Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

The future of healthcare in Africa

3,302
views

Published on

Healthcare demands in Africa are changing. Ensuring access to clean water and sanitation, battling ongoing communicable diseases and stemming the tide of preventable deaths still dominate the …

Healthcare demands in Africa are changing. Ensuring access to clean water and sanitation, battling ongoing communicable diseases and stemming the tide of preventable deaths still dominate the healthcare agenda in many countries. However, the incidence of chronic disease is rising fast, creating a new matrix of challenges for Africa’s healthcare workers, policy makers and donors.

Africa’s healthcare systems are at a turning point. The reforms that governments undertake over the next decade will be crucial to cutting mortality rates and improving health outcomes in the continent. The Economist Intelligence Unit has undertaken this research to focus on how African healthcare systems might develop between now and 2022. It looks at both current challenges and promising reforms. The five scenarios that have emerged from this research reflect these trends, and are intended to show the possible consequences of decisions being taken by healthcare’s stakeholders today.

To research this report, the Economist Intelligence Unit surveyed the literature and data available on Africa’s current healthcare systems. We also conducted 34 in-depth interviews with leading experts in the different professional roles that make up the healthcare sector: academics, clinicians, healthcare providers, policymakers, medical suppliers, and think tanks. The interviews were carried out by Andrea Chipman and Richard Nield. Andrea Chipman was the author of the report and Stephanie Studer and Aviva Freudmann were the editors.

Published in: Business, Health & Medicine

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,302
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
58
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. The future of healthcare in AfricaA report from the Economist Intelligence Unitsponsored by Janssen
  • 2. The future of healthcare in Africa Contents Foreword 2 About the research 3 Executive summary 4 Part I - Drivers of the current crisis 6 Box – Ghana: Tackling maternal mortality10 Box – Tunisia: Starting ahead of the game16 Part II - Future trends17 Box – Ethiopia: Creating a primary-care system from scratch19 Box – South Africa: Developing a national health insurance plan 24 Part III - Five scenarios for 2022 25 Conclusion 30 Appendices 31 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 3. The future of healthcare in Africa Foreword Healthcare demands in Africa are changing. Ensuring access to clean water and sanitation, battling ongoing communicable diseases and stemming the tide of preventable deaths still dominate the healthcare agenda in many countries. However, the incidence of chronic disease is rising fast, creating a new matrix of challenges for Africa’s healthcare workers, policy makers and donors. A growing urban middle class is willing to pay for better treatment. This has opened the door to the private sector, which is starting to play a new role, often working in partnership with donors and governments to provide better healthcare facilities and increased access to medicine at an affordable price. For the vast majority of Africans still unable to pay for health provision, new models of care are being designed, as governments begin to acknowledge the importance of preventive methods over curative action. This, in turn, is empowering communities to make their own healthcare decisions. At the same time, some countries are experimenting with different forms of universal health provision. Africa’s healthcare systems are at a turning point. The reforms that governments undertake over the next decade will be crucial to cutting mortality rates and improving health outcomes in the continent. The Economist Intelligence Unit has undertaken this research to focus on how African healthcare systems might develop between now and 2022. It looks at both current challenges and promising reforms. The five scenarios that have emerged from this research reflect these trends, and are intended to show the possible consequences of decisions being taken by healthcare’s stakeholders today. © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 4. The future of healthcare in Africa About the research To research this report, the Economist Intelligence Unit surveyed the literature and data available on Africa’s current healthcare systems. We also conducted 34 in-depth interviews with leading experts in the different professional roles that make up the healthcare sector: academics, clinicians, healthcare providers, policymakers, medical suppliers, and think tanks. The data and interview comments were then analysed to define trends likely to have an impact on the direction of healthcare over the next decade. Finally, bearing in mind these trends, we developed five extreme scenarios, each a distillation of a possible outcome of the trends identified. The intention is to use these scenarios as a policy-neutral set of platforms upon which some degree of agreement can be reached about the future direction of African healthcare. A list of data sources consulted for this research is in Appendix I. A list of participants in the in-depth interview programme is in Appendix II. The Economist Intelligence Unit bears sole responsibility for the content of this report. The findings and views do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. The interviews were carried out by Andrea Chipman and Richard Nield. Andrea Chipman was the author of the report and Stephanie Studer and Aviva Freudmann were the editors. © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 5. The future of healthcare in Africa Executive summary Like many other regions, Africa must reassess The financing system is as deficient as the its healthcare systems to ensure that they are healthcare-delivery system that it supports. viable over the next decade. Unlike other regions, Public spending on health is insufficient, and however, Africa must carry out this restructuring international donor funding is looking shakier while grappling with a uniquely broad range of in the current global economic climate. In the healthcare, political and economic challenges. absence of public health coverage, the poorest Africans have little or no access to care. What The continent, already home to some of the is more, they frequently also lack access to the world’s most impoverished populations, is fundamental prerequisites of health: clean water, confronting multiple epidemiological crises sanitation and adequate nutrition. simultaneously. High levels of communicable and parasitic disease are being matched by Despite these major challenges, reforms of the growing rates of chronic conditions. Although the continent’s healthcare systems are possible. communicable diseases—malaria, tuberculosis, Indeed, some evidence of reform is already and above all HIV/AIDS—are the best known, it is present. A number of countries are trying to the chronic conditions such as obesity and heart establish or widen social insurance programmes disease that are looming as the greater threat. to give medical cover to more of their citizens. These are expected to overtake communicable Ethiopia, for one, has demonstrated the power diseases as Africa’s biggest health challenge of strong political will to create a primary-care by 2030. service virtually from scratch. Yet the sheer diversity of the continent means that overall Additionally, continued high rates of maternal progress has been patchy at best. and child mortality and rising rates of injuries linked to violence, particularly in urban Considering the massive challenges facing areas, are weighing down a system that is Africa’s healthcare systems, several major already inadequate to the challenges facing it. reforms will be needed continent-wide to ensure Healthcare delivery infrastructure is insufficient; their viability in the long term: skilled healthcare workers and crucial medicines are in short supply; and poor procurement and l shifting the focus of healthcare delivery distribution systems are leading to unequal from curing to preventive care and keeping access to treatment. people healthy; © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 6. The future of healthcare in Africa l giving local communities more control over healthcare resources; l improving access to healthcare via mobile technologies; l tightening controls over medicines, medical devices, and improving their distribution; l reducing reliance on international aid organisations to foster development of more dependable local supplies; and l extending universal health insurance coverage to the poorest Africans. Implementation of these reforms could strongly influence the future shape of healthcare in Africa. The Economist Intelligence Unit has identified the following five extreme scenarios to show how the system might develop over the next decade: l health systems shift to focus on preventive rather than curative care; l governments transfer healthcare decision- making to the local level; l telemedicine and related mobile-phone technology becomes the dominant means of delivering healthcare advice and treatment; l universal coverage becomes a reality, giving all Africans access to a basic package of benefits; l continued global instability forces many international donors to pull out of Africa or drastically cut support levels, leaving governments to fill the gaps. © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 7. The future of healthcare in Africa 1 Drivers of the current crisis For decades, Africa has seen the life expectancy Many African countries, however, are still of its populations stunted by communicable unable to provide basic sanitation, clean and parasitical diseases that have mostly been water and adequate nutrition to all of their stamped out in the developed world. Now, the citizens, let alone deal with the onset of continent also faces increasing rates of the non- these latest killers. These countries, beset communicable lifestyle diseases that have become by poor infrastructure, a shortage of skilled the biggest killers in industrialised countries. professionals and geographic and socio- Leading causes of burden of diseases in the African Region, 2004 (% of total DALYs*) 14 14 12 12 12.4 10 11.2 10 8 8 8.6 8.2 6 6 4 4 3.6 3.6 2 3.0 2.9 2 1.9 1.9 0 0 HIV/AIDS Lower Diarrhoeal Malaria Neonatal Birth Prematurity Tuberculosis Road Protein- respiratory diseases infections asphyxia and low traffic energy infections and other and birth birth rate accidents malnutrition trauma * The disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) provides a consistent and comparative description of the burden of diseases and injuries needed to assess the comparative importance of diseases and injuries in causing premature death, loss of health and disability in different populations. The DALY extends the concept of potential years of life lost due to premature death to include equivalent years of ‘healthy’ life lost by virtue of being in states of poor health or disability. One DALY can be thought of as one lost year of ‘healthy’ life, and the burden of disease can be thought of as a measurement of the gap between current health status and an ideal situation where everyone lives into old age, free of disease and disability. Source: Health Situation Analysis in the African Region, Atlas of Health Statistics 2011, World Health Organization. © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 8. The future of healthcare in Africa economic inequalities, face an uphill struggle Treatable diseases continue to blight in delivering adequate healthcare. With outlays the future on treatment for the major communicable The continent’s continuing struggle with diseases likely to occupy a significant chunk communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS and of national health budgets for the foreseeable tuberculosis (TB), parasitic diseases and poor future, better preventive care will be crucial to primary and obstetric care has been a major keep spending in check—and to improve health factor in stalling the development and the outcomes in the next decade. extension of healthcare services in African countries at even the most basic level. Africa’s healthcare challenges are heightened by the sheer diversity of the continent. Undoubtedly, a unified global effort by Countries range from the resource-rich to governments and multilateral organisations has the impoverished, from those with dynamic been hugely successful in recent years at bringing economies to those where conflict zones still down mortality rates linked to these biggest simmer; they encompass large cities, remote killers. Deaths linked to malaria have fallen by villages and nomadic lands. Sharp discrepancies 33% since 2000.1 The adoption of antiretroviral in the prevalence of illness and access to medication as the main treatment protocol for treatment exist, as well as differences in data HIV/AIDS has transformed HIV from a terminal collection, which complicates comparisons for illness into a manageable chronic condition in policy-making purposes. For example, “In some a number of African countries. Child mortality states, midwives’ salaries might be included in on the continent has dropped by 30% since the healthcare budget, while in others it might 1990, largely thanks to routine immunisation not,” says Anshu Banerjee, the World Health programmes.2 Organization (WHO) representative in Sudan. The results of these policies remain, however, Moreover, a number of social and demographic uneven. In 2000, world leaders drafting the UN transitions taking place simultaneously on the Millennium Declaration adopted three health continent are exacerbating the problem. Unni goals, which signatory countries were expected Karunakara, international president of Médecins to reach by 2015. These included reducing child Sans Frontières, notes that epidemiological mortality, improving maternal health, and and demographic shifts are coinciding with combating HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and economic and migratory transitions, which other diseases. make tracking and treating diseases more difficult. “Countries are no longer a useful unit Some African countries have made remarkable to define the population from a health point of strides in these areas, including Ghana, which view,” he adds. “In India, there are populations is on track to halve maternal mortality rates in 1 World Malaria Report 2011, World Health Organization, with health profiles similar to those in Europe or just a decade (See box Ghana: Tackling maternal Geneva. the US, and others whose health is the same or mortality). Yet, in a 2010 report, the WHO noted worse than populations in the poorest parts of that overall progress towards meeting these 2 “Levels and Trends in Child Mortality”, Report 2011, UN Africa. We’re now seeing that in Africa too.” Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) had been Inter-agency Group for Child less than impressive. Just six countries were Mortality Estimation. Factor in the perilous state of the global deemed on track to reduce under-five mortality economy and, in particular, the foreign aid by two-thirds during the time specified, with 16 3 Towards Reaching the and multilateral budgets on which African having made no progress; only 13 countries had Health-Related Millennium Development Goals, World healthcare systems are heavily dependent, and maternal mortality rates of fewer than 550 deaths Health Organization, 2010, the magnitude of the challenge becomes all the per 100,000 live births, while 31 countries had pp 19-20. more apparent. rates of 550 deaths or higher. 3 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 9. The future of healthcare in Africa Trend in maternal mortality ratio in the WHO African Region, 1990-2008 (per 100,000 live births) 1,000 1,000 900 900 850 830 800 780 800 700 690 700 620 600 600 500 500 400 400 300 300 200 213 200 100 2015 100 MDG target 0 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2008 2010 2015 Source: Health Situation Analysis in the African Region, Atlas of Health Statistics 2011, World Health Organization. Although Africa bears 66% of the global burden of needing active antiretroviral therapy is likely to HIV/AIDS, according to the WHO,4 just one-third soar to 30m by the middle of the next decade, up of the population with advanced HIV infection from less than 7.5m today. in Africa had access to antiretroviral medicines in 2007.5 “It’s pretty unlikely that an effective Improvements in access to safe drinking water and HIV vaccine will be in place [within the decade]” sanitation have also stalled in Africa, making it says Sneh Khemka, medical director for BUPA difficult to combat stubbornly high levels of water- International, adding that the number of people borne illnesses.6 As a result, parasitic diseases HIV/AIDS mortality rate in WHO Regions, 2007 (deaths per 100,000 population) 4 Strategic Orientations for 180 180 WHO Action in the African 160 174 160 Region 2005-2009, World 140 140 Health Organization, Africa. 120 120 5 “Towards Reaching the Health-Related Millennium 100 100 Development Goals: 80 80 Progress Report and the Way 60 60 Forward”, Report of the Regional Director for Africa, 40 40 World Health Organization, 20 20 2010, p 23. 13 12 11 5 5 0 0 6 Towards Reaching the African South-East Americas European Eastern Western Pacific Health-Related Millennium Region Asia Region Region Region Mediterranean Region Development Goals, charts Region pp 26-27. Source: Health Situation Analysis in the African Region, Atlas of Health Statistics 2011, World Health Organization. © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 10. The future of healthcare in Africa such as guinea worm and schistosomiasis continue healthcare has traditionally been more extensive to wreak havoc in many areas of Sub-Saharan than elsewhere on the continent. Yet Morocco Africa. The continent also bears 60% of the global continues to struggle with high rates of TB, with burden of malaria, for which insecticide-treated 25,000 new cases a year despite a vaccination net use is about 3.5% for adults and 1.8% for rate of 95% at birth. under-fives.7 While the announcement in October of promising results in clinical trials of a new These conditions are both a result of, and a malaria vaccine rekindles hope for a new weapon contributor to, weak and fragmented health against the disease as early as 2015, questions systems throughout Africa. The WHO notes that remain over the vaccine’s affordability. the combined impact of these factors put the continent’s average life expectancy at birth North Africa, which is much less affected by at 53 years in 2008, up only slightly from 51 communicable diseases, has generally been years in 1990.8 the bright spot in the picture. Because of both cultural and historical reasons, access to basic Life expectancy at birth in WHO Regions, 2008 and 1990 (years) 2008 1990 African 53 Region 51 South-East 65 Asia Region 58 Eastern 65 Mediterranean 61 Region European 75 Region 72 Western 75 Pacific Region 69 Americas 76 Region 71 68 Global 64 Source: Health Situation Analysis in the African Region, Atlas of Health Statistics 2011, World Health Organization. 7 Ibid. 8 Health Situation Analysis in the African Region, Atlas of Health Statistics, 2011, World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 11. The future of healthcare in Africa Ghana: Tackling maternal mortality Most countries in Africa have long struggled dropped between 2005 and 2007—from 54% 9 Global Health Observator with high rates of maternal mortality. In recent to 35%—following a steady improvement in Data Repository, World years the issue has taken on international the figure during the decade between 1993 Health Organization, www. prominence, attracting a number of high- and 2003. Some experts speculate that this who.int profile celebrity campaigners. Ghana, which decline could be related to underfunding of the had an estimated maternal mortality rate exemption policy and a strike by health workers 10 S. Witter, Sam Adjei, of over 500 deaths per 100,000 live births a in 2007.12 Margaret Armar-Klemesu decade ago,9 has been at the forefront of this and Wendy Graham, battle on a national level. Still, an evaluation of the delivery-fee “Providing free maternal exemption by the Initiative for Maternal health care: ten lessons from In 2004 Ghana introduced a national policy to Mortality Programme Assessment (IMMPACT) an evaluation of the national exempt women from paying for delivery care found that the policy had increased the use delivery exemption policy in public, mission and private health facilities, of obstetric facilities and achieved some in Ghana,” Global Health with payments initially delivered through local reductions in inequality of access to care Action, Vol. 2, 2009. governments and later through the health between different income groups. system. The exemption was funded from a debt Figures from the World 11 relief fund under the Highly Indebted Poor Ghana’s experiment with the delivery-fee Health Organization, 2008. Countries (HIPC) initiative. This was phased exemption provides a number of lessons out gradually and ultimately taken over by the to countries looking to improve maternity 12 “Providing free maternal national health insurance scheme in 2008.10 care, including the importance of strong health care: ten lessons from policy management or “ownership” within an evaluation of the national The exemption from delivery-care fees the relevant ministry (which was lacking in delivery exemption policy contributed to a drop in the maternal mortality Ghana); tailoring exemptions to address the in Ghana”, Global Health rate from an estimated 500 deaths per main household cost barriers, such as travel Action, p 3. 100,000 live births in 2000 to an estimated to hospital facilities; and reimbursing medical 350 per 100,000 in 2008. Despite this clear facilities for their costs.13 13 Ibid. achievement, however, it remains doubtful whether Ghana will meet its Millennium A number of African countries are already 14 “Mixed Blessings: Development Goal of 185 maternal deaths per following suit. Burundi introduced free services Burundi’s free birth 100,000 live births by 2015.11 for pregnant women in 2006, although health delivery and medical care facilities have often struggled to cope with the for under-five children”, One factor limiting the impact of the delivery- influx of patients amid insufficient funding.14 Unicef Humanitarian Action fee exemption may be the stubbornly high In the same year, Burkina Faso introduced an Report, 2007. number of Ghanaian women who continue to 80% subsidy policy for deliveries;15 and Kenya give birth without a trained birth attendant already provides free antenatal care.16 present. Indeed, the proportion of deliveries Providing free maternal 15 attended by skilled health personnel actually health care: ten lessons from an evaluation of the national delivery exemption policy in Ghana. Lifestyle diseases threaten to double mortality rates in 2006.17 Tuberculosis mortality the burden rates on the continent have fallen by more than 16 R Ochako, J-C. Fotso, L one-third since 1990.18 Although many hope that The work of donor groups, including the Global Ikamari and A Khasakhala, Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria this will help to shift the focus to chronic disease “Utilization of maternal health services among young and the Gates Foundation, on the major management, others are less optimistic. For women in Kenya: Insights communicable diseases has been crucial in them, the concentration of substantial amounts from the Kenya Demographic cutting mortality rates for specific illnesses. In of donor funding on individual diseases has made and Health Survey, 2003”, Sub-Saharan Africa, AIDS-related deaths fell by it more difficult to address broader health needs BMC Pregnancy and and set appropriate strategies for the future. 30% between 2004 and 2010, despite a peak in Childbirth, January 10th 2011.10 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 12. The future of healthcare in Africa Indeed, increased urbanisation in many African that is focused on promoting healthy lifestyles countries, along with growing incomes and and changing behaviour,” says Stefano changing lifestyles, have led to a rise in the Lazzari, Tunisia’s World Health Organization rate of chronic conditions such as diabetes, representative. Kara Hanson, a health economist hypertension, obesity, cancer and respiratory at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical diseases. These threaten to put considerable Medicine, explains that “the interventions to further strain on already overstretched reduce non-communicable diseases are very healthcare systems. The WHO estimates that different,” adding that primary care will need chronic diseases will overtake communicable to widen its traditional focus on women and diseases as the most common cause of death children to meet the needs of men as well. in Africa by 2030.19 The organisation has also 17 “Global HIV/AIDS predicted that a major increase in the number of One major problem is that much of the existing Response: Epidemic Update deaths in Africa will come from cardiovascular chronic disease burden has not yet been and Health Sector Progress Toward Universal Access; and respiratory diseases, such as asthma and identified. Dr Khemka notes that probably 85% Progress Report 2011”, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), of diabetes cases in Sub-Saharan Africa go UNAIDS/UNICEF/World both of which are related to fuel-burning for undiagnosed. Currently, just 12.1m diabetes Health Organization, patients have been recorded, a number that is cooking and smoking.20 December 2011, pp 5-26, expected almost to double to 23.9m adult cases and Progress on Global In North Africa, lifestyle diseases are already by 2030. “In real terms, that represents a greater Access to HIV Antiretroviral Therapy, World Health more prominent given comparably wealthier number of people having diabetes than currently Organization/UNAIDS, populations and the eradication of many have HIV,” he says. March 2006. communicable diseases. With affordable tobacco, higher rates of smoking and urban This lack of preparedness is compounded by 18 WHO Report 2010: Global pollution are leading to an increase in lung a lack of data. The Harvard School of Public Tuberculosis Control, World cancer, according to Sherif Omar, professor Health’s Partnership for Cohort Research and Health Organization, of surgical oncology and former head of the Training (PaCT) programme, which was launched Geneva, Switzerland, 2010, in 2008, aims to conduct a cohort study in p 34. National Cancer Institute at Cairo University. four African countries—Uganda, Nigeria, Most worryingly, the interplay of these new Tanzania and South Africa—following 500,000 19 WHO African Region “lifestyle conditions” with Africa’s most participants over a ten-year period. According Ministerial Consultation on Noncommunicable Diseases, debilitating communicable conditions has to Shona Dalal, an investigator with the Brazzaville, Republic of created an entirely new double-disease programme, one of the main goals is to quantify Congo, April 4th-6th 2011, burden, which most healthcare workers have better, and to understand the causes of, the p 6. current chronic disease burden on the continent not seen before, and which current healthcare infrastructure is ill-prepared to manage. with the ultimate goal of informing disease 20 WHO African Region prevention. Ministerial Consultation on Moreover, there is growing evidence that Noncommunicable Diseases, communicable diseases and chronic conditions p 10. often exacerbate each other. For example, Resources under strain patients with diabetes are three times as likely African countries have traditionally had fewer 21 “Growing Pains”, The to contract tuberculosis; Burkitt’s lymphoma healthcare workers per head than anywhere else Economist, September 24th is linked to malaria; and HIV patients on in the world.22 Low pay and poor living conditions 2011. antiretroviral treatment are at a higher risk of contribute to a continuous brain-drain of health developing diabetes and cancer.21 professionals to the developed world and make 22 Health Situation Analysis in the African Region, Atlas it difficult to recruit and retain skilled staff, of Health Statistics, 2011, “It’s very difficult to go from a health service particularly in more remote regions where the World Health Organization, focused on treating diarrheal disease, TB and need is often greatest. This exacerbates health pp 38-40. providing vaccinations for children to one inequalities within nations and makes it more11 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 13. The future of healthcare in Africa Nursing and midwifery personnel-to-population in WHO Regions, 2000-09 (per 10,000 population) 80 80 70 70 60 68 60 50 55 50 40 40 30 30 20 28 20 21 10 10 14 11 11 0 0 European Americas Global Western Pacific Eastern South-East African Region Region Region Mediterranean Asia Region Region Region Source: Health Situation Analysis in the African Region, Atlas of Health Statistics 2011, World Health Organization. difficult to develop comprehensive primary a convergence of patients from neighbouring care systems. Chad, where there is no such scheme. In Algeria, the human-resource challenge comes Additionally, distribution channels for medical from deteriorating professional qualifications, equipment and pharmaceutical products remain according to an Algerian analyst who claims fragmented, and shortages of medicines and standards have slipped over the past 20 years. supplies are common in many countries. One “You hear increasingly of doctors making important consequence of these logistical issues mistakes because they are badly qualified,” is the growing problem of counterfeit medicines he says. and medical devices. Jacqueline Chimhanzi, the Africa lead for Deloitte Consulting South Africa, It is not surprising, therefore, that many notes that in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, sub- African countries suffer from the poaching of standard medicines can range from an estimated their specialists by neighbours, as they rely 20% in Ghana to 45% in Nigeria, and up to a high on a dwindling pool of experienced workers. of 66% in Guinea.23 Medical tourism, aided by porous borders, is also putting strains on overburdened healthcare Yet continued affordability of life-saving systems. In Tunisia, Libyans seeking treatment medicines is the dominant concern for most. in private clinics make up nearly 70% of patients With a few notable exceptions, such as South in some hospitals. Countries bordering with Africa’s Aspen, a manufacturer and supplier of conflict regions also suffer from transient and branded and generic medicines, there is little acute influxes of patients. During the fighting domestic pharmaceutical production on the in Libya last year, more than 300,000 medical continent, leaving many countries dependent 23 Deloitte estimates on refugees crossed the border into Tunisia for on imports from Indian and Chinese generics the basis of surveys that safety, doubling the number of daily patients companies. “The challenging thing is that measure deviation from in some medical centres. Similarly, vaccination the drugs that are available locally are the quality standards. programmes in the Darfur region of Sudan report simple drugs, such as painkillers. The active12 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 14. The future of healthcare in Africa pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) [for newer, Given shortages of vital medicines such as insulin more specialist drugs] aren’t available,” in some parts of Africa, most agree that the observes Emmanuel Mujuru, acting chairman continent will almost certainly need to develop of the Southern African Generic Medicines its own manufacturing capability for essential Association. drugs and vaccines. One interviewee, however, raised the question of financial viability given Meanwhile, pressure from the EU and world the huge production plants in the high-growth trade bodies for the generics industry to adhere economies of Brazil, India and China. Other to stricter intellectual property rights are obstacles include a lack of pharmacy degree contributing to a more immediate potential programmes in many countries and a critical crisis. African countries are due to implement shortage of product development capabilities. the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)—an agreement Equally problematic is the lack of a stable establishing minimum standards for intellectual pharmaceutical market, for which Africa’s property and administered by the World Trade reliance on donor funding could be partly Organization—by 2016. Some non-governmental responsible, Mr Mujuru says. “Donations in some organisations assert that this would make African countries have had a negative effect, Africa less attractive to generics companies shutting out the local industry,” he explains, by strengthening the intellectual property noting protections afforded to patent holders. that his home country of Zimbabwe had experienced this difficulty first-hand. He cited Dr Karunakara of Médecins Sans Frontières, one example in which a local manufacturing for example, says that the continent’s company for mosquito nets treated with anti- pharmaceutical sector is likely to remain malarial solutions was pushed out of business underdeveloped for many years as it continues because of large donations of nets from a to depend on imports of generic drugs. Local multilateral agency that sourced its products generics manufacturers agree: if the 2016 TRIPS outside the country. deadline is not extended, says Mr Mujuru of the Southern African Generic Medicines Association, The Business of Health in 24 “we will lose that cheaper access to APIs.” Gaps in financing Africa; Partnering with the The improvement and extension of healthcare Private Sector to Improve delivery in Africa is also being constrained by However, African pharmaceutical manufacturers People’s Lives, International could ultimately benefit from the TRIPS regime. gaps in financing. Sub-Saharan Africa makes up Finance Corporation, vii By harmonising product standards, TRIPS could 11% of the world’s population but accounts for also smooth the way for patent holders to issue 24% of the global disease burden, according to 25 Health Situation Analysis licences to local companies to produce generic the International Finance Corporation.24 More in the African Region, Fig. 38, p 34. There is some versions of patented products. worrisome still, the region commands less than discrepancy between 1% of global health expenditure. reports on which countries North African countries have a key advantage are meeting the target. over their southern neighbours because they Public-sector funding for healthcare remains The latest figures on public already have a developed local manufacturing uneven across the continent. While 53 African healthcare spending are sector for generic drugs, often involving joint countries signed the Abuja Declaration pledging due to be released by the World Health Organization ventures between local firms and Indian or to devote 15% of their national budgets to in February 2011. Chinese companies. Yet a general preference for health, most remain far from that target and, branded drugs also indicates that the population according to some estimates, seven countries 26 Ibid, Fig. 41, pp 35 and needs to be educated in parallel to ensure take- have actually cut their spending on health over 36. up of out-of-patent medicine, for example. the past decade.25 More than half of healthcare13 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 15. The future of healthcare in Africa General government health expenditure in sub-Saharan Africa, 2009 and 2001 (as a % of general government expenditure) Representative sample of countries 2009 2001 20 20 18 18 16 16 Target set in the Abuja Declaration, 2001 14 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 0 0 Angola Botswana Burkina Côte DRC Ethiopia Ghana Kenya Malawi Nigeria Rwanda Senegal South Togo Tanzania Faso dIvoire Africa Source: Global Health Expenditure Database, World Health Organization. costs on the continent are currently met by out- the problem in North Africa; he notes that many of-pocket spending, a ratio that rises to as much observers believe this was one of the major as 90% in some countries.26 With many of the catalysts for the uprisings of the Arab Spring poorest unable to afford treatment, costs are kept in 2011, along with lack of access to healthcare down artificially by people’s ability to pay, further for the poorest citizens. “[The North African exacerbating the problem. countries] have to reduce reliance on user fees as a mechanism of finance,” he says. “It is not A small handful of countries, including Ghana, sustainable”. Rwanda and South Africa, have taken steps towards universal healthcare coverage. However Across Africa, the result of fragmented coverage even in countries or communities that currently has been a growth in private financing and offer a form of insurance scheme, many drugs and private provision of health care—a category that services are not included and must be covered encompasses the for-profit sector and non- by out-of-pocket payments.27 The legacy of the profit providers such as aid organisations and French colonial period left Morocco, Algeria and missionary hospitals. A McKinsey study from 2008 Tunisia with varying levels of national health reported that in Ethiopia, Nigeria, Kenya and insurance coverage. Yet, by some estimates, as Uganda more than 40% of people in the bottom much as 50% of health expenditure is currently 20% income bracket received their healthcare out-of-pocket in Tunisia, although it boasts some from private, for-profit providers.28 Private The World Health Report 27 of the highest health indicators in the region (See insurance schemes have also been growing 2010. box Tunisia: Starting ahead of the game). in countries with larger affluent populations or industries capable of funding large worker 28 Arnab Ghatak, Judith For Belgacim Sabri, a Tunisia-based independent plans. However, the existence of these plans Hazlewood and Tony M Lee, health consultant, reduced public budgets and has contributed to concerns about two-tiered “How private health care can help Africa,” McKinsey the introduction of user fees have exacerbated provision of care. Quarterly, March 2008.14 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 16. The future of healthcare in Africa General goverment expenditure on health in the African Region, 2007 (% of total health expenditure) Western Sahara Algeria (no data) The Gambia Mauritania Senegal Mali Cape Niger Eritrea Verde Burkina Guinea Faso Guinea- Benin Bissau Côte Ghana Nigeria Ethiopia dIvoire Togo Liberia CAR Cameroon Sierra Equatorial Guinea Leone Uganda Kenya São Tomé & Príncipe Democratic Gabon Congo Rwanda Republic of (Brazzaville) Burundi Congo Seychelles Tanzania % of total health expenditure 11.00% - 31.30% Comoros Angola Malawi 31.31% - 42.10% 42.11% - 52.80% Zambia 52.81% - 66.20% 66.21% - 81.60% Zimbabwe Madagascar Mozambique Namibia Botswana Mauritius Swaziland South Africa Lesotho Source: Health Situation Analysis in the African Region, Atlas of Health Statistics 2011, World Health Organization. In the meantime, donor funding for charity about its sustainability as a major source of hospitals and clinics, and for targeted medicines, financing for healthcare in Africa. is often the only way of filling the gaps, particularly in undertaking mammoth tasks “The opposite of sustainability is dependence such as the scaling up of antiretroviral protocols and what we’ve done in most cases is create across Africa. However, while some analysts dependence,” says Keith McAdam, a member of have criticised donor financing as an insufficient the board of directors of the African Medical and solution even during better periods, the global Research Foundation (AMREF). economic crisis has in turn raised new questions15 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 17. The future of healthcare in Africa Tunisia: Starting ahead of the game As other African healthcare systems face a In common with most of its North African future characterised by multiple epidemiological neighbours, Tunisia’s health system has threats, fragmented health coverage, extreme benefitted from the French colonial legacy of poverty and disintegrating facilities, Tunisia robust infrastructure for primary healthcare and appears to have the edge in many respects. a strong medical education system. The country has built on these foundations over the past 30 Unlike many of its Sub-Saharan counterparts, years, making particular efforts in developing the country has no malaria and low rates of the health workforce and rehabilitating HIV/AIDS. It has a tuberculosis rate that is facilities.30 one-quarter that of Morocco, and a maternal mortality rate that is half that of Algeria.29 With Despite its clear advantages, though, Tunisia’s life expectancy of around 75 years for both current health challenge is similar to that faced men and women, the main burden of disease is by many of its African neighbours: an inefficient chronic conditions such as cardiovascular and distribution of services, which reflects and respiratory disease. contributes to social inequalities in the country. “In the rich coastal areas, the services are “Tunisia has the best health indicators across comparable to those in Europe, whereas in the the board of all the countries in North Africa”, interior of Tunisia the number of specialists says Stefano Lazzari, World Health Organization and doctors, the quality of equipment and the (WHO) representative for Tunisia. The country coverage of services are all much lower,” says Dr boasts a large number of qualified specialists, Lazzari. strong public and private hospitals, good equipment and a high level of services. Tunisia’s private sector currently serves only around 20% of the country’s population. Yet it Nearly 90% of Tunisia’s citizens have access gets the lion’s share of investment and attracts to health insurance that provides a relatively a disproportionate number of available medical high level of basic services—a higher coverage professionals. Bridging this gap in health rate than in Algeria and Morocco, according to provision will be a major challenge for Tunisia’s Belgacim Sabri, a Tunisia-based independent new leaders, healthcare experts say—but one health consultant and retired director of that the country is better positioned than most health systems for the WHO in the eastern of its neighbours to take on. Mediterranean. Coverage is funded through employee contributions and government- subsidised cover for those who are unemployed. 29 All figures from latest World Health Organization country health profiles, using 2009 data, www. whoint.org 30 Habiba Ben Romdhane and Francis R Grenier, “Social determinants of health in Tunisia: the case-analysis of Ariana”, International Journal for Equity in Health, April 3rd 200916 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 18. The future of healthcare in Africa 2 Future trends A wholesale restructuring of Africa’s healthcare Yet the growth of both chronic conditions and systems will be necessary over the next ten years, the increase in populations living for longer including strong measures to expand access to periods with diseases such as HIV/AIDS is healthcare, eradicate treatable illnesses and driving a new emphasis on preserving good manage chronic conditions. health and widening the current approach to primary healthcare. According to Ernest This would require a new approach to tackling Darkoh, founding partner of BroadReach disease. It would also involve an overhaul of Healthcare, an African healthcare services healthcare delivery, including greater use of company, the most successful outcome should technology, co-operation between the public be defined as never needing to see the inside and private sector and task-shifting to help of a hospital. The continuous need to build extend scarce human resources. The procurement more hospitals and clinics should be considered and supply of medicines and medical products a sign of failure. “We must make disease will need to be streamlined in order to reduce unacceptable instead of building ever larger shortages and logjams. Finally, governments infrastructure to accommodate it”, Dr and international organisations will be searching Darkoh adds. for funding solutions that can cover a larger percentage of the population and be sustainable Wellness campaigns will involve not only medical in the long run. staff, but also officials dealing with agriculture, transportation, law enforcement, water and From curing illness to preserving sanitation, food security and housing. Dr Darkoh health remarks that violence, road accidents and poor One of the biggest factors hampering Africa’s living conditions play as important a role in ability to confront its multiple health challenges, health outcomes as lifestyle does. Better and according to healthcare providers, aid focused education will be crucial to prevent organisations and entrepreneurs, is a structural African populations from developing chronic one. The continent’s healthcare systems remain diseases in the first place. Further down the focused on acute, short-term treatment, and on line, teaching those with chronic conditions fighting the traditional battles against infectious to manage their health will be key to avoiding and tropical diseases, diarrhea and maternal and overreliance on expensive and overstretched child mortality. health workers and facilities.17 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 19. The future of healthcare in Africa Part of this evolution will also require new “We need to better leverage health workers,” healthcare strategies evaluated for the realities Dr Darkoh explains. “We don’t necessarily need of African life, says Dr Karunakara of MSF. “We doctors and nurses to provide basic things like need to develop new models of care to treat health education. We can use so many other people in rural remote areas,” he explains. “Even types of people with very little training and at if cheap insulin suddenly becomes available, if it little expense to build the model of individual, still needs to be refrigerated you can be sure that family and community ownership of health.” take-up will be low. Most of the tools developed today are being developed for wealthier Even non-professional people can be trained to societies, and that’s a big problem for Africa.” provide education, support treatment for HIV, Earlier diagnosis of diseases such as HIV/AIDS deliver prescribed medicines, and use a weighing will lead to earlier treatment and help prevent scale or glucose-testing device, say Dr Darkoh complications. Botswana is already a leader in and others, freeing up specialised medical this area; it was the first country to roll out opt- staff to perform more complicated procedures out testing for HIV in 2000, and has since raised and reducing the pressure on overstretched the percentage of those being tested to over 90% public-sector hospitals. One example of such from less than 10%. Increasing immunisation an initiative is Ethiopia’s health extension coverage rates for common childhood diseases programme (HEP), which trained extension such as diphtheria, polio, measles and hepatitis workers to provide basic health information and will also be a crucial part of this process. education in rural areas where none existed before (See box Ethiopia: Creating a primary-care system from scratch). Revamping healthcare delivery Reversing the focus from acute to preventive “We recognise that communities themselves care, and from treating single ailments to must own and lead the effort,” explains Tedros tackling multiple conditions, will require a Adhanom Ghebreyesus, minister of health for significant overhaul of Africa’s healthcare Ethiopia. Indeed, programmes such as Ethiopia’s systems, in terms of mindset, structure and are particularly good at creating a cadre of health human resources. According to some experts, workers who do not have advanced medical skills, a more proactive approach will be needed to but who, as local people already committed address current and future disease burdens, to their communities, are also less likely to be including the creation of systematic touch- poached by foreign healthcare systems. points throughout a citizen’s life to keep them healthy. “Hospital and clinic-based models of Other countries are looking at more regional care, where people must come to healthcare solutions. In South Sudan, where human- instead of healthcare coming to the people, are resource shortages are at crisis levels, support by definition reactive,” explains Dr Darkoh of from the Intergovernmental Authority for BroadReach Healthcare. Development (IGAD) allows neighbouring l Shifting tasks to lay healthcare workers in countries to provide specialist labour to the primary care country. The originating countries continue to pay the workers’ salaries, and the South Sudan Task-shifting, already important in a continent government provides an allowance, according to with severe shortages of trained medical Dia Timmermans, a senior health adviser with the personnel, is likely to be the only way to provide a Joint Donor Office of the World Bank, based in quality, basic level of care to entire populations. South Sudan.18 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 20. The future of healthcare in Africa Ethiopia: Creating a primary-care system from scratch Few countries in Africa can boast a healthcare initiative has already trained and deployed over system that has developed from virtually 38,000 health extension workers throughout nothing in the space of just a decade. As the the country—almost doubling Ethiopia’s health third most populous country in Africa, Ethiopia workforce in three years. These local health is also one of the poorest, emerging from nearly extension workers have been engaged as full- two decades of civil war and famine only 30 time salaried civil servants to ensure retention years ago. Missionary clinics and international and build a sustainable system, moving away donor-run hospitals then made up the from models based on volunteerism. fragile backbone of the country’s healthcare infrastructure, and a majority of the population The government has recently launched a relied on traditional and spiritual healers for mobilisation campaign targeted at young advice and care. women—who are often closest to the main beneficiaries of primary care—in the hope that Today, more than 85% of the population has more will train as health extension workers. access to primary healthcare. The percentage According to Dr Tedros, “We want to build a of births attended by a skilled worker doubled ‘women-centred’ health system. We are linking between 2004 and 2008; in the same period, leaders at all levels with women’s groups in the number of women receiving antenatal care every village across the country”. rose by more than 50%, as did the number of infants receiving full immunisation. Initial Although priority has been given to primary surveys indicate that under-five mortality was healthcare delivery, which usually involves high- down to 88 per 1,000 live births in 2010, which impact, low-cost interventions, the government corresponds to a 52% decline over the last is already close to its goal of building 15,000 decade. new health posts and 3,200 health centres across Ethiopia, thus complementing parallel Several factors have contributed to Ethiopia’s private-sector investments in new hospitals success. Strong leadership from the Ministry around the country. “This is helping to broaden of Health has driven healthcare policy. “The access to a continuum of care at secondary and approach they took was historical. They really tertiary levels,” says Dr Tedros. started from nothing,” says Dina Balabanova, senior lecturer in health systems at the London Dr Tedros admits that big challenges lie ahead, School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The particularly in further scaling up towards government chose a top-down approach to a national health system and in sustaining kick-start the programme and to scale it up current efforts in the sector. Reaching the quickly across the country—a method that has maternal health targets set by the Millennium rankled a few stakeholders and prompted some Development Goals (MDGs) in Ethiopia will isolated criticism. Dr Balabanova concedes, also be challenging. For Dr Tedros, the two go “It was almost an emergency system; but the hand-in-hand: “We cannot hope to achieve the next stage will be getting people on board and health MDGs without ensuring universal access incorporating local knowledge.” to basic health service first”. Yet Ethiopia shows what it is possible to achieve in a limited time Indeed, the government claims it is now working frame, and may point towards a model for other to broaden and deepen the engagement of African countries with similar socio-economic local communities through its Health Extension and demographic conditions. Programme. According to Ethiopia’s minister of health, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, the19 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 21. The future of healthcare in Africa l Expanding access to secondary care which operates community-based clinics servicing the “middle 60% of the population that In addition to shifting more healthcare tasks to can afford to pay something”. In less than three non-professional healthcare workers, African years, she has built up five clinics in and outside countries will need to expand access to secondary the Kenyan capital, Nairobi. Typical patients are care—the type of medical care provided by low-income day labourers who cannot afford to specialists who do not have first contact with lose wages waiting in queues in crowded public patients. In many African countries, private hospitals. hospitals already treat a significant proportion of the population, many of whom are covered Others are more wary about the growing role of by employee-sponsored health insurance plans. the private sector in providing healthcare in some Even in areas where fewer people have access to regions of Africa. Dr Karunakara, for one, believes private insurance, private hospitals are often that “the government should still provide a the first choice of the well-to-do, and have the basic, but essential, level of healthcare for free, capacity to siphon off both human and financial and not just preventive but also curative. The resources. Determining the place of the private private sector should be filling the gaps.” A recent sector in healthcare delivery will therefore be a report by the International Finance Corporation key priority for African countries. noted that, while the role of the private sector in African healthcare continues to be “contentious”, Peter Botha, chief executive of AIM-listed African better collaboration between both the public Medical Investments, currently operates private and private sectors will be crucial to improving specialist hospitals in Mozambique, Tanzania and healthcare provision in Africa.31 Zimbabwe, and is looking to expand into markets in Kenya, Ethiopia, Nigeria and Uganda. Mr Botha In many cases, governments and multilateral says his company sees strong demand in Africa for donors are likely to look to public-private “quality, international-standard healthcare” from partnerships (PPPs) as the most efficient way emerging middle classes, overseas investors, of extending high-quality healthcare across governments and health insurers. Even the the continent. Large-scale collaborations have private sector, though, shares many of the same already been critical to developing medical human-resource constraints as the public system, treatment, such as the Medicines for Malaria he acknowledges. Venture and the International AIDS Vaccine While African Medical Investments has seen Initiative. Other initiatives have aimed to strong demand for outpatient maternity and strengthen health services by developing a paediatric services, the biggest challenge is comprehensive approach to prevention, care, attracting more specialists to extend the range treatment and support. For example, the of inpatient services in its hospitals, Mr Botha Botswana Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership says. “To get a good cardiologist, neurosurgeon involves private partners and Botswana’s or orthopaedist doing joint replacements is government, each committing US$50m over extremely difficult,” he says. “You have to cater to five years to strengthen the country’s health what the market is allowing you to do because of infrastructure for combatting this disease. The 31 Healthy Partnerships: the supply of skills. Our main challenge is trying programme includes training health workers and How Governments can to entice a specialist to come to Africa.” setting up new laboratories and mobile clinics. Engage the Private Sector to Improve Health in Africa, Other partnerships are supranational in scope, International Finance Liza Kimbo, a Kenyan entrepreneur and chief such as the “Children Without Worms” programme Corporation, World Bank executive of Carego Livewell, is targeting a under which donated deworming medicine is Group, Washington, DC, distributed to needy children. different demographic through her company, 2011.20 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 22. The future of healthcare in Africa In the future, those interviewed say, private to the remarkable penetration of mobile phones partners could help to build hospitals or advise on in Africa, Mr Zingoni says, adding that Africa has social insurance schemes. 600m mobile-phone subscribers out of a total population of around 900m. Already, penetration l Relying more on technology has exceeded 100% in South Africa and 80% in Ghana. Nigeria currently has the largest number Technology could also be a huge enabler of of subscribers on the continent, although its cross-border co-operation, and is likely to mobile penetration rate lags behind at 54%.32 play an important role in the development of a multi-tiered health workforce. It is expected One example is Project Masiluleke, in South that telemedicine will evolve to allow remote Africa, a mobile health initiative that promotes healthcare workers to confer with specialists in HIV/AIDS awareness, education and treatment, tertiary medical facilities to confirm diagnoses launched 18 months ago. It now sends 1m-2m and agree on treatment. Chinese and Indian messages a day to South Africans, providing companies have been some of the heaviest information or asking them to call into the investors in video-related health technology in national AIDS health line. According to Robert Africa. India-based doctors are already treating Fabricant, vice-president of creative at Frog African patients remotely in five regional Design, which helped to set up the project as hospitals including Nigeria, Republic of Congo, part of a consortium, the group also plans to Mauritius and Egypt. The African hospitals are introduce a set of mobile services that enable linked to specialist facilities in India under the users to receive HIV counselling remotely and pan-African e-Network Project, a joint venture to receive treatment reminders. The consortium between the Indian government and the African has also partnered with South African rap label, Union. Ghetto Rough, to create celebrity voices to deliver reminders about medical tests for men, who tend Ishe Zingoni, an industry analyst in information to be more suspicious of healthcare services. and communications technology (ICT) and healthcare at consultancy firm Frost & Sullivan, Private equity is an active investor in in South Africa, observes that although 80% of telemedicine initiatives on the continent, African countries claim to be using telemedicine according to Ms Sherwin. The IFHA has already or m-Health in one form or another, the invested in Hello Doctor, a telemedicine plan that majority of these projects are still informal or aims to operate across Africa, providing people in the pilot phase. Only a few have been fully with the opportunity to speak to a qualified implemented and can be considered an integral physician by phone (although it will first need part of healthcare delivery systems. Most projects to overcome the regulatory dilemma of allowing involve health call centres that offer healthcare doctors to operate across different countries). services over the phone and appointment It is also looking to increase its investments in reminders via SMS, he says. telemedicine education initiatives, including interactive voice-recognition education services Further developments in this sector, however, that provide area-specific information and health signal a huge opportunity for African healthcare. watch alerts via SMS, such as warnings of a 32 African Mobile Observatory “A lot is happening in the IT realm to make cholera outbreak. 2011; Driving Economic and medicine more efficient and reach a population Social Development through that is underserved but all have cell phones,” says Mobile Services, GSMA and Heather Sherwin, an investment manager for the Resolving procurement logjams AT Kearney, www.gsmworld. Improving the way that African healthcare Netherlands-based Investment Fund for Health com, www.atkearney.com, in Africa (IFHA). Indeed, many applications and systems work will also require governments to pp 4 and 12. services are already being developed in response strengthen supply chains for pharmaceuticals21 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 23. The future of healthcare in Africa and medical supplies, and is likely to involve more standards for regulation of medical production local production of medicines in Africa. and registration of medications. Companies such as US-based Sproxil, a software provider Currently, many African countries experience that offers SMS verification services through its regular shortages of medical products. Mobile Product Authentication (MPA) system, As governments and multilateral health have partnered with pharmaceutical companies organisations work to improve take-up of to add scratch cards to the back of medicine antiretroviral drugs for HIV/AIDS or medicines packaging. The cards, which are now in use in for tuberculosis, a reliable supply network will be Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya, among others, reveal crucial to maintain regular treatment courses. a code that consumers can check via mobile With healthcare systems gearing up to address telephony to verify that the drug is genuine. chronic conditions too, procurement issues will move to the forefront. Finding sustainable financing The financing of healthcare in Africa remains Babatunde Osotimehin, executive director a patchwork of meagre public spending, of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA), believes heavy reliance on foreign donors and a large the private sector can play an important role dependence on out-of-pocket contributions and in helping African governments to smooth user fees that place the greatest burden on the distribution logjams and to provide logistics poorest members of society. expertise. In Nigeria, he notes, the government partnered with Coca-Cola, which has a well- It is this fragmented approach that is likely to developed distribution structure across the come under the greatest scrutiny over the next country, to coordinate HIV/AIDS education and 15 years as governments, multilateral lenders prevention campaigns nationwide. “It should be and private investors look for ways to pay for possible for DHL or UPS to help a country develop healthcare for Africans in a more sustainable way. a supply chain management system,” adds Dr “The main challenge facing African countries Osotimehin. is separateness,” says Kgosi Letlape, president of the African Medical Association. “There’s no Expanding local production of medical products solidarity. There’s a system for the haves and a including, ultimately, more complex drugs, system for the have nots.” will also be important. For Mr Zingoni of Frost & Sullivan, “It’s a ‘security of supply’ issue.” Mr Botha of African Medical Investments However, that would require greater investment observes that poor tax collection and in skills. Around 80% of the antiretroviral drugs inefficiencies in national governments make the provided by MSF and the Global Fund to Fight creation of a social or national health insurance Aids Tuberculosis and Malaria are currently system particularly challenging. “If you look at manufactured by Indian generic companies, says all countries that have evolved either to national MSF’s Dr Karunakara. health insurance or social insurance, the time period is 40 to 80 years.” Greater regulation should also be a key priority for African governments, according to those Indeed, even in a country with the relative wealth interviewed, and will also help to combat and infrastructure development of South Africa, the proliferation of counterfeit medicines. the process of creating universal health coverage Governments and regulatory authorities from is exposing a number of systemic deficiencies that the Southern African Development Community need to be addressed first (See box South Africa: are already working on the adoption of common Developing a national health insurance plan).22 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 24. The future of healthcare in Africa Micro-insurance plans are often cited as one [antiretroviral] treatment programmes,” Dr potential solution for covering poor and middle- Karunakara notes. Indeed, thanks to work by MSF, class populations who do not have access to the Global Fund and other organisations, as well employment-related and other private schemes. as the increased availability of generic drugs, the Dr Khemka of BUPA says his company has already price of antiretroviral medications dropped to less been looking at the potential to introduce than US$100 from around US$10,000 in 1999. such schemes in markets like Tanzania, Ghana On the one hand, this made treatment affordable and Malawi, in partnership with the Gates to huge sections of the population, drastically Foundation. Ms Kimbo of Carego Livewell hopes cutting mortality rates linked to the disease. eventually to be able to offer such insurance However, African governments were thus also products through her clinics. “Ideally, I would encouraged to change their treatment protocols want less than 50% of our clients to be relying on for HIV/AIDS, committing them to critical health cash for payment,” she says. investments for the long term. “Now we are at the point where sustainable, predictable funding For the near-term, however, donor funding will is no longer there. Governments will not want remain one of the dominant sources of healthcare to start something they cannot deliver in the financing in Africa. This is problematic for coming years,” explains Dr Karunakara. two reasons. First, donor funding tends to be short-term, and relies on financing from foreign However not everyone is worried about a future governments, multilateral or non-government in which donor funding may be scarce. Dr Tedros, organisations, all of which are suffering from the Ethiopian health minister, argues that a more continued global economic instability. Second, efficient healthcare system—that focuses on donor funding has traditionally been focused disease prevention and health promotion, and on single ailments or conditions, rather than on can pool funds from different sources to address the multi-condition, comprehensive healthcare funding gaps flexibly—can “offset the impacts of system that Africa will require in the future. any declines in external funding flows.” Professor McAdam of AMREF agrees that countries will Take The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis have to find ways of living with less funding from and Malaria as an example. An international external sources. In the case of HIV, he notes, financing institution that receives funding it is unclear to what extent the international from governments, the private sector, social community will be able to provide for everyone enterprises and individuals, it cancelled its 11th who needs HIV care. Some countries, such as funding round in December 2011, potentially South Africa and Botswana, are already seeking putting many African countries’ disease protocols to finance antiretroviral treatment for their own into disarray. populations. “In 2000, none of the public health programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa were running ARV23 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 25. The future of healthcare in Africa South Africa: Developing a national health insurance plan By many health measures, South Africa is the efficiency” in the new system. Its aim is to most advanced of the Sub-Saharan nations. It design an NHI programme that will create has the biggest and most well-developed private solidarity by ensuring that all South African insurance sector, the largest and best-trained citizens and legal residents “benefit from health workforce on the continent and—with healthcare financing on an equitable and the exception of Tanzania—is the closest to sustainable basis”. The plan envisions the use achieving the Abuja targets on public spending of both public and private health providers, for healthcare.33 Now it is working to put in place and would allow citizens to remain members one of the first, and arguably most ambitious, of private schemes, although they would be universal national health insurance (NHI) required to pay into the public one as well. systems on the continent. Most importantly, perhaps, the government’s In many ways, South Africa is a microcosm of aims encompass a holistic vision of healthcare the healthcare woes facing African countries. reform. They require a total re-engineering It suffers from a “quadruple burden” of health of the existing system, including a “complete problems, including maternal, infant and child transformation of healthcare service provision mortality, chronic conditions, injuries and and delivery” that emphasises primary care violence, and HIV and tuberculosis. Although it over curative, hospital-centred care; the “total is home to just 0.7% of the world’s population, overhaul” of healthcare networks to designate 17% of HIV/AIDS cases globally are to be found hospitals as district, regional, tertiary, central in South Africa. and specialised facilities; and the provision of a comprehensive package of benefits.35 33 The Abuja Declaration: Policymakers will also need to grapple with Ten Years On, World Health underperforming health institutions, poor Admittedly, the country has been exploring Organization, Geneva, management, deteriorating infrastructure, the possibility of an NHI programme since Switzerland, 2011. There is and under-funding—all factors that have 2002. Its launch is designed to take place some discrepancy between widened health inequality levels in the country incrementally, starting this year with pilot reports on which countries in recent years. Yet South Africa is also unique projects in ten districts of the country, and are meeting the target. This is partly because in possessing a well-established, high-quality will be implemented in three phases within 14 countries met the target in private insurance system that is both an asset years, according to the government. different years, with some and a potential obstacle to implementing an subsequently falling short NHI system. Policy-makers are also looking at other of the target. countries’ experiences for ideas. Ghana, for Of South Africa’s 48m people, around 8m are one, has increased value-added tax to help 34 Interview with Valter covered by private healthcare (usually company pay for its social health insurance programme Adao, consulting strategy schemes) and the remaining 40m by the state, while other countries have experimented with and innovation team, Deloitte & Touche’s life with spending levels similar on both groups.34 employee-employer levies or special earmarked sciences practice, South Getting public-sector care up to a level where taxes. “We can look at best practice, but Africa. it can compete with other schemes will be a ultimately it needs to be designed for South key precondition for successfully rolling out Africa,” says Ashleigh Theophanides, director of 35 National Health Insurance national health insurance. actuarial health practice at Deloitte & Touche, in South Africa, Department South Africa. of Health, Republic of South The government’s green paper on the NHI, Africa, pp 5 and 29-30. published last year, promises “equity and24 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 26. The future of healthcare in Africa 3 Five scenarios for 2022 Following are five potential scenarios depicting Leading the charge will be a renewed focus on the possible health landscape on the African preventive care as a way of managing chronic continent in 2022. While each of these storylines conditions, promoting wellness and reducing is unlikely to develop alone, as outlined here, they expensive hospital stays. Mass immunisation suggest the potential outcome of the trends that campaigns will include new vaccines against the Economist Intelligence Unit has identified, malaria and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. In as well as the possible consequences of decisions parallel, education campaigns, particularly those being taken by governments, donor organisations involving sexual health and nutrition, will target and healthcare investors today. They are intended behavioural change. Clinics will be staffed with to prompt debate on the possible ramifications skilled nurse practitioners able to help monitor of different health policies and approaches. conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and Although the scenarios offer different visions of COPD. the future, most are complementary; that is, some elements of each of these scenarios could well Clearly, change is likely to be uneven across the coexist with elements of others. continent. The most advanced countries, such as South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Nigeria and Mozambique will have multi-tiered, high- 1. Refocusing on primary and preventive quality health delivery at both the primary and care secondary levels, while their less-developed Within the next decade, the initiatives for neighbours will concentrate their limited improving healthcare delivery that were identified resources on primary care, prioritising wellness in Part II will attract imitators, as various for the many over curing the few. African countries strive to put their healthcare systems on a sustainable footing. By the end of Investments will be channeled into prenatal the decade, many African countries will have and paediatric care. Referrals will be required overhauled their health facilities and treatment for appointments at hospitals, which will be pathways to emphasise primary care services that devoted almost exclusively to specialist care. educate people about healthy lifestyles, keep Indeed, some countries, in an effort to cut them in good health and help them to manage hospital admissions more quickly, may resort chronic conditions. The changes will amount to a to the “gatekeeper” approach used by managed revolution in healthcare delivery. care companies in the US, in which primary-care25 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 27. The future of healthcare in Africa providers receive incentives for keeping people 2. Empowering communities as out of hospital. healthcare providers In 2022 the global market for highly-skilled With resources less stretched, public hospitals health staff will be more competitive than will be able to concentrate on treating and ever, and the health budgets of many African curing the most serious cases; specialist HIV/ governments will remain strained. With roads AIDS and malaria clinics will open in South and transport links still poor in many countries, Africa and Uganda, attracting patient referrals governments will try to empower communities to from across the continent. In parallel, private deliver basic care in remote areas. African health hospitals will be able to develop themselves as systems will refocus on the education and training elite facilities and benefit from targeted private of community outreach workers and health investment. extension staff, to gain the most service delivery from existing human and material resources. The increasing popularity of Africa as an investment destination will attract private By creating new tiers of lay healthcare workers, equity and other investors, creating pan-African African countries will not only free up those with companies and public-private partnerships more specialist skills to treat patients with the to improve hospitals, ambulance services and most serious or complex conditions, but will also community health standards. create health teams that are more closely linked to their local community, less likely to leave, and In a best-case scenario, according to BroadReach better able to respond to local health priorities. Healthcare’s Dr Darkoh, by 2022, “the results of a focus on prevention will be encouraging, A number of regional training academies for populations will be healthier and hospitals community healthcare workers will be established won’t have to worry about having to continually across the continent, with the aim of creating a increase staff and infrastructure. These consistent level of basic, quality care. Regional countries will realise this is proof that the course organisations such as the Southern African they are on is directionally the right one and Development Community and the African Union they will invest even more in these models.” will supervise the development of curriculums and standards. In most countries, however, Risks to the scenario communities will be given a greater degree of Health education campaigns may have mixed authority to set priorities for their care. results, and may take a long time to produce improved outcomes. This would leave hospitals A significant portion of international aid will be overwhelmed in the medium-term. dedicated to establishing and staffing training academies and paying the salaries of healthcare Divergence between the quality of care in the workers in countries that still lack the finances public and private sector and the growing to support them. Realising the potential for ranks of people with no healthcare access could economies of scale, medical supply companies exacerbate existing health inequalities. This will strike deals with the regional training bodies, could outweigh the benefits of a policy shift providing community workers with basic tools towards primary and preventive care. to monitor blood sugar and blood pressure or provide prenatal vitamins. Moreover, the “gatekeeper” approach to regulate hospital use is controversial and any suggestion Meanwhile, African countries will look to other that financial incentives are being used to deny ways to ease staff shortages. In South Africa, necessary treatment will be criticised. the government will build on its reputation for26 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 28. The future of healthcare in Africa training highly skilled doctors and nurses and to monitor and manage the new system. reach formal accords with former “poaching” Ghana, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Nigeria will countries such as the UK and its European have comprehensive social insurance systems, neighbours, offering their nationals a chance to while the North African countries will have receive qualified medical training in South Africa strengthened and in some cases extended the for a fraction of the price it would cost at home. basic set of benefits covered under their national South African hospitals and clinics will benefit systems in response to demands following the from the extra workforce while doctors and nurses Arab Spring revolts of 2011. are completing their training, and in return will give students from the developed world Elsewhere on the continent, many countries will experience treating pathologies that they would have reached agreements with foreign insurance not normally encounter during a clinical rotation companies to set up micro-insurance coverage, in their home countries. coverage aimed at poorer populations with lower premiums and low coverage limits, while “We have a high burden of disease. You can turn making use of existing social insurance schemes, it around to say we have a lot of ability to teach extending them where necessary, and linking clinical skills,” says Dr Letlape of the African them to schemes covering those at work. All Medical Association. governments will have instituted a safety net for the poorest citizens so a ten-cent malaria Risk to the scenario tablet is no longer beyond the reach of the most Creating a new tier of community-based lay impoverished families. healthcare workers will not eliminate the need for highly-trained physicians and nurses to treat As this will ensure that virtually all Africans more serious or chronic conditions. Identifying have insurance, public-private partnerships individuals who are the best fit with a given will have incentives to invest more broadly in community, and are committed to remaining the continent’s health infrastructure to build in the role for some time, will be extremely hospitals and clinics, create or extend drug important to gain the trust of local people. distribution networks and train additional skilled medical workers. Many of these partnerships will Balancing the needs of stretched African operate on a regional, or even continental basis, governments to make sure that all community with new pan-African hospital groups extending workers fulfill particular national priorities could their reach gradually to previously remote areas. conflict in some cases with community control of these programmes. The extent of the public-private mix of healthcare delivery is likely to vary from country to country under this scenario, with the private sector 3. Implementing universal coverage becoming the dominant provider of care in Most African countries will be well on the path to wealthier countries. “If managed properly, providing most or all of their citizens with a basic we’d have a mixed scheme with a public system health insurance package by 2022, although efficient enough to deliver a basic package and countries will develop their own paths towards a private system that would have the quality to comprehensive coverage. provide some extra care for those who could pay a In South Africa, the transition to a national bit more,” says the UNFPA’s Dr Osotimehin. health insurance system will be well underway, with the training of additional workers, an Risks to the scenario agreement on health delivery standards, and This scenario will be one of the most challenging the implementation of information systems to enact within the given timeline, given Africa’s27 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 29. The future of healthcare in Africa high level of out-of-pocket health payments and data collection. In addition, global advances in heavy dependence on donor financing for many “smart fabrics” will enable people to monitor life-saving medicines and treatment. Only a conditions such as diabetes and hypertension handful of countries currently have, or are seeking at home through their own clothing, making it to introduce, universal coverage. Even South easier for those in rural areas to manage their own Africa has been deliberating over some form of treatment between clinic visits. national health insurance since 2002. Community health workers will have a more Ramping up tax collection to levels sufficient to high-tech toolbox available to them as well. Using create a tax-financed health system is unrealistic Shazam auto-recognition technology—originally in most areas. Many countries have little in the developed to sample and compress music digitally way of a middle class to support employment- and to create an acoustic fingerprint that can be based schemes, outside of the civil service. matched against central databases—even those with the most basic training will be able to capture 4. Making telemedicine ubiquitous the sound of a child’s cough or photograph an Technology will be the dominant means of abnormal growth by mobile phone and transmit extending access to healthcare across the the data to specialists for their opinion and continent, enabling every citizen to access both treatment advice. basic and more specialist healthcare by 2022 even in the most rural parts of Africa. Risks to the scenario The most immediate risk to this scenario is the This process will build on the mobile applications lack of uniformity in mobile broadband across the rolled out a decade earlier that reminded patients continent, as well as the absence of harmonisation to attend clinic appointments or to take medicine. of service agreements and platforms across By 2022 the use of nanotechnology to create national borders. diagnostics tools for individuals and health extension workers in the field will be routine. Training less-educated community workers to use Platforms that use SMS to link with voice messages mobile technology will be a major challenge and will provide additional support, and most rural will require significant investment up front. There health workers will use SIRI, a speech recognition are risks that life-threatening conditions could be “personal assistant” that will allow them to missed. schedule appointments, record patient data and information and include low-cost diagnostics Further down the line, the use of technology applications. is likely to raise privacy issues, forcing African countries to implement more comprehensive Partnerships between the Mobile Health Alliance regulatory regimes to protect the security of and UNICEF will help to tie in telemedicine medical data. platforms with child protection and other elements of social protection, thereby creating a seamless social service safety net. 5. Encouraging local suppliers By 2022 continued global economic instability Local clinics and health workers will have will lead to cuts in foreign aid budgets and leave the services of remote general practitioners many donor organisations overstretched, with and specialists accessible 24 hours a day. the result that many of them are forced to pull Video-conferencing will allow doctors to treat out of African countries. The migration of skilled patients remotely, and wireless applications medical personnel to developed countries is for mobile-phone platforms will enable reliable likely to accelerate.28 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 30. The future of healthcare in Africa The initial consequences of such a development will put pressure on governments drastically to could be empowering for many countries, as well cut military budgets and allocate extra, ring- as catastrophic for a smaller number. Countries fenced funding for healthcare expenditure. with greater resources will use the opportunity for emancipation from charity to build up their Risks to the scenario own local manufacturing capability for basic The countries that combine heavy dependence on drugs and medical equipment. In the medium donor financing with high levels of HIV/AIDS are term, booming economies in these more likely to see their health systems overwhelmed fortunate countries will attract international and their economic development stunted when companies from high-growth markets to develop aid is withdrawn. Others will be forced to make generic drugs locally, to train local medical difficult decisions about the care that they staff, to offer new insurance products and to can offer, with many focusing even more on set up research and development centres on the preventive care to stem the tide of sickness. For continent. The countries that are most successful many of these countries, progress toward the at developing the different aspects of their Millennium Development Goals will stall for the healthcare infrastructure will more easily attract near future. Deteriorating infrastructure and and retain skilled healthcare workers. increasing economic polarisation will discourage the private sector from further investment. Many experts have argued that external funding has, albeit unintentionally, often set the health agenda for African countries, rather than the This suggests that countries should prepare other way around. With this source of money for this eventuality by weaning themselves largely unavailable, it will be up to African off aid voluntarily—and gradually. Dr Letlape governments, community organisations and of the African Medical Association notes that other local stakeholders to define their health governments can start now. “If we are at 90% priorities and health strategies. donor funding now, let’s create a plan that in 2022 we will move to 50-50,” he says. Ultimately, in many poorer countries, growing public pressure for better government services29 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 31. The future of healthcare in Africa Conclusion By 2022 a number of African countries may grass-roots pressure for increased healthcare have found a way to rethink and restructure investment. their healthcare systems so that they are fit for purpose, making care available to a majority of Next, governments will need to focus on their citizens, and improving health outcomes. eliminating disparities in access to, and That any of the individual scenarios imagined affordability of, healthcare. This will require above will take shape by 2022 is unlikely; but broader vision about how the public and private what can be expected is that elements of all five sector can work together; a greater emphasis on will be present in Africa’s healthcare landscape, providing and funding primary-care services; and to varying degrees, over the next decade. A strategies to ensure that all citizens, including number of obstacles, however, will need to the most impoverished, have reliable and be overcome. affordable methods of paying for them. The first challenge for African governments will be Finally, African countries may need to re-evaluate increased investment in healthcare, particularly their relationships with the international donor in the majority of countries still failing to meet community. Some of this rebalancing depends the spending targets. This is likely to involve hard on global economic developments and is political choices, as well as an acceptance by beyond the control of African governments. Yet, governments that healthcare represents a critical particularly for the most developed countries, the investment in their populations and countries. reverberations from the global financial According to the Economist Intelligence Unit’s crisis offer an opportunity for governments to Democracy Index 2011, democratic institutions imagine a future of greater self-sufficiency in are increasingly taking root in Africa. This healthcare provision. evolution, coupled with a growing middle class, will likely lead to greater expectations and30 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 32. The future of healthcare in Africa Appendix I Data Sources Achieving Sustainable Health Development in the “The future of health care in Africa”, British African Region: Strategic Directions for WHO 2010- Medical Journal, Vol. 331, No. 7507, June 30th 2015, World Health Organization Regional Office 2005. for Africa, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. Harmonization for Health in Africa; An Action “Addressing Ghana’s high maternal mortality Framework, World Health Organization, 2009. rate”, Ghana News, February 13th 2010. Health Situation Analysis in the African Region: Hailom Banteyerga, Aklilu Kidanu, Lesong Atlas of Health Statistics, 2011, World Health Conteh and Martin McKee “Ethiopia: Placing Organization Regional Office for Africa, Health at the Centre of Development”, from Good Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, fig 2 (p 18), fig 8, Health At Low Cost. (p 24), figs. 10-11 (p26-27), fig 38, (p 34), fig. 49 (p 39), fig. 61 (p 45), fig. 151 (p 74). The Business of Health in Africa: Partnering with Health transition in Africa: practical policy the Private Sector to Improve People’s Lives, proposals for primary care, Bulletin of the World International Finance Corporation, World Bank Health Organization, May 28th 2010. Group, Washington, DC. Healthy Partnerships: How Governments Can “Fat is bad but beautiful”, The Economist, Engage the Private Sector to Improve Health in January 17th 2011. Africa, International Finance Corporation, The World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2011. Arnab Ghatak, Judith G Hazlewood and Tony M Lee, How Private Health Care Can Help Africa, Robert Mensah, How is Ghana Dealing with McKinsey Quarterly, March 2008. Maternal Mortality?, GhanaWeb, April 23rd 2011. Adam Robert Green, The end of cheap medicine?, Di McIntyre, Lucy Gilson, Vimbayi Mutyambizi, thisisafricaonline.com, November 15th 2011. Promoting equitable health care financing in the African context: Current challenges and future “Growing pains”, The Economist, September prospects, Regional Network for Equity in Health 24th 2011. in Southern Africa (EQUINET), October 2005.31 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 33. The future of healthcare in Africa “Miracle or Malthus?”, The Economist, December Towards Reaching the Health-Related Millennium 17th 2011. Development Goals: Progress Report and the Way Forward, report of the regional director, World “Mobile health offers hope to patients in Africa”, Health Organization Africa Regional Office for The Guardian, June 8th 2011. Africa, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, 2010. Frost & Sullivan, Primary Healthcare Focus to The Abuja Declaration: Ten Years On, World Health Drive Telemedicine As South Africa Prepares to Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011. Roll out National Health Insurance, October 27th The World Health Report 2010—Health Systems 2011. Financing: the path to universal coverage, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2010. Strategic Orientations for WHO Action in the African Region: 2005-2009, WHO Regional Office World Malaria Report 2009, World Health for Africa, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, 2005. Organization, Geneva.32 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 34. The future of healthcare in Africa Appendix II Interview Programme The Economist Intelligence Unit would like to l Kara Hanson, health economist, London School thank the following experts (listed alphabetically of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine by organisation name) who participated in the l Unni Karunakara, international president, in-depth interview programme. Médecins Sans Frontières l Valter Adao, Consulting Strategy & Innovation, l Sneh Khemka, medical director, BUPA Healthcare, Deloitte & Touche, South Africa International l Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, minister of l Liza Kimbo, chief executive, Carego Livewell health, Ethiopia l Stefano Lazzari, World Health Organization l Dina Balabanova, senior lecturer in health representative, Tunisia systems, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine l Kgosi Letlape, president, African Medical Association l Anshu Banerjee, World Health Organization representative in Sudan l Emmanuel Mujuru, Southern African Generic Medicines Association l Peter Botha, chief executive, African Medical Investments l Keith McAdam, member of the board of directors, African Medical and Research l Jacqueline Chimhanzi, Africa lead for Deloitte Foundation (AMREF) Consulting South Africa l Sherif Omar, professor of surgical oncology l Shona Dalal, research associate, Harvard and former head of the National Cancer Institute, School of Public Health Cairo University, Egypt l Ernest Darkoh, founder, BroadReach l Marie Onyamboko, Kingasani Maternity Clinic, Healthcare Kinshasha, Democratic Republic of Congo l Ben Davis, Consulting Strategy & Innovation l Babatunde Osotimehin, executive director, UN – FSI, Deloitte & Touche, South Africa Population Fund l Robert Fabricant, vice-president, creative, Frog l Sharon Padayachy, FIST Capital Markets, Design Deloitte & Touche, South Africa33 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 35. The future of healthcare in Africa l Belgacim Sabri, health consultant, Tunisia l Heather Sherwin, investment manager, Investment Fund for Health in Africa l Gillian Stewart, Clients & Markets, Deloitte & Touche, South Africa l Gaba Tabane, Consulting Clients & Industries, Deloitte & Touche, South Africa l Dia Timmermans, senior health advisor, Joint Donor Office, World Bank, South Sudan l Ashleigh Theophanides, director, actuarial health practice, Deloitte & Touche, South Africa l Kay Walsh, Consulting Strategy & Innovation Economics Unit, Deloitte & Touche, South Africa l Ishe Zingoni, industry analyst, ICT and healthcare, Frost & Sullivan, South Africa34 © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2012
  • 36. While every effort has been taken to verify the accuracyof this information, neither The Economist IntelligenceUnit Ltd. nor the sponsor of this report can accept anyresponsibility or liability for reliance by any person onthis white paper or any of the information, opinions orconclusions set out in this white paper.
  • 37. GENEVABoulevard des Tranchées 161206 GenevaSwitzerlandTel: (41) 22 566 2470Fax: (41) 22 346 93 47E-mail: geneva@eiu.comLONDON FRANKFURT DUBAI PARIS26 Red Lion Square Bockenheimer Land- PO Box 450056 6 rue Paul BaudryLondon strasse 51-53 Office No 1301A Paris, 75008WC1R 4HQ 60325 Frankfurt am Main Thuraya Tower 2 FranceUnited Kingdom Germany Dubai Media City Tel: +33 1 5393 6600Tel: (44.20) 7576 8000 Tel: +49 69 7171 880 United Arab Emirates E-mail: paris@eiu.comFax: (44.20) 7576 8500 E-mail: frankfurt@eiu. Tel: +971 4 433 4202E-mail: london@eiu.com com E-mail: dubai@eiu.com