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Power Electronics in Wind Turbine Systems

Manasa.K
CWB0912002, FT-2012
M. Sc. (Engg.) in Electronic System Design
Enginee...
Contents
• Introduction
• Modern Power Electronics

• Wind Energy Conversion
• Doubly Fed Induction Generator

• Operating...
Introduction
• Wind turbine technology is the most promising renewable energy technology. It
started in 1980’s with a few ...
Modern Power Electronics

The interface of Wind power converter between generator and power grid should
satisfy the requir...
Wind Energy Conversion
Wind energy conversion systems convert wind energy into electrical energy, which is
then fed into e...
Doubly Fed Induction Generator

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

6
Doubly Fed Induction Generator
• Wind turbines use a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) consisting of a
wound rotor , i...
Operating Principal of DFIG

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

8
Operating Principal of DFIG
•

Below the synchronous speed in the motoring mode and above the synchronous speed in the
gen...
Advantages of DFIG’s
• Advantages of the system include, low losses, which assures a
high overall efficiency, and an outsta...
Disadvantages of DFIG’s
• Slip rings wear and tear, maintenance
• Complex control of the entire unit
• Direct connection t...
Summary
• Wind energy conversion systems convert wind energy into electrical energy,
which is then fed into electrical gri...
References
[1] F. Blaabjerg, Z. Chen Power electronics in Wind Turbine System
Aalborg University, Institute of Energy Tech...
Thank You

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

14
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Transcript of "Power electronics in Wind Turbine Systems"

  1. 1. Power Electronics in Wind Turbine Systems Manasa.K CWB0912002, FT-2012 M. Sc. (Engg.) in Electronic System Design Engineering Module leader: Mr. R Sreekrishna M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 1
  2. 2. Contents • Introduction • Modern Power Electronics • Wind Energy Conversion • Doubly Fed Induction Generator • Operating Principal of DFIG • Advantages • Disadvantages • Conclusion M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 2
  3. 3. Introduction • Wind turbine technology is the most promising renewable energy technology. It started in 1980’s with a few tens of kW production of power per unit. And today multi-MW size wind turbines are being installed. • Wind power production in the beginning, did not have any impact on the power control system and was based on the induction generator where the pulsations in the wind was directly transferred to the grid. There was no control on active and reactive power which are the important control parameter to regulate frequency and voltage. • As the power range of the turbines increases those control parameters become more important and it is necessary to introduce power electronics as an interface between the wind turbine and the grid. The power electronics is changing the basic characteristic of the wind turbine from being an energy source to be an active power source. M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 3
  4. 4. Modern Power Electronics The interface of Wind power converter between generator and power grid should satisfy the requirements on both the sides. It has to store the active power and boost up the voltage from generator side to grid side. • Generator side: * It should control stator current and adjust the rotating speed. * Extract maximum power from turbine. • Power grid side: * It should have the ability to control the inductive/capacitive reactive power and perform fast active power response. *Frequency and voltage should be fixed for normal operation * Harmonic distortion should be maintained low. M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 4
  5. 5. Wind Energy Conversion Wind energy conversion systems convert wind energy into electrical energy, which is then fed into electrical grid. • The turbine rotor, gear box and generator are the main three components for energy conversion. • Rotor converts wind energy to mechanical energy. • Gear box is used to adapt to the rotor speed to generator speed. • Generator with the variable speed wind turbine along with electronic inverter absorbs mechanical power and convert to electrical energy. • The power converter can not only transfer the power from a wind generator, but also improve the stability and safety of the system. M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 5
  6. 6. Doubly Fed Induction Generator M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 6
  7. 7. Doubly Fed Induction Generator • Wind turbines use a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) consisting of a wound rotor , induction generator and an AC/DC/AC IGBT-based PWM converter. • The stator winding is connected directly to the grid while the rotor is fed at variable frequency through the AC/DC/AC converter. • Vr is the rotor voltage and Vgc is grid side voltage. • The AC/DC/AC converter is basically a PWM converter which uses sinusoidal PWM technique to reduce the harmonics present in the wind turbine driven DFIG system. • Crotor is rotor side converter and Cgrid is grid side converter. • To control the speed of wind turbine gear boxes or electronic control can be used M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 7
  8. 8. Operating Principal of DFIG M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 8
  9. 9. Operating Principal of DFIG • Below the synchronous speed in the motoring mode and above the synchronous speed in the generating mode, rotor-side converter operates as a rectifier and stator-side converter as an inverter and where slip power is returned to the stator. • Below the synchronous speed in the generating mode and above the synchronous speed in the motoring mode, rotor-side converter operates as an inverter and stator side converter as a rectifier, where slip power is supplied to the rotor. • For super synchronous speed operation, Pr is transmitted to DC bus capacitor and tends to rise the DC voltage. For sub-synchronous speed operation, Pr is taken out of DC bus capacitor and tends to decrease the DC voltage. • • Cgrid is used to generate or absorb the power Pgc in order to keep the DC voltage constant. In steady-state for a lossless AC/DC/AC converter Pgc is equal to Pr and the speed of the wind turbine is determined by the power Pr absorbed or generated by Crotor. • The phase-sequence of the AC voltage generated by Crotor is positive for sub synchronous speed and negative for super synchronous speed. Crotor and Cgrid have the capability for generating or absorbing reactive power and could be used to control the reactive power or the voltage at the grid terminals. • M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 9
  10. 10. Advantages of DFIG’s • Advantages of the system include, low losses, which assures a high overall efficiency, and an outstanding availability due to the compact design with a minimal number of components • Significantly reduced power rating and cost of the converter • Possible speed regulation for optimal utilization of energy (typically ±20-25%) • Sub-synchronous and Super-synchronous operation is possible M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 10
  11. 11. Disadvantages of DFIG’s • Slip rings wear and tear, maintenance • Complex control of the entire unit • Direct connection to the grid is somewhat difficult • The output voltage is dependent on the rotor speed and stator. M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 11
  12. 12. Summary • Wind energy conversion systems convert wind energy into electrical energy, which is then fed into electrical grid. • Power electronics as an interface between the wind turbine and the grid. • Power converter is used to store the active power and boost up the voltage from generator side to grid side and it also reduces harmonics. • DFIG is a AC/DC/AC IGBT-based PWM converter. • Crotor and Cgrid have the capability for generating or absorbing reactive power and could be used to control the reactive power or the voltage at the grid terminals • Advantages and disadvantages. M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 12
  13. 13. References [1] F. Blaabjerg, Z. Chen Power electronics in Wind Turbine System Aalborg University, Institute of Energy Technology Denmark. [2] Prof. K. B. Mohanty Thesis on Study of wind turbine driven DFIG using ac/dc/ac converter National Institute of Technology Rourkela. [3] E. Sheeba Percis Comparative Analysis of Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems Dr. MGR University Second International Conference on Sustainable Energy and Intelligent System July 20-22, 2011 Chennai. [4] Macro Liserre Power Converters and Controls of Renewable Energy Systems CEMD Research Group Italy. M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 13
  14. 14. Thank You M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 14
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