Types of bonding in solids


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Types of bonding in solids

  1. 1. Ionic 2. Covalent 3. Metallic 4. Hydrogen Van Der Wall’s 1. 5. Bonding Bonding Bonding Bonding Bonding
  2. 2. An ionic bonding is the Attractive Force existing between positive ion and a negative ion when they are brought into close proximity or surrounding. They are formed when atoms of different elements lose or gain their electrons in order to achieve stabilized outermost electronic configuration. Ionic Bonding in NaCl
  3. 3.     Ionic solids are rigid, unidirectional and crystalline in nature. They have high melting and boiling points. Ionic solids are good insulators of electricity in their solid state and good conductor of electricity in their molten state. Ionic solids are soluble in water and slightly soluble in organic solvents.
  4. 4. A covalent bond is formed, when two or more electrons of an atom, in its outermost energy level, are shared by other atoms. e.g.-Chlorine molecule. In this bonding a stable arrangement is achieved by sharing of electrons rather than transfer of electrons. Sometimes a covalent bond is also formed when two atoms of different non-metals share one or more pair of electrons in their outermost energy level. e.g.- Water molecule Bonding between two atoms of same element Bonding between two different nonmetals
  5. 5.     Covalent compounds are bad conductors of electricity. Covalent compounds are having low melting and boiling points. Insoluble- in water Soluble- in organic solvents like Benzene
  6. 6. It has been observed that in a metal atoms, the electrons in their outermost energy levels are loosely held by their nucleii. Thus a metal may be considered as a cluster of positive ions surrounded by a large number of free electrons, forming electron cloud. e.g.- all metals
  7. 7.     High thermal and electrical conductivity Low melting and boiling point temperature Have a bright lustre Metallic solids are malleable and ductile
  8. 8. Covalently bonded atoms often produce an Electric dipole configuration with hydrogen atom as the positive end of the dipole. If bonds arise as a result of electrostatic attraction between atoms, it is known as hydrogen bonding.
  9. 9. The hydrogen bonds are directional  Relatively strong bonding  These solids have low melting point  No valence electrons hence good insulators  Soluble in both polar and non-polar solvents  They are transparent to light e.g. – water molecule, ammonic molecules 
  10. 10. Weak and temporary bonds between molecules of the same substance are known as Van der Walls bonding. Types of Van der walls forces 1) dipole-dipole 2) dipole-induced dipole 3) dispersion
  11. 11. Crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms or molecules in a crystalline liquid or solid. A crystal structure is composed of a pattern, a set of atoms arranged in a particular way, and a lattice exhibiting longrange order and symmetry. Patterns are located upon the points of a lattice, which is an array of points repeating periodically in three dimensions. The points can be thought of as forming identical tiny boxes, called unit cells, that fill the space of the lattice. The lengths of the edges of a unit cell and the angles between them are called the lattice parameters.
  12. 12. Bond strength is the degree to which each atom joined to another in a chemical bond contributes to the valency of this other atom. As the number of bonds between two atoms increases, the bond grows shorter and stronger. Types of Bonds  Single bond  Double bond  Triple Bond Bond Energy – Amount of energy required to break one mole of bonds. Bond strength depends upon no. of bonds present in molecule. for e.g.- C=C is stronger than C-C.
  13. 13. Melting Point: The temperature at which a solid becomes liquid. If heat is applied to a solid, its temperature rises until the melting point is reached, when heat energy is then absorbed to form liquid from the solid is then absorbed to form liquid from the solid. Temperature continues to rise once the melting is complete Variation in melting point in Periodic table