Add more people? Buy more time? Offshore? Do Agile? Buy the latest and greatest tool? New ‘silver bullet’? Project Management has some answers However, no moneyback guarantees 2 4/17/11
A Project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result Temporary doesn’t mean short duration Temporary doesn’t apply to product, service or result created by a project Every project creates a unique product, service or result, though repetitive elements may be present in some project deliverables A project can involve single person, an organizational unit, or multiple such units 3 4/17/11
Developing a new product or service Effecting a change in the structure, staffing, or style of an organization Developing or acquiring a new or modified information system Constructing a building or infrastructure Implement a new business procedure Etc.
An ongoing work effort is generally a repetitive process because it follows an organization’s existing procedures. In contrast, because of the unique nature of projects, there may be uncertainties about the products, services, or results that the project creates. Project tasks can be new to a project team, which necessitates more dedicated planning than other routine work. In addition, projects are undertaken at all organizational levels. A project can involve a single person, a single organizational unit, or multiple organizational units.
Project OperationsDefinition Projects typically create Perform the ongoing execution of new product, service or activities that produce the same result for an product or provide the repetitive organization serviceTenure Temporary / one-time Permanent / ongoingResult / Unique RepetitiveoutputNature of Typically involve Basically the same set of taskstasks creating a new result according to standards and could entail institutionalized in a project lifecycle uncertaintiesManagement Project Management Business Process Management or Operations ManagementTermination Terminates when Does not terminate when its current project’s objectives are objectives are met but instead follow met new directions to support the organization’s strategic plans 6 4/17/11
Loksabha Elections 2009 Bata wants to enter new market for Rs. 5,000+ shoes Times of India for 21-May-2010 Organizing IPL3 Prepare and declare Infosys quarterly results Planning family weekend outing Running an Air Traffic Control (ATC) tower Catching Veerapan task force Bangalore Metro Submit a monthly finance report Production of Maruthi 800 cars Hiring for next project Tata Nano Tonight’s home dinner File your annual taxes
Project Management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements. Managing a project typically includes Identifying requirements Addressing various needs, concerns and expectation of stakeholders Balancing the competing project constraints like o Scope, o Quality, o Schedule, o Budget, o Resources and o Risk 8 4/17/11
A Program is defined as a group of projects related through the common outcome or collective capability. If the relationship between projects is only that of a shared client, seller, technology or resource, the effort should be managed as a portfolio of projects rather than a program Programsmay include elements of related work outside the scope of the discrete projects in the program 9 4/17/11
Program Management is centralized coordinated management of a program to achieve program’s strategic objectives and benefits that are not available from managing the sub-projects individually Program Management focuses on the project interdependencies and helps to determine the optimal approach for managing them. Action related to these interdependencies may include: Resolve resource constraints and/or conflicts that affect multiple projects within the system Align organizational/strategic direction that affects project and program goals and objectives Resolve issues and change management within a shared governance structure
A Portfolio refers to a collection of projects and programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives. The projects and programs of the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related. 11 4/17/11
Portfolio Management refers to the centralized management of one or more portfolios, which includes identifying, prioritizing, authorizing, managing, and controlling projects, programs, and other related work, to achieve specific strategic business objectives. It focuses on ensuring that projects and programs are reviewed to prioritize resource allocation, and that the management of the portfolio is consistent with and aligned to organizational strategies.
Projects Programs PortfoliosScope Projects have defined objectives. Programs have a larger scope and Portfolios have a business scope Scope is progressively provide more significant benefits that changes with strategic elaborated throughout the goals of the organization project lifecycleChange Project managers expect change Program manager must expect Portfolio managers continually and implement processes to change from both inside and outside monitor changes in the broad keep change managed and the program and be prepared to environment controlled manage itPlanning Project managers progressively Program managers develop overall Portfolio managers create and elaborate high-level information program plan and create high-level maintain necessary processes into detailed plans throughout plans to guide detailed planning at and communication relative to the project life cycle the component level the aggregate portfolioManagement Project managers manage the Program managers manage the Portfolio managers may project team to meet the project program staff and the project manage or coordinate portfolio objectives managers; they provide vision and management staff overall leadershipSuccess Success is measured by product Success is measured by the degree to Success is measured in terms of and project quality, timeliness, which the program satisfies the needs aggregate performance of budget compliance, and degree and benefits for which it was portfolio components of customer satisfaction undertakenMonitoring Project managers monitor and Program managers monitor the Portfolio managers monitor control the work of producing progress of program components to aggregate performance and the products, services or results ensure the overall goals, schedules, value indicators that the project was undertaken budget, and benefits of the program to product will be met 14 4/17/11
A PMO is an organizational body assigned various responsibilities related to the centralized and coordinated management of those projects under its domain Responsibilities can range from providing project management support to actually being responsible for the direct management of project Project supported or administered by PMO may not be related, other than being managed together 15 4/17/11
Primary functions: Managing shared resources across all projects administered by PMO Identify and develop PM methodology, best practices and standards Coaching, mentoring, training and oversight Monitor compliance with PM standard policies, etc. Develop and manage project policies, etc. Coordinate communication across projects
PMs and PMOs pursue different objectives and, as such, are driven by different requirements. All of these efforts, however, are aligned with the strategic needs of the organization. Differences: PM focuses on the specified project objectives, while the PMO manages major program scope changes which may be seen as potential opportunities to better achieve business objectives PM controls the assigned project resources to best meet project objectives while the PMO optimizes the use of shared organizational resources across all projects PM manages the constraints (scope, schedule, cost, and quality, etc.) of the individual projects while the PMO manages the methodologies, standards, overall risk/ productivity, and independencies among projects at the enterprise level 17 4/17/11
As a discipline, Project Management developed from several fields of application including construction, engineering, and defense activity. Two forefathers of project management are Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques, who is famous for his use of the Gantt chart as a project management tool; and Henri Fayol for his creation of the 5 management functions which form the foundation of the body of knowledge associated with project and program management. Both Gantt and Fayol were students of Frederick Winslow Taylors theories of scientific management. His work is the forerunner to modern project management tools including work breakdown structure (WBS) and 4/17/11 18 resource allocation.
The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern Project Management era. Project management became recognized as a distinct discipline arising from the management discipline. In the United States, prior to the 1950s, projects were managed on an ad hoc basis using mostly Gantt Charts, and informal techniques and tools. At that time, two mathematical project-scheduling models were developed. The "Critical Path Method" (CPM) was developed as a joint venture between DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation for managing plant maintenance projects. And the " Program Evaluation and Review Technique" or PERT, was developed by Booz-Allen & Hamilton as part of the United States Navys (in conjunction with the Lockheed Corporation) Polaris missile submarine program; These mathematical techniques quickly spread into many private enterprises.
At the same time, as project-scheduling models were being developed, technology for project cost estimating, cost management, and engineering economics was evolving, with pioneering work by Hans Lang and others. In 1956, the American Association of Cost Engineers (now AACE International; the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering) was formed by early practitioners of project management and the associated specialties of planning and scheduling, cost estimating, and cost/schedule control (project control). AACE continued its pioneering work and in 2006 released the first integrated process for portfolio, program and project management ( Total Cost Management Framework). 20 4/17/11
The International Project Management Association (IPMA) was founded in Europe in 1967, as a federation of several national project management associations. IPMA maintains its federal structure today and now includes member associations on every continent except Antarctica. IPMA offers a Four Level Certification program based on the IPMA Competence Baseline (ICB). The ICB covers technical competences, contextual competences, and behavioral competences. In 1969, the Project Management Institute (PMI) was formed in the USA. PMI publishes A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), which describes project management practices that are common to "most projects, most of the time."
PRINCE2 is a structured method for effective project management. It is a "de facto" standard used extensively within UK government and within both UK and international industry. It is a public domain method offering best practice guidance on project management. PRINCE2 adopts three principles of good project management A project is a finite process, with a start date and an end date Projects must be controlled to be successful All parties must be clear about o Why the project is needed o What is to be achieved o How the outcome will be achieved o What their responsibilities are
“A management environment that is created for the purpose of delivering one or more business products according to a specified Business Case” “A temporary organisation that is needed to produce a unique and pre-determined outcome or result at a pre- specified time using predetermined resources” A project has a number of characteristics: Finite and defined lifespan - the project is covered by a plan showing the date when it is expected to start and the date when it is expected to finish; Defined and measurable business products - a set of pre-defined products which must be delivered to the Customer; Corresponding set of activities - A set of planned activities which will deliver the products, including management and technical activities; Defined amount of resources - an agreed amount of resource which can be used to develop the products; Organization structure - a defined hierarchy and reporting structure set up specifically for the project.