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- Our So.
Class –IX [old class – VIII ACDC]
For this project I would like to thank my So. Science
teachers Rita mam & Vivek Sir as they had provided
us a lot of efforts . I would also like to thank our
principal MRS. Nalini S.V. Pathak as she gave us a
golden opportunity to show our talent. I would also
like to thank my parents as they provided me with
all the necessary materials
needed for the project.
Dictionary meaning of "disaster" may be taken as: "a
sudden accident or natural event that causes great
damage or loss of life“.
The biggest problem with the
disasters is the
suddenness and swiftness with
which they arrive.
Earthquakes, industrial accidents, oil-spills, forest-fires,
terrorist activities etc. are some of the more commonly
Some types of disasters are as
Natural disasters: These are primary natural disasters
Tsunami [MY TOPIC]
Man Made : These are mostly caused due to certain
India and Natural Disasters
India is one of the most disaster prone countries in the world.
Over 65% land area vulnerable to earthquakes;
70% of land under cultivation prone to drought;
5% of land (40 million hectares) to floods;
8% of land (8,000 km coastline) to cyclones.
A Major Disaster occurs every 2-3 years;
50 million people affected annually
1 million houses damaged annually along with human, social and
During 1985-2003, the annual average damage due to natural
disasters has been estimated at 70 million USD
Source: Ministry of Agriculture, GOI: BMTPC, Ministry of Urban Development, GOI
The 2004 Indian Ocean
earthquake was an
undersea earthquake that
occurred at 00:58:53 UTC
on December 26, 2004,
with an epicentre off the
west coast of Sumatra,
Indonesia. The earthquake
was caused by subduction
and triggered a series of
along the coasts of most
landmasses bordering the
It killed more than 225,000
people in eleven countries,
and inundating coastal
communities with waves
up to 30 meters high. It
was one of the deadliest
natural disasters in history.
Indonesia, Sri Lanka,
India, and Thailand were
With a magnitude of between 9.1 and 9.3, it is the second
largest earthquake ever recorded on a seismograph. This
earthquake had the longest duration of faulting ever
observed, between 8.3 and 10 minutes. Since 1900 the
only earthquakes recorded with a greater
magnitude were the 1960 Great Chilean
Earthquake (magnitude 9.5) and the 1964 Good
Friday Earthquake in Prince William Sound (9.2).
Why most people did not get a
Scientists didn’t warn people to go away
because maybe they were not sure about
the earthquake and then the people
discuss badly their names and it could
cause to them, an unemployment.
The countries would have lack of
Because of other country’ s benefits.
The Tsunami’s Toll
Sri Lanka: 30,000
Damage: >$7 billion
Indonesia: $4.4 billion
India: $1.5 billion
Sri Lanka: $900 million
Aid Donations: >$6.5 billion
Government pledges: $5.3 billion
Private donors: $1–2 billion
WHAT IS A TSUNAMI…?
A tsunami is a wave train, or series of waves, generated in a body of water by
an impulsive disturbance that vertically displaces the water column.
Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, explosions, and even the impact of
cosmic bodies, such as meteorites, can generate tsunamis.
The following are natural signs of tsunami:
Feel the earth shake. A large undersea earthquake may be felt prior to
tsunami by an ongoing shaking of the ground in coastal regions. However, you
may not feel an earthquake if the source is far away.
See the ocean drop. As tsunami approach the shoreline, the sea level may, but
not always, recede/drop dramatically before returning as a fast-moving wall of
Hear an unusual roaring sound. A roaring sound may precede the arrival of
Climb to higher ground as soon as warning of a
tsunami is released
Stay away from the beach - if you can see the
wave, you are too close to escape it.
Do not assume that one wave means the danger
is over - the next wave may be larger than the
Stay out of the area and do not return until
authorities say it is safe to do so
Help injured or trapped persons and give first aid
Stay out of damaged buildings.
Shovel mud while it is still moist to give walls and
floors an opportunity to dry.
Enter home with caution, checking for electrical
shorts and live wires
It Can’t Happen to Us.
The Nature’s forces are so Deadly
the Victims will Die anyway.
There is Nothing We Can Do.
Response measures are usually those which are taken
immediately prior to and following disaster impact.
Typical measures include :
Implementation of plans
Activation of the counter-disaster system
Search and Rescue
Provision of emergency food, shelter, medical assistance etc.
Survey and assessment
Recovery is the process by which communities and the
nation are assisted in returning to their proper level of
functioning following a disaster.
Three main categories of activity are normally regarded as
coming within the recovery segment:
PREVENTION & MITIGATION
Prevention : Action within this segment is designed to impede
the occurrence of a disaster event and/or prevent such an
occurrence having harmful effects on communities or key
Mitigation : Action within this segment usually takes the form of
specific programs intended to reduce the effects of disaster on a
nation or community. For instance, some countries regard the
development and application of building codes (which can reduce
damage and loss in the event of earthquakes and cyclones) as
being in the category of mitigation.
Preparedness should be in the form of money,
manpower and materials
Evaluation from past experiences about risk
Location of disaster prone areas
Organization of communication, information and
Ensuring co-ordination and response mechanisms
Development of public education programme
Co-ordination with media
National & international relations
Keeping stock of foods, drug and other essential
• The Tsunami caused by the Sumatra EQ killed
>300,000 people because there was no
Source region for Sumatra Tsunami extends
from Banda Aceh through the Nicobar Islands.
We need a method for estimating size of great
earthquakes within a time frame useful to the
Tsunami Warning System.
What can be done to reduce the loss of life and
damage if another tsunami occurs in the same area?
Inform to all people the fact.
Go somewhere safer.
Go to a high place to protect yourself from the
Example: on the roof of your house, or to a high