COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
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COLLECTIVE BARGAINING

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The concept of collective bargaining was introduced very late in India as trade unions were found only in 20th century. The concept of collective bargaining attained significance only after 1962.......

The concept of collective bargaining was introduced very late in India as trade unions were found only in 20th century. The concept of collective bargaining attained significance only after 1962. The phrase collective bargaining is said to be coined by Sydney and Beatrice Webb and Great Britain. It is made up from two words collective which means “group” and bargaining which means “proposals and counter proposals”. So it is a process in which the representatives of a labour organization & the representatives of business organization meet and attempt to negotiate a contract or agreement, which specifies the nature of employee-employer union relationship.

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  • 1. CLASS PRESENTATION ON COLLECTIVE BARGAINING PRESENTER Mandeep Kaur M.Sc. (N) 1st Year
  • 2. INTRODUCTION OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING The concept of collective bargaining was introduced very late in India as trade unions were found only in 20th century. The concept of collective bargaining attained significance only after 1962. The phrase collective bargaining is said to be coined by Sydney and Beatrice Webb and Great Britain. It is made up from two words collective which means “group” and bargaining which means “proposals and counter proposals”. So it is a process in which the representatives of a labour organization & the representatives of business organization meet and attempt to negotiate a contract or agreement, which specifies the nature of employee-employer union relationship.
  • 3. “COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IS AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN A SINGLE EMPLOYER OR AN ASSOCIATION OF EMPLOYERS ON THE ONE HAND AND A LABOUR UNION ON THE OTHER, WHICH REGULATES THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT” TUDWIG TELLER DEFINITION
  • 4. DEFINITION “COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IS A PROCESS OF DISCUSSION AND NEGOTIATION BETWEEN TWO PARTIES, ONE OR BOTH OF WHOM IS A GROUP OF PERSONS ACTING IN CONTEST…. MORE SPECIFICALLY IT IS THE PROCEDURE BY WHICH AN EMPLOYER OR EMPLOYERS AND A GROUP OF EMPLOYEES AGREE UPON THE CONDITIONS OF WORK” (THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SOCIAL SCIENCE)
  • 5. HISTORY OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
  • 6. HISTORY  IN THE YEAR 1913: THE CALIFORNIA LEGISLATURE EXTENDED THE EIGHT HOUR LAW TO PUPIL NURSES.  1919 – FORMATION OF THE UNION OF STEWARDS AND NURSES. 1930 – THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATION ACT (NLRA) ESTABLISHED.
  • 7. CONTD… 1941 – CALIFORNIA STATE NURSES ASSOCIATION REPRESENTED NURSES CONCERNS BEFORE THE LABOR BOARD. 1946 – THE CALIFORNIA NURSES ASSOCIATION BECAME THE FIRST NURSES ASSOCIATION TO REPRESENT NURSES. 1934 – ANAACTIVELY CAMPAIGNED FOR THE EIGHT – HOUR /DAY.
  • 8. OBJECTIVES OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING  Resolve differences over knotty issues.  Protect the interests of workers through collective action.  Carry out negotiations voluntarily, without interference from a third party.  Arrive at an amicable agreement through a process of give and take.  To arrive at an agreement on wages and other conditions of employment.  To have peaceful co-existence for the mutual benefits and progress.  To maintain employee- employer relation bilaterally.
  • 9. • Collective: Collective bargaining is a two way group process where the employers representative and employees representatives sit together to negotiate terms of employment. • Strength: Both the parties in collective bargaining are strong and equal. • Voluntary: Both parties come to the negotiation table voluntarily in order to go in particular negotiation. It is based on discussion, mutual trust and understanding. • Formal: It is a formal process in which certain employment related issues are to be regulated at National, organization and workplace levels. • Flexible: It is a flexible and continuous process and not fixed or static. • Improvement: It is a method to improve the employer-employees relation in organization and resolve management and employees conflicts. CHARACTERISTICS
  • 10. CONTD… • Representation: Collective bargaining is between the representatives of employees and management. The management does not directly deal with employees. It carries negotiations with the representatives/executives of unions and association. • Dynamic: Collective bargaining is dynamic, that go on changing over a period and grows and expand the way of agreement, the way of implementation and way of discussion. • Continuous: Collective bargaining is continuous and begins with agreement, the implementation of agreement and further negotiations. • Bipartite Process: Because the employee and employers representatives negotiate directly face to face across the table.
  • 11. CONJUNCTIVE OR DISTRIBUTIVE BARGAINING: Conjunctive bargaining is the most common type of bargaining & involves zero-sum negotiations, in other words, one side wins and the other loses. Both parties try to maximize their respective gains. They try to settle economic issues such as wages, benefits, bonus, etc. For Example, Unions negotiate for maximum wages & the management wants to yield as little as possible – while getting things done through workers. COOPERATIVE /INTEGRATIVE BARGAINING: Integrative bargaining is similar to problem solving sessions in which both sides are trying to reach a mutually beneficial alternative, i.e. a win-win situation. Both the employer & the union try to resolve the conflict to the benefit of both parties. Both sides share information about their interests and concerns and they create a list of possible solutions to best meet everyone‟s needs. TYPES OF BARGAINING
  • 12. CONTD… PRODUCTIVITY BARGAINING: A form of collective bargaining leading to a productivity agreement in which management offers a pay raise in exchange for alterations to employee working practices designed to increase productivity. Productivity bargaining has been described as "an agreement in which advantages of one kind or another, such as higher wages or increased leisure, are given to workers in return for agreement on their part to accept changes in working practices or in methods or in organization of work which will lead to more efficient working. COMPOSITE BARGAINING: Workers believed that productivity bargaining agreements increased their workloads. Rationalization, introduction of new technology, tight productivity norms have added to this burden and made the life of a worker some what uneasy. As an answer to such problems, labor has come in favor of composite bargaining. In this method, labor bargains for wages as usual, but goes a step further demanding equity in matters relating to work norms, employment levels, manning standards and enviornmental hazards etc.
  • 13. Issues of collective bargaining 1. Wages and working conditions 2. Work norms 3. Incentive payments 4. Job security 5. Changes in technology 6. Work tools, techniques and practices 7. Staff transfers and promotions 8. Grievances 9. Disciplinary matters 10. Health and safety 11. Insurance and benefits 12. Union recognition 13. Union activities/responsibilities 14. Management rights
  • 14. PREPARATION FOR COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
  • 15. POINTS TO KEPT IN MIND BEFORE COLLECTIVE BARGAINING  Be sure to set clear objectives for every bargaining item, and be sure you understand the reason for each.  Do not hurry.  When in doubt, discuss with your associates.  Be well prepared with firm data supporting your position.  Always strive to keep some flexibility in your position.  Don't concern yourself just with what the other party says and does; find out why.  Respect the importance for face saving for the other party.  Be alert to the real intentions of the other party-not only for goals, but also for priorities.
  • 16. CONTD…  Be a good listener.  Build a reputation for being fair but firm.  Learn to control your emotions and use them as a tool.  As you make each bargaining move, be sure you know its relationship to all other moves.  Measure each move against your objectives.  Pay close attention to the wording of every clause negotiated; they are often a source of grievances.  Remember that collective bargaining is a compromise process; There is no such thing as having all the pie.  Try to understand people and their personalities.  Consider the impact of present negotiations on those in future years.
  • 17. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING MEMBERS REGISTERED NURSES PHYSICIANS OTHER PROFESSIONALS TECHNICAL EMPLOYEES NON -PROFESSIONALS
  • 18. ORGANIZATION OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING UNIT  Assemble a group of nurses who support collective bargaining.  Arrange a meeting with a representative of nurses association of state level.  Assess feasibility of an organizing campaign.  Conduct necessary review of literature to develop a plan of action.  Establish an organizing committee.  Initiate the process of obtaining authorization cards.  Schedule an informal meeting.  Ensure voluntary recognition from the employer.  Seek certification by national registration agency.  Initiate contract negotiations.
  • 19. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING PROCEDURE
  • 20. PROCESS OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
  • 21. PROCESS OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING The collective bargaining process involve five steps: Propose : It involves the initial opening statements and the possible options that exist to resolve them. Discuss : Both parties decide the rules that will guide the negotiations. Prepare: This phase involves composition of a negotiation team.
  • 22. CONTD… • Bargain: Negotiations are easy if a problem solving attitude is adopted. This stage comprises the time when „what ifs‟ and „supposals‟ are set forth and the drafting of agreements take place. • Settlement: This stage is described as consisting of effective joint implementation of the agreement through shared visions, strategic planning and negotiated change.
  • 23. OBSTACLES o Registered nurses who participate in organizing drives could be summarily fired. o Hospital could refuse to recognize and bargain with nursing organizations. o The associations spend years softening up the turf.
  • 24. ADVANTAGES •Contract to guide standards. •Participation in decision making process. •All union members and management must confirm to terms of contract without exception •Process exists to question manager‟s authority if member feels something was done unjustly. •Nurses gain control of practice. •Improve professional relationships. •Professionalism can be promoted. •Protect patients from inadequate and unsafe care. • Give economic security. • Ensure that nurses have fair pay, good benefits and safe working conditions. • Provide power. •Establish effective channels of communication with decision-makers.
  • 25. DISADVANTAGES Reduced individuality.  Other union members may outvote one‟s decisions.  Disputes are not handled with individual and management only.  Must pay union dues even if one does not support unionization.
  • 26. RECAPTULIZATION  Collective bargaining term is said to be coined by________. The word bargaining means_____________. The California nurses association became the first nurses association to represent nurses in year ______. Conjunctive bargaining involves__________. First step of collective bargaining is________________.