not thinking business management
  • 3. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 3 Global Environment and International Managers  Difficulties Operating in Borderless World  Challenges – Economic – Legal-political – Socio-cultural  Multinational Corporations  Foreign Markets - Entrance Chapter 4 Topics Managers’ Challenge: Wal-Mart Managers
  • 4. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 4 A Borderless World  Business is becoming a unified, global field  Companies that think globally have a competitive edge  Domestic markets are saturated for many companies  Consumers can no longer tell from which country they are buying
  • 5. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 5 Four Stages of Globalization Domestic stage: market potential is limited to the home country production and marketing facilities located at home International stage: exports increase company usually adopts a multi-domestic approach Multinational stage: marketing and production facilities located in many countries more than 1/3 of its sales outside the home country Global (or stateless) stage: making sales and acquiring resources in whatever country offers the best opportunities and lowest cost ownership, control, and top management tend to be dispersed
  • 6. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 6 4 Stages of Globalization 1. Domestic 2. International 3. Multinational 4. Global Strategic Orientation Stage of Development Cultural Sensitivity Manager Assumptions Domestically Oriented Export- Oriented multi-domestic Multinational Global GlobalInitial foreign involvement Competitive positioning Explosion of international operations Of little importance “One best way” Very important “Many good ways” Somewhat important “The least-cost way” Critically important “Many good ways” SOURCE: Based on Nancy J. Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, 4th ed. (Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western, 2002), 8- 9.
  • 7. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 7 Global (stateless) Corporations  Number is increasing  Awareness of national borders decreasing  Rising managers expected to know a 2nd or 3rd language  Corporate Example – Nestle (Swiss) – CEO Peter Brabeck–Letmathe (Austrian) – Half of general managers (non-Swiss) – Strong faith in regional managers who are native to the region
  • 8. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 8 The International Business Environment  International management is management of business operations conducted in more than one country  Fundamental tasks do not change  Basic management functions – are the same - domestic or international – Greater difficulties and risks when performing on an international scale
  • 9. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 9 International Environment Factors Organization Economic •Economic development •Infrastructure •Resource and product markets •Per capita Income •Exchange rates •Economic conditions Legal-Political •Political risk •Government takeovers •Tariffs, quotas, taxes •Terrorism, political instability •Laws, regulations Sociocultural •Socio values, beliefs •Language •Religion (objects, taboos, holidays) •Kinship patterns •Formal education, literary •Time orientation
  • 10. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 10 Economic Environment Factors  Economic development  Infrastructure  Resource and product markets  Exchange rates  Inflation  Interest rates  Economic growth
  • 11. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 11 Economic Development ● Countries categorized as “developing” or “developed” ● Criterion used to classify is per capita income ● Developing countries have low per capita incomes ● LDCs located in Asia, Africa, and South America ● Developed are North America, Europe, & Japan ● Driving global growth in Asia, Eastern Europe, & Latin America
  • 12. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 12 Infrastructure A country’s physical facilities that support economic activities  Airports, highways, and railroads  Energy-producing facilities  Communication facilities
  • 13. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 13 Resource and Product Markets When operating in another country... – Managers must evaluate market demand – To develop plants, resource markets must be available – raw materials and labor Corporate Example – McDonald
  • 14. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 14 Exchange Rates  Rate at which one country’s currency is exchanged for another country’s  Has become a major concern for companies doing business internationally  Changes in the exchange rate can have major implications for profitability of international operations
  • 15. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 15 The Legal-Political Environment  Political Risk– due to events or actions by host governments ● Loss of assets ● Loss of earning power ● Loss of managerial control ● Government takeovers ● Acts of violence
  • 16. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 16 Political Instability  Events such as riots, revolutions, or government upheavals that affect the operations of an international company
  • 17. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 17 Laws and Regulations  Government laws and regulations differ from country to country  Make doing business a true challenge for international firms  Internet has increased impact of foreign laws on U.S. companies – expands potential for doing business on global basis
  • 18. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 18 Sociocultural Environment  Culture – shared knowledge, beliefs, values, common modes of behavior, and ways of thinking among members of a society – Intangible – Pervasive – Difficult for outsider to learn  Managers need to understand difference in social values to comprehend local cultures and deal with them effectively
  • 19. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 19 Hofstede’s Value Dimensions  Research = national value systems influence organizational and employee working relationships – Power distance (high = accept inequality) – Uncertainty avoidance (uncomfortable with uncertainty) – Individualism and collectivism (Individualism take care of themselves) – Masculinity/femininity (preference for achievement/assertiveness; femininity for relationship) – Long-term/short-term orientation = 5th dimension Ethical Dilemma: The Problem in Asia
  • 20. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 20 Four Dimensions of National Value
  • 21. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 21 GLOBE Value Dimensions – Assertiveness – Future orientation – Uncertainty avoidance – Gender differentiation – Power distance – Societal collectivism – Individual collectivism – Performance orientation – Humane orientation Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness project More comprehensive view of cultural similarities and differences
  • 22. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 22 International Cultural Influences  Other Cultural Characteristics – Language – Religion – Attitudes – Social Organization – Education  Linguistic pluralism – several languages exist  Ethnocentrism – regard own culture superior
  • 23. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 23 International Trade Agreements  Most visible changes in legal-political factors grow out of international trade agreements: – GATT – WTO – EU – NAFTA
  • 24. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 24 International Trade Alliances  General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)  Signed by 23 nations in 1947 as a set of rules  Ensured nondiscrimination, clear procedures, negotiation of disputes, and participation of lesser developed countries in international trade  Today, 147 member countries abide by the rules  Primary tools WTO uses on tariff concessions, countries agree to limit level of tariffs on imports from other WTO members  Most favored nation clause
  • 25. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 25 WTO  Goal, is to guide and sometimes urge the nations of the world toward free trade and open markets  Encompasses GATT and all of its agreements  Has legal authority to arbitrate disputes on 400 trade issues  Partly responsible for backlash against global trade
  • 26. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 26 European Union  Formed in 1957 to improve economic and social conditions  Has grown to 25-nation alliance  Initiative Europe ’92 called for creation of open markets for Europe’s 340 million consumers  Biggest expansion in 2004 – 10 new members from southern and eastern Europe  Observers feared EU would become a trade barrier  EU’s monetary revolution, introduction of the Euro
  • 27. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 27 Nations of The EU * * * * * * * * * * *Joined in 2004
  • 28. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 28 North American Free Trade Agreement ● Went into effect on January 1, 1994 ● Merged the United States, Canada, and Mexico with more that 421 million consumers ● Breaks down tariffs and trade restrictions on most agriculture and manufactured products ● August 12, 1992 agreements in number of key areas include: agriculture, autos, transport, & intellectual property ● January, 2004 -10th anniversary = success and failure
  • 29. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 29 Strategies for Entering International Markets Exporting High HighLow Low Ownershipof ForeignOperations Cost to Enter Foreign Operations Licensing Franchising Joint Venture Acquisition Greenfield Venture
  • 30. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 30 Multinational Corporations (MNC)  Receives >25% total sales revenues from operations outside parent company’s home country – Managed as integrated worldwide business system – Controlled by single management authority – Top managers exercise global perspective
  • 31. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 31 Managing in a Global Environment Managers must be sensitive to cultural subtleties  Personal challenges – culture shock  Managing Cross-culturally – Leading – Decision making – Motivating – Controlling Managers must be culturally flexible and easily adapt to new situations Experiential Exercise: Rate your Global Management Potential