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Latin American Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Latin America's major cities

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The Latin American Green City Index seeks to measure and assess the environmental performance of 17 major Latin American cities across a range of criteria. This report presents the key findings and …

The Latin American Green City Index seeks to measure and assess the environmental performance of 17 major Latin American cities across a range of criteria. This report presents the key findings and highlights from the Index and is intended to provide stakeholders with a unique tool to help Latin American cities learn from each other, in order to better address the common environmental challenges they face.

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  • 1. Latin American Green City IndexAssessing the environmental performance of Latin America’s major citiesA research project conducted by the Economist Intelligence Unit, sponsored by Siemens
  • 2. Latin American Green City Index | Contents Contents004 Expert advisory panel 018 Managing the city as a 024 Waste ‘living organism’ Puebla: Turning waste into cash006 Introduction An interview with Nicholas You, Belo Horizonte: A win-win urban environmental expert solution for waste pickers008 Results 020 Exemplar projects 025 Water010 Overall key findings 020 Energy and CO2 Porto Alegre: Delivering water São Paulo: Harvesting methane the right way014 Key findings from the to power the city categories 026 Air quality014 Energy and CO2 021 Land use and buildings Three approaches to vehicle014 Land use and buildings Buenos Aires: Setting an example emissions: Quito, Belo Horizonte015 Transport with public buildings and Porto Alegre015 Waste Quito: Any reason to plant a tree Mexico City: Policy pays off016 Water 022 Transport 0016 Sanitation Bus Rapid Transit: From Curitiba 28 Methodology017 Air quality to Bogotá017 Environmental governance Buenos Aires: Bringing it all together2
  • 3. Monterrey, Mexico Guadalajara, Mexico Mexico City, Mexico Puebla, Mexico Medellín, Colombia Bogotá, Colombia Quito, Ecuador Lima, Peru Brasília, Brazil Belo Horizonte, Brazil Rio de Janeiro, Brazil City portraits São Paulo, Brazil032 Belo Horizonte Curitiba, Brazil036 Bogotá040 Brasília Porto Alegre, Brazil044 Buenos Aires Santiago, Chile048 Curitiba Montevideo, Uruguay Buenos Aires, Argentina052 Guadalajara056 Lima060 Medellín064 Mexico City068 Monterrey072 Montevideo076 Porto Alegre080 Puebla084 Quito088 Rio de Janeiro092 Santiago096 São Paulo 3
  • 4. Latin American Green City Index | Expert advisory panel Expert advisory panelBrunella Boselli Gordon McGranahan Mary Jane C. Ortega Hiroaki SuzukiStatistician, Regional Develop- Head of Human Settlements Secretary General Lead Urban Specialist and Eco2ment Policy Division, Organisa- Group, International Institute CITYNET Team Leader, Corporatetion for Economic Cooperation for Environment and Develop- Finance Economics and Urbanand Development (OECD) ment Department, World BankBrunella Boselli has been with the Gordon McGranahan currently Mary Jane C. Ortega is the former Hiroaki Suzuki has more than 20regional development policy directs the Human Settlements mayor of the city of San Fernando, years of operational experience indivision of the OECD since 2003. Group at the International Institute Philippines, and served the city the infrastructure sector and publicShe is responsible for regional for Environment and Develop- from 1998 to 2007. She is now the sector at the World Bank. Havingstatistics, and is one of the authors ment. Trained as an economist, he secretary general of CITYNET, a worked in the East Asia and Pacificof the flagship publication “OECD spent the 1990s at the Stockholm network of 119 member cities and Region, as East Asia urban sectorRegions at a Glance”. She has Environment Institute, in charge of NGOs that works to improve living leader and China urban sectorrecently developed the OECD their Urban Environment conditions in human settlements coordinator for the last five years,Metropolitan Database, which Programme. He works on a range in Asia-Pacific. She was the charter he joined the Bank’s Corporatecontains socio-economic data for of urban environmental issues, president of the Solid Waste Finance Economics and Urban82 metropolitan areas, and is with an emphasis on addressing Management Association of the Department in 2009 as lead urbancurrently working on a new OECD poverty and environmental Philippines, and was recently specialist and Eco2 team leader. Heterritorial definition for metropoli- problems in and around the home, elected back to the position of is the main author of “Eco2 cities:tan regions. and how the critical scale of urban president. She was a member of Ecological Cities as Economic Cities” environmental burdens changes as the executive committee of the (www.worldbank.org/eco2). cities become wealthier. Key United Nations Advisory Council publications include: “The Citizens on Local Authorities (UNACLA) at Risk: From Urban Sanitation to from 2000 to 2007. She received Sustainable Cities” and “The rising the UN-Habitat Scroll of Honour tide: Assessing the risks of climate Award in 2000. change and human settlements in low-elevation coastal zones”. He was the convening lead author of the urban systems chapter of the Millennium Ecosystem Assess- ment.4
  • 5. A panel of global experts in urban environmental sustainability advised the EconomistIntelligence Unit (EIU) in developing the methodology for the Green City Index, includingthe Latin American Green City Index and forthcoming Indexes in other regions.The EIU would like to thank the panel for their time and valuable insight.Pablo Vaggione Sebastian Veit David Wilk Nicholas YouFounder, Design Convergence Senior Climate Economist Climate Change Lead Specia- Chairman, Steering CommitteeUrbanism African Development Bank list, Sustainable Energy and of the World Urban Campaign, Climate Change Unit, Inter- UN-Habitat American Development BankPablo Vaggione is an urban Sebastian Veit is senior climate David Wilk joined the Inter- Nicholas You is chairman of,specialist with over 15 years of economist at the African American Development Bank in amongst others, the Cities andexperience. His cross-sector and Development Bank in Tunis. While early 2001 as an urban environ- Climate Change Commission of themultidisciplinary approach at the organisation he has focused mental senior specialist. His World Future Council, and theprovides cities and actors in urban on green growth strategies in professional experience in Latin Assurance Group of the Urbandevelopment with integrated, Africa and renewable energy America and the Caribbean during Infrastructure Initiative of thestrategic and practical plans to issues. In 2007 he was a consultant the 1990s included a range of World Business Council for Sus-respond to the challenges of to the United Nations Framework management and consulting tainable Development. Aftersustainable urbanisation. He has Convention on Climate Change, activities with the World Bank, running UN-Habitat’s Bestworked in East and South-East and from 2004 to 2007 he was a international organisations and Practices and Local LeadershipAsia, Western Europe, and Latin consultant with the World Bank in consulting firms. His work with Programme for over a decade, heand North America, in the Washington DC. At the World Bank these organisations was in the area was appointed as the seniorpreparation of city development he specialised in energy and water. of land use and environmental policy and strategic planningstrategies, plans for the planning, watershed manage- adviser of the agency. From 2007regeneration of historic urban ment, sustainable urban transport to 2009 he led the developmentareas, and sustainable develop- and environmental assessment of and roll out of UN-Habitat’sment blueprints for new districts. development and infrastructure strategic and institutionalHe provides advice on urban issues projects. management plan. As part of thatto a number of multilateral plan, he was asked in Januaryorganisations, local governments 2009 to spearhead UN-Habitat’sand companies. His work for World Urban Campaign. Upon hisMadrid received in 2007 the World retirement from the UN in JulyLeadership Award. Between 2007 2010, some 50 partners repre-and 2010 he served as the senting public, private and civilSecretary General of the society institutions worldwideInternational Society of City and elected him as chairman of theRegional Planners (ISOCARP), a Campaign’s Steering Committee.professional organization ofplanners from 70 countries. 5
  • 6. Latin American Green City Index | Introduction IntroductionThe challenge of rapid urbanisationL atin America’s rural environmental chal- lenges, such as Amazonian deforestation,often receive the most attention from the environmental considerations are a major part of this integrated puzzle. To take one example, urban sprawl has put immense pressure on to provide stakeholders with a unique tool to help Latin American cities learn from each other, in order to better address the common environ-media, environmentalists and other observers existing infrastructure, with implications for mental challenges they face. The report is divid-around the world. Although these issues are cer- buildings, public transport, road networks, ed into five parts. First, it examines the overalltainly vital, urban environmental concerns such water quality and access, waste collection, and key findings, including an in-depth look at Curiti-as traffic congestion, land use policies, waste sanitation. The path of least resistance for devel- ba, the regional leader. Second, it examines thedisposal and air quality are more immediate to opment, meanwhile, has often been along key findings from the eight individual categoriesthe majority of Latin America’s residents, simply existing highways, which encourages residents in the Index — energy and CO2, land use andbecause 81% of the population already lives in to use private cars, and contributes to deteriorat- buildings, transport, waste, water, sanitation,cities. According to the United Nations Popula- ing air quality. Environmental governance has air quality and environmental governance.tion Division, Latin America is the most also been affected, as growing cities now strad- Third, the report presents a variety of leadingurbanised region in the developing world. It is dle multiple municipal jurisdictions. best-practice ideas from across the region.already more urbanised than some parts of the The Latin American Green City Index, a research Fourth, it gives a detailed description of thedeveloped world. And the percentage of the project conducted by the Economist Intelligence methodology used to create the Index. Finally,population living in cities in Latin America is Unit, sponsored by Siemens, seeks to measure an in-depth profile for each city outlines its par-expected to rise further. By 2030, the figure will and assess the environmental performance of ticular strengths, weaknesses and ongoing envi-reach 86%, on a par with Western Europe. 17 major Latin American cities across a range of ronmental initiatives. These profiles rightly con- The rapid rise in city populations has had eco- criteria. This report presents the key findings stitute the bulk of the report, because the aim ofnomic, political and social implications, and and highlights from the Index, and is intended the study is to share valuable experience.6
  • 7. What the Index measures: Testing commmon perceptions The 17 cities selected for the Latin American Green City Index include most major is ranked above average overall. Buenos Aires and Montevideo, however, two pleas- Latin American urban areas. They are both the capital cities of these countries as ant and beautiful cities, perform below average overall. Neither the Index nor these well as certain leading business capitals selected for their size and importance. The common perceptions are wrong — they rely on different information. Perceptions of cities were picked independently rather than relying on requests from city govern- cities are often based on subjective observations about quality of life, including fac- ments to be included, in order to enhance the Index’s credibility and comparability. tors such as beautiful architecture, recreation or cultural institutions. Residents’ envi- Another decisive factor in the selection was the availability of data. ronmental perceptions, unsurprisingly, tend to focus on issues that are highly prob- The methodology, described in detail in a separate section in this report, has been lematic and visible, such as traffic congestion, uncollected waste, or polluted air or developed by the EIU in cooperation with Siemens. It relies on the expertise of both rivers. The Index, on the other hand, measures environmental performance across organisations, a panel of outside experts, and the experience from producing last eight categories — energy and CO2, land use and buildings, transport, waste, water, year’s European Green City Index. One of the great strengths of the Latin American sanitation, air quality and environmental governance — and gives equal weighting to Green City Index is the breadth of information it uses. There are 31 individual indica- each. The Index also evaluates policies, which are a reflection of cities’ commitment tors for each city, and these indicators are often based on multiple data points. Value to reducing their future environmental impact. Often it takes the public many years to also comes from how the Index is presented. Each city is assessed in eight categories recognise the effects of new policies. An example is Mexico City. The city is almost cer- and placed within a performance band to indicate its relative results. The process is tainly better known for its air quality weaknesses than its strengths in transport poli- transparent, consistent, replicable, and reveals sources of best practice. cies, let alone its advanced eco-building policies; and therefore some might expect it Some of the Index results, on first glance, may be surprising. São Paulo, for exam- to perform badly overall. The Index, however, because of what it is measuring, takes a ple, a city with a reputation for chronic traffic congestion and extensive urban sprawl, different perspective. 7
  • 8. Latin American Green City Index | Results ResultsH ere are the complete results for the 17 cities in the Latin American Green City Index, including the overall results and placements withinthe eight individual categories. The cities were placed in one of five perfor-mance bands, from well below average to well above average.Overall Results well below average above well below average average above average average Guadalajara Buenos Aires Medellín Belo Horizonte Curitiba Lima Montevideo Mexico City Bogotá Monterrey Brasília Porto Alegre Rio de Janeiro Puebla São Paulo Quito SantiagoCategory resultsEnergy and CO2 Transport well below average above well well below average above well below average average above below average average above average average average average Santiago Guadalajara Belo Horizonte Bogotá São Paulo Brasília Guadalajara Belo Horizonte Bogotá Santiago Medellín Brasília Curitiba Monterrey Buenos Aires Curitiba Montevideo Buenos Aires Mexico City Porto Alegre Lima Mexico City Porto Alegre Lima Rio de Janeiro Puebla Medellín Quito Puebla Monterrey Montevideo São Paulo Quito Rio de JaneiroLand Use and Buildings Waste well below average above well well below average above well below average average above below average average above average average average average Lima Medellín Brasília Belo Horizonte Brasília Belo Horizonte Guadalajara Bogotá Curitiba Montevideo Quito Buenos Aires Bogotá Buenos Aires Mexico City Monterrey Curitiba Mexico City Lima Rio de Janeiro Porto Alegre Guadalajara Rio de Janeiro Medellín Puebla Monterrey São Paulo Montevideo Quito Porto Alegre Santiago Puebla São Paulo Santiago8
  • 9. Water Air Quality well below average above well well below average above well below average average above below average average above average average average average Buenos Aires Lima Medellín Belo Horizonte Bogotá Guadalajara Belo Horizonte Curitiba Guadalajara Montevideo Mexico City Bogotá Buenos Aires Porto Alegre Brasília Rio de Janeiro Porto Alegre Brasília Lima Puebla Medellín Puebla Curitiba Mexico City Rio de Janeiro Quito Quito Monterrey Monterrey Santiago Santiago Montevideo São Paulo São PauloSanitation Environmental Governance well below average above well well below average above well below average average above below average average above average average average average Bogotá Belo Horizonte Brasília Medellín Guadalajara Belo Horizonte Buenos Aires Bogotá Mexico City Buenos Aires Porto Alegre Curitiba Lima Medellín Brasília Rio de Janeiro Guadalajara Puebla Monterrey Monterrey Puebla Curitiba Lima Rio de Janeiro Santiago Porto Alegre Quito Montevideo Mexico City São Paulo Santiago Montevideo São Paulo Quito 9
  • 10. Latin American Green City Index | Overall key findings Overall key findingsCuritiba: A class apart located along the banks of one of the city’s main ronmental issues became as much a part of citi- water sources. The key reason for Curitiba’s out- zens’ identities as it is in cities such as Copen-Curitiba, a long-time sustainability pioneer in standing performance is a long history of taking hagen and Stockholm, which led the Europeanthe region, is the clear leader in the Index. The a holistic approach to the environment, which, Green City Index. Politicians in Curitiba cannotbirthplace of “bus rapid transit” (BRT) and Brazil’s as the Index demonstrates and experts confirm, simply react to immediate environmental crises;first major pedestrian-only street, Curitiba is the is unusual in the rest of the region. As early as the public expects them to look ahead.only city in the Index to rank well above average the 1960s, faced with rapid population growth,overall. It achieves this unique distinction in two city officials implemented proposals to reduce Brazilian cities:individual categories, air quality and waste, and urban sprawl, create pedestrian areas, and pro- Leading the way on policyplaces above average in five others. The city’s vide effective, low-cost rapid transit. The city’senvironmental oversight is consistently strong BRT has since become a model for a number of Five of the six cities that finish above average ortoo, and it also has, with only a few exceptions, Latin American cities. By the 1980s, the urban well above average overall in the Index are fromamong the best policies in each category. Since plan involved integrated initiatives that Brazil — Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Curitiba, Rio de2009, for example, the city’s environmental addressed issues such as the creation of green Janeiro, and São Paulo. Although the cities haveauthority has been conducting an ongoing areas, waste recycling and management, and a very high share of hydropower, which givesstudy on the CO2 absorption rate in Curitiba’s sanitation. This integrated planning allows good them an advantage in their energy and CO2 per-green spaces, as well as evaluating total CO2 performance in one environmental area to cre- formance, on the surface they do not have anyemissions in the city. It is working to relocate ate benefits in others: part of the reason for other particular shared strengths. The perfor-those living in informal settlements to low-cost Curitiba’s well above average placing in air quali- mances of the individual Brazilian cities varyhousing — where sanitation, waste collection, ty is successful public transport, and its perfor- widely within the categories. The best exampleand water are easier to supply. The state water mance in each category is linked to the holistic of this is in the waste category, where Curitiba iscompany operating in Curitiba has also extend- approach. The city’s strategy has received praise well above average and Brasília well below.ed water services and sewerage connections to from experts, including Nicholas You, urban However, there is one overriding asset that isall of the 1,790 households in the informal set- environmental specialist (see interview later in common among the Brazilian cities, includingtlement, “Vila Zumbi dos Palmares”, which is this report). Furthermore, concern about envi- Porto Alegre: strong environmental policies.10
  • 11. This point comes through clearly when the al and state governments, “to protect the envi- on page 12). For example, average income forquantitative indicators are removed from the ronment and fight pollution in any form”, and Curitiba, which ranked well above average in theanalysis. Five of the six Brazilian cities perform “promote … the improvement of housing and Index overall, is within 15% of the income fig-at least as well, and often significantly better, basic sanitation conditions”. Three years later, in ures for three other cities with widely differingwhen only the policy indicators are assessed. 1991, Rio de Janeiro hosted the first Earth Sum- performances: Rio de Janeiro, at above average;São Paulo, for example, has one of the most mit, and the country created its national Min- Porto Alegre, at average; and Guadalajara at wellrobust climate change action plans in the Index. istry of the Environment. Since then environ- below average. This contrasts sharply with theBelo Horizonte performs well for its eco-build- mental issues have received a growing policy strong link between environmental perfor-ings, water and air quality policies, while Rio priority in Brazilian cities. This does not mean mance and GDP per person found in similar EIUde Janeiro stands out for its clean energy instant, visible solutions to long-standing chal- studies in other regions, including the Europeanpolicies. The exception is Brasília, which drops lenges: many environmental issues can take Green City Index and initial research taking placefrom above average to average overall when decades to address. Nevertheless, it is an indica- in Asia. These studies involve cities with a wideronly policy indicators are taken into account, tion of a stronger, current performance as well income range than in the Latin American Index,largely because it scores very well on certain as an indication of likely future improvements in but that does not explain the absence of a linkquantitative indicators such as the amount of the situation on the ground. between GDP and environmental results: in thewastewater treated, green spaces per person other studies, the correlation is clear even justand average daily concentrations of air pollu- Environmental performance for those cities that fall into Latin America’stion. But even Brasília performs well for regula- and income: The missing link smaller income range.tions on urban sprawl and protecting green in Latin America Latin Americans have not completely sus-spaces. pended the laws of economics, as Professor This common strength comes as no surprise One surprising finding when examining the Roberto Sánchez-Rodríguez, professor at theto experts. Brazilian concern with environmen- overall results is that there is no clear relation- University of California, and an expert on urbantal policy dates back several years. Article 23 of ship between overall environmental perfor- environmental issues, points out. “Richer citiesthe 1988 constitution, for example, granted mance and city income in the Index, defined in have more resources, and with growing incomemunicipalities the power, along with the nation- the Index as average GDP per capita (see chart there is a trend in the population to become 11
  • 12. Latin American Green City Index | Overall key findingsmore aware of environmental issues and to con- example, it can diminish the city’s environmen- environmental problems. The results of thesider them important,” he says. More income tal performance. In poorer cities that lack basic Index as a whole, however, indicate an unclearcan have the opposite effect in some cases too infrastructure, there is no doubt either that relationship between wealth and environmentalthough. When richer citizens buy more cars, for money would go a long way to solving some performance. This suggests that something else is impeding wealthier cities from using money alone to improve their environmental results.Environmental performance and income: no clear trend One problem at a time: Average city income (US$ GDP per person) by performance band In search of the holistic approach 18,000 Much of the answer to the muted effect of 16,000 income in Latin America lies in how cities have 14,000 responded to rapid population growth and the resulting urban sprawl. The Mexico City metro- 12,000 politan area, for example, went from roughly 11 10,000 million to 18 million people between 1975 and 8,000 2000. Similarly, between 1970 and 1990, São Paulo’s metropolitan area population expanded 6,000 by nearly 90% from 8.1 million to 15.4 million. 4,000 Medium-sized cities are facing less growth in 2,000 absolute numbers, but still very substantial per- 0 centage increases. Medellín has grown by well below average above well overall roughly 16%, to 3.5 million, in the same period. below average average above Urban sprawl has of course followed. For exam- average average ple, UN Habitat reports that Guadalajara grew in12
  • 13. area by over 65% between 1990 and 2006 — an categories. Twelve of the 17 cities had at least of opposing political parties. Prof Sánchez-average annual rate of 3.2%, or about 1.5 times one above average and one below average cate- Rodríguez explains that bringing these stake-faster than its population was increasing during gory ranking. The others varied between aver- holders together, or even getting them to agreethe same period. As a result, officials are left age and well above or well below. Prof Gilbert has on a common vision for the city, is difficult. As aplaying catch-up. Even in the wealthier cities, also observed this trend. “The difficulty is that result, not only is it harder to go beyond solvingthey tend to fix the most immediate problems they are all doing differently on different crite- immediate, very local problems, but it is alsoonly when there is a strong political demand for ria,” he says. more difficult to access the economic resourcesa solution, rather than to engage in comprehen- Urban sprawl has also put limits on policy of the whole city.sive actions or forward planning. “Until there is options. As detailed below and in the city pro- Looking to the future, the environmentalsome kind of crisis — it could be a political one files, vehicle numbers are having negative challenges for Latin American urban areas willbecause of protests or because an agency can’t effects not just on transportation but on air qual- grow. Experts predict that cities, especiallyprovide a service or runs out of money — envi- ity and greenhouse gas emissions. The sheer medium-sized ones, will increase in populationronmental issues are not high on the list of prior- size of certain Latin American cities has made and area. This new urban space is alreadyities and not much gets done,” says Professor some officials very reluctant to tackle vehicle encroaching on environmentally marginal land.Alan Gilbert of University College London, an usage. In fact, the way cities are arranged has Infrastructure will come under increasing pres-expert on Latin American urbanisation and the fostered economic interests and cultural atti- sure from larger populations and the extremeenvironment. This ad hoc problem-solving tudes highly favourable to the automobile. weather effects of climate change, includingapproach means that certain areas in particular When Bogotá’s mayor introduced a BRT system flooding, droughts and storms. In addition, theget ignored. In practice, he says, this approach some years ago, he faced a taxi driver strike; and growth of cities outside of the formal planningmeans that when it comes to issues like sanita- after he introduced further regulations restrict- framework will also continue. Addressing thesetion, for example, a sewerage system is going to ing automobiles, he was nearly impeached. challenges will require a broad, long-termcome before wastewater treatment. Another consequence of urban sprawl has been vision, and it is the intention of this report to pro- This ad hoc approach becomes clear in that many larger cities have now grown to cover vide examples of strategies and best practicesanother surprising finding in the Index — the several municipal jurisdictions, with the differ- that will help cities adopt a long-term broadwide variety of city performances across Index ent local governments sometimes in the hands vision for environmental sustainability. 13
  • 14. Latin American Green City Index | Key findings from the categories Key findings from the caEnergy and CO2 addressing other areas such as energy, build- harder to guard existing urban green spaces ings, or waste. rather than create new ones. They do less well,The energy and CO2 category only takes into ‘ Only seven of 17 environmental depart- however, on creating environmentally friendlyaccount emissions from electricity consump- ments have energy issues within their environ- buildings. Widespread population growth maytion, due to a lack of reliable data on the overall mental remit, and just ten have climate change. be an influence in both cases. Urban sprawl,energy consumption per city. Because of this, Sometimes overlapping jurisdiction is the rea- especially informal settlements, makes protec-Latin American cities in the Index tend to score son. In Mexico, for example, the state govern- tion of green spaces a political imperative, butwell on CO2 emissions, since many rely heavily ments guide most environmental policy at the the need to house so many makes tough build-on hydropower. This advantage, however, municipal level. ing standards problematic.seems to reduce their focus on emissions reduc- ‘ Often those cities with the most renewable ‘ Policies on green spaces are widespread. Alltion policies. energy tend to have the weakest climate change 17 cities have at least some kind of protection of‘ Nine of 17 cities derive more than 80% of policies. Of the nine cities with over 80% renew- green spaces and environmentally sensitivetheir electrical energy from renewable sources. able energy, only three score better than aver- areas, and all but one make some attempt toSão Paulo for example relies entirely on age in this Index category. São Paulo’s perfor- stop urban sprawl.hydropower and has no greenhouse gas emis- mance, on the other hand, comes from ‘ The continuing growth of these cities, in-sions from electricity production at all, con- combining renewable energy with strong clean cluding the frequent encroachment of informaltributing to its well above average performance energy policies and a robust climate change settlements into environmentally sensitivein this category. action plan. areas, however, suggests that such poli-‘ Conversely, four of the cities have no climate cies, while necessary, may not always be effec-change action plan at all. The plans of five others Land use and buildings tive.cover greenhouse gas emissions from only a sin- ‘ Only nine cites have full or partial eco-build-gle specific activity, such as transport, without The Index suggests that Latin American cities try ing standards. Just five have full regulations in14
  • 15. tegories place to motivate households and business to population densities, where systems are easier waste, and for eight cities the figure is 100%. lower their energy use. to establish and more cost effective, tend to The overall average for all 17 cities is 96%. The ‘ Only four fully promote citizen awareness on have longer networks. Yet only eight cities in the apparent near universality of waste collection ways to improve the energy-efficiency of build- Index have fully comprehensive mass transit suggests that, in at least many cases, waste gen- ings. policies or well integrated pricing. erated by residents of informal settlements does ‘ Climate change action plans address energy ‘ Policies to reduce the number of cars on the not appear in these figures. Nevertheless, cities and emissions issues in buildings in just five cities. road are rare. Just two cities have park and ride do well in collecting waste from recognised dis- schemes. None currently has carpooling lanes. tricts. Transport Only Santiago, rated well above average in this ‘ Waste generated per person, at an Index category, has a congestion charge. average of 465 kg per year, is noticeably lower Many Latin American cities have successfully set ‘ Comprehensive public transport networks than the figure in last year’s European Green City up extensive public transport systems. However, are only part of the solution to reducing reliance Index, at 511 kg per year. they have not performed as well on the more on cars. Index figures indicate that the number ‘ Once past the provision of basic waste collec- sensitive challenge of getting people out of their of vehicles per person in a city goes up with tion, a divide opens up. Most cities have only cars. But those efforts are necessary to address income per capita, independent of the quality or partial industrial or hazardous waste disposal the region’s deeply entrenched culture of indi- size of the public transport system. strategies or illegal waste-disposal monitoring. vidual transportation. ‘ The city portraits show wide variations when ‘ Cost considerations have shaped the region’s Waste it comes to recycling. Some cities, including the public transport networks. Notably, Curitiba category leader, Curitiba, have extensive, effec- gave birth to “bus rapid transit” (BRT) systems, The cities in the Index do well on the essentials tive recycling systems. In some other cases, and most cities now either have them or are of waste disposal. According to official data, though, although programmes exist, these are building them. In addition, cities with higher fourteen cities collect and dispose over 95% of basic and minimal. 15
  • 16. Latin American Green City Index | Key findings from the categoriesWater exhortation and water meters, which are pre- the ocean has less political impact than neigh-The region’s cities generally take water quality sent in 13 of 17 cities, more concrete efficiency bourhoods without services.very seriously. They pay somewhat less atten- steps are rare. ‘ On average 94% of residents in cities in thetion to maintaining water infrastructure, ‘ Leakage, on the other hand, is high, at an Index have access to sanitation, and for 13 citiesbecause it may be possible to overlook some average of 35%. Surprisingly, city leakage rates the figure is over 90%. Although the high pro-problems as long as residents get clean water. do not correlate at all with GDP per capita and portion may leave out some in informal settle-‘ Ninety-eight percent of residents of cities in therefore, presumably, infrastructure budgets. It ments, it reflects concerted efforts to connectthe Index have access to potable water. This may is possible that the high figures reflect unregu- most households, often including those innot include residents of informal settlements in lated water use by residents of informal settle- recognised and unrecognised areas.some cases, but typically water companies have ments. Also, with a few notable exceptions, ‘ Wastewater treatment, on the other hand, isbeen active in extending service to such areas. most Index cities do not face high levels of water very poor. On average only 52% of wastewater is‘ Adoption and monitoring of water quality stress, so leakage may not be perceived as a treated, and eight of 17 cities treat less than halfpolicies and standards are widespread. pressing issue. their water. Two treat none.‘ The region also does well on efficiency. Cities ‘ Only five cities have evaluated sanitation asin the Index consume on average 264 litres per Sanitation part of a baseline environmental review in theperson per day, which is low compared to the last five years. This means it is the environmen-European average of 288 litres per person per The region sees a sharp division between the tal area in the Index that receives the least offi-day. In some cities this low consumption is provision of sanitation services and what cial examination.because of supply constraints. In others, years of authorities do with the wastewater once collect- ‘ Part of the problem is that wastewater treat-encouraging conservation are bearing fruit. ed. While lack of access to sanitation is a social ment can be expensive. Medellín is the only citySuch efforts are common, and every city and political issue, as well as an environmental ranked well above average on sanitation, and itengages in them to some degree. But beyond one, wastewater being pumped into rivers and has invested heavily over the last 15 years.16
  • 17. Air quality micrograms per cubic metre, are only just under tain ones these policies may be too constrained the WHO level of 50 micrograms. Seven cities by other departments or overlapping jurisdic-Latin American cities recognise their all too obvi- exceed this figure. Only five of the 17 cities meet tions to be truly effective.ous air quality problems and have active policies all three WHO guidelines. ‘ All cities have environmental departmentsto address them. Nevertheless, the car culture ‘ Index cities take the issue seriously through and involve stakeholders at least to some extentremains an ongoing difficulty. policies. All monitor their air quality, and codes in decision-making on projects with major envi-‘ The region does relatively well on sulphur and air quality promotion in some form are also ronmental impacts. Most also provide access todioxide levels — the main source of which is universal. information through a central point.typically fossil fuel combustion for power sta- ‘ Many Index cities face specific topographic ‘ Only 11 of 17 of these environmental depart-tions, notably coal. The average daily mean in or climatic challenges that make it more difficult ments, though, have the full capacity to imple-the Index cities, 11 micrograms per cubic metre, to improve air quality. ment their own policies. Just nine monitor andis about half the World Health Organisation’s ‘ As the city profiles show, however, the big publish results on environmental performance(WHO) guideline maximum of 20 micrograms. problem for many cities is vehicle traffic. Those every three years, and four have not completedNitrogen dioxide, however, more generally asso- with strong policies on car and truck emissions baseline environmental reviews.ciated with burning fuel in internal combustion testing or the promotion of public transport ‘ Limits also exist on what certain depart-engines, notably in cars, is a very serious issue. tend to do better. Curitiba is ranked well above ments can do. Just seven monitor energy con-The average level in the Index, at 38 micrograms average, and its BRT system is often cited as a sumption in their cities and only 10 have climateper cubic metre, comes worryingly close to the reason for its better air quality. change in their remits.WHO maximum of 40 micrograms. This is a fig- ‘ The city portraits suggest that part of theure that eight cities equal or exceed. Particulate Environmental governance problem is the fractured state of governance inmatter — with multiple sources, including road many cities, with power divided among differ-dust and industrial processes — tells a similar The cities in the Index have formal environmen- ent levels of government, different municipali-story. The average daily concentrations, at 48 tal governance structures in place, but for cer- ties, or both. 17
  • 18. Latin American Green City Index | Managing the city as a ‘living organism’ Managing the city An interview with Nicholas You, urban environmental expertThe path to greener cities, says Nicholas You, requires rethinking how we manage them. Holistic planningtoo often suffers from a sector-by-sector approach across competing jurisdictions, and policymakers failto see the city as a single entity. Mr You is chairman of the Steering Committee of UN-Habitat’s WorldUrban Campaign, a platform for private and public organisations to share sustainable urban policies andtools. He also leads several other global sustainable development initiatives, and served on the expertpanel that advised the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) on the methodology for the Latin AmericanGreen City Index. He spoke to the EIU about the results of the Index, the difficulty of measuring theenvironmental impact of informal settlements and the necessity to administer cities as “living organisms”.The Index results seem to show that of local authorities, and overlapping jurisdic- to be doing: namely top-down, long-term urbanmost Latin American cities address tions. But there is one key issue: who is planning.environmental issues on a case-by-case responsible for doing what? This is a pervasivebasis, often in response to a crisis. The problem throughout much of the world. Informal settlements clearly affect a city’snotable exception is Curitiba, which was Everybody is responsible for a slice of the environmental footprint. Yet by theirthe only one of 17 cities to place well problem — such as water, energy and transport nature, informal settlements are not wellabove average overall in the Index. — but nobody controls the bigger picture. covered by statistics. For that reason theWhat is preventing other cities from Service providers work in splendid isolation, Economist Intelligence Unit could notcomprehensively addressing environ- which is inimical to the holistic approach include data about informal settlements inmental challenges? required to make our cities more sustainable. the Latin American Green City Index in aThere are several obstacles, including short- You mention Curitiba. Many would argue that way that was methodologically sound.term politics versus long-term planning, Curitiba is an example of a city that has been How might this affect the overall envi-decentralisation and the lack of empowerment doing for decades what all cities are supposed ronmental picture of cities in Latin18
  • 19. as a ‘living organism’America, and how exactly do informal proximity with access. People living in informal We discussed Curitiba as a good examplesettlements affect the environmental settlements may literally be living next door to of top-down, long-term urban planning.performance of a city? water supply, sewerage and garbage collection How can planning in other cities beInformal settlements are, by definition, services, or for that matter to schools and improved?unsustainable. They represent a high degree of hospitals, yet not have access to these services. For many years I headed a best practicesocial and economic exclusion. One of Latin initiative at UN-Habitat, and we found literallyAmerica’s most advanced thinkers of his time, Can we identify any common hundreds of examples of innovations, newMilton Santos, said that poverty is the worst approaches in the way cities are models, new technologies. The single biggestform of pollution. Informal settlements are addressing the challenge of informal question I had to ask myself all the time was,living proof that we are not planning our cities settlements? ‘Why aren’t these best practices becoming thewell. I believe that we are beginning to see an norm?’ The only answer I came up with is that emerging pattern which favours upgrading the lessons from best practices are not being fedOften cities report high levels of access to informal settlements, as opposed to removal into policymaking at the highest level. Theybasic services, such as potable water, and demolition. Slums are communities with remain isolated initiatives that might inspire awaste collection and sanitation, when the their own social, cultural and economic few other cities, but they don’t necessarily havesituation on the ground may be very networks. A lot of the reason why people don’t an impact on public policy, and therefore don’tdifferent because of the presence of move from the informal settlement is because, get replicated at scale. We need to realise thereinformal settlements. What are the in terms of location, they are ideal, with access is a lot of innovation out there. How can weimplications for trying to get an accurate to jobs, or services they would otherwise have systematically document these stories andpicture through data? to pay considerably more for. Most slums record the lessons learned, and provide aIf you are looking at indicators, such as water started their life located on the margins of the feedback mechanism directly into policy?consumption per capita or waste generation per city. Over time, with rapid growth, the slum The World Urban Campaign is working on ancapita, and leave out informal settlements, actually finds itself located in the middle of the initiative to get cities to tell their stories under ayou’re leaving out part of the picture. The water city. Removal or relocation is also asking people new perspective of “living practices”. What arecompany has a remit, and the sewage company to move from a neighbourhood where they you doing today to tackle tomorrow’shas a remit, and their remits do not typically have lived a good part of their life, if not their challenges? What innovations are being tested,include informal settlements. They rightly say whole life. what new tools are being developed?“100% coverage”, while the city as a whole maydrop down to 70% access. Since the Green City What kinds of upgrades are cities In general, what are the most importantIndex is comparative within a region, that is, undertaking? steps that cities in Latin America and thecomparing Latin American cities with each Upgrading takes place on several fronts— rest of the world have to take to becomeother, the distortion won’t be that serious. If we hooking the settlement into the infrastructure more environmentally sustainable?compare across regions, we have to be a little grid, and providing waste collection, water, and We have to take planning seriously. I don’t meanmore careful. sanitation. There is also an issue of tenure. Most ‘sectoral’ planning, where each sector—water, of the time an informal settlement remains energy, waste, sanitation—plans independent-What are the objectives of UN-Habitat with informal because it is not clear who owns or has ly. We must look at the city or the metro regionrespect to improving statistics on informal the right to the land. The service provider, the as a whole. Competing jurisdictions are one ofsettlements? water or sewerage company, for example, are the biggest enemies to sustainable urbanisa-UN-Habitat has been trying to show that the very reluctant to put in infrastructure if tenure is tion. You have metropolitan areas cutting acrossmethods being used do not provide an accurate not clear. many jurisdictions, with several planningpicture of what is happening when it comes to commissions and independent serviceinformal settlements. It will take years to What incentives do cities have to providers. You could be busy trying to greenchange the way statistical offices work and upgrade rather than remove the settle- your city, but half of the population thatcensus data is taken. The statistical issue is, how ments? depends on your city may live in the suburbsdo you gradually refine techniques so these The cities that are trying to play a proactive role and fall under a different governmentalproblems are not overlooked. When data is realise that globalisation is affecting everyone, structure; and these governments are busydisaggregated, for example, at the household or everywhere. They can become victims of building the next shopping mall, the next golfneighbourhood level, which UN-Habitat has globalisation, or get some of the benefits. The course, the next exburb. The city is a livingbeen doing for some time, we begin to see proactive cities realise you can’t have high organism that needs to be managed as a singleanother picture of reality. A common syndrome, percentages of your population socially entity, and just like any living organism, it needsfor example, is that we often confound excluded and expect to be a global city. to develop holistically. 19
  • 20. Latin American Green City Index | Exemplar projects Exemplar ProjectsEnergy and CO2 Ideas from other citiesSão Paulo: Harvesting methane to The benefits do not stop at cutting emissions.power the city The initiative qualifies as a “clean development Belo Horizonte is a leader in solar energy in mechanism” under the Kyoto Protocol, a pro- Brazil, with about 12 times the volume of solarMany cities are generating electricity from the gramme which offers carbon credits for emis- collectors per person compared to the country asmethane that arises from landfills, but São sion reduction projects. The credits are equiva- a whole, according to city officials. Its new foot-Paulo’s efforts in this area stand out among Latin lent to 1 tonne of CO2, which can be traded, sold ball stadium, being built for the upcoming WorldAmerican cities. The city recently closed two of or used to meet carbon emission reduction tar- Cup in 2014, will have panels that generateits largest landfills, Bandeirantes in 2007, and gets in other countries. São Paulo splits the car- enough energy for its own operations. On daysSão João in 2009. bon credits from the project with its partner with no games, the power will be sold to the lo- Rather than let methane from the decaying company, and the city has been selling its share cal electricity company.material add to greenhouse gas emissions, the to raise money for other projects. It participated The biggest hydroelectric project in Colombia iscity contracted with a private company to cap- in the first-ever spot market auction on a regu- being built near Medellín. The city-owned utili-ture the gas at the former landfills and burn it to lated exchange in 2008, and made US$36 mil- ty, Empresas Públicas de Medellín, is leading thegenerate electricity. The two sites have a joint lion in that year alone. The city is using much of construction of the 2.4 gigawatt HidroItuangocapacity of 46 megawatts, which makes it one of the money to improve the neighbourhoods project. It will have eight generators, and isthe largest methane harvesting initiatives in the around the landfills. In 2009, for example, it scheduled to start operations in 2018. The build-world. The two projects are expected to cut car- opened two leisure areas, totalling 9,200 square ing consortium has already begun a series ofbon emissions by about 11 million tons through metres, which included playgrounds, walking consultations with community leaders on envi-2012. paths and community space. ronmental and social issues related to the pro- ject, which the contract requires. Curitiba is studying the carbon absorption rates of its green spaces, as part of a draft plan to limit the city’s overall emissions.20
  • 21. the project is the diverse methods it employs. Programme officials have not imposed a single, all-encompassing plan. Rather, they have coop- erated with numerous departments and institu- tions throughout Quito, in addition to their own direct efforts. One specific city-run initiative included lining Quito’s grand avenues with trees. The latest high visibility city initiative is to employ city workers and volunteers to replant 300,000 trees lost in forest fires during summer 2009. In 2006, the city ran a tree-planting com- petition with neighbourhood groups in 145 dis- tricts. The “My Neighbourhood is Dressed in Trees” competition led to the planting and main- tenance of 140,000 trees. Although about one quarter of the trees died from reasons ranging from a lack of mainte- nance to cars crashing into them, the pro- gramme has seen steady progress. By 2008 the equivalent of 5,000 hectares had been reforest- ed, although some of these were planted in sur- rounding rural areas. The programme demon- strates that encouraging a wide range of institutions and individuals to simply get trees in the ground and let nature take its course can have environmental and aesthetic benefits.Land use and buildings Ideas from other citiesBuenos Aires: Setting an example to monitor consumption in every governmentwith public buildings building. Rio de Janeiro is creating new cycle lanes and Officials started with city buildings because green spaces, including developing a green corri-In 2008 Buenos Aires launched a programme they are often large, and can achieve substantial dor lined by 11,000 trees, as part of a largerthat aims to dramatically reduce energy con- savings quickly. They also set an example for the US$202 million project to revitalise its port in thesumption in 100 public buildings. The “Energy private sector. The city’s environmental depart- historic city centre. The “Marvellous Port” projectEfficiency Programme in Public Buildings” tar- ment is starting work on legislation that will will also refurbish decaying historical buildings,gets energy reductions of 20% from 2007 levels impose energy efficiency measures on private and improve transport access and sanitation ser-by the end of 2012, and is expected to eliminate sector buildings. Another of the programme’s vices.5,000 tonnes of carbon emissions. Officials goals is to create energy-efficiency guides for To increase its green spaces, Santiago plans tostarted small but intend to expand rapidly. By households, businesses and industry. have private developers transform 3,900early this year, they had thoroughly audited five hectares of city area into public parks and greenbuildings — two offices, two hospitals and a Quito: Any reason to plant a tree spaces in exchange for accessing another 5,700school — and developed individually tailored hectares for building development.energy reduction plans for each. The first audit, 2001 report for Quito’s municipal government São Paulo passed a law in 2009 requiring thatfor example, examined energy use in the office concluded that the city had 9,000 hectares of all new municipal buildings meet energy-effi-used by Argentina’s Environmental Protection urban tree cover, but recommended doubling ciency standards and that existing buildings beAgency, which is supporting the programme. this amount in order to reap a range of environ- retrofitted with technology to mitigate their envi-The audit found the potential to reduce overall mental benefits. Studies suggest that tree cover ronmental impact.energy consumption by 30%, including reduc- absorbs air pollution, reduces energy consump-ing the energy consumed by computers by 55%. tion by providing shade, and can improve waterThe audits will be used as best practice examples conservation by limiting rainwater run-off. As ato extend the programme to 31 more buildings result, Quito created its “Forestation and Refor-over the course of 2010. In late 2009 the city estation Project”, and by 2008, the programmegovernment bolstered the programme by man- had led to the planting of about 6 million trees,dating the appointment of an energy manager mostly native species. The unique strength of 21
  • 22. Latin American Green City Index | Exemplar projectsTransportBus Rapid Transit: and exit times. The city has also integrated its allowed it to sell carbon credits under the KyotoFrom Curitiba to Bogotá urban planning with the system so that develop- Protocol. This has earned the city an estimated ment occurs along the BRT corridors, which US$100 to US$300 million, according to theCuritiba’s bus network is among the most influ- means the network is easily accessible for a large “New York Times”. The system is by no meansential in the world. Dating back to the mid- percentage of residents. perfect — it suffers from frequent over-crowd-1960s, the network centerpiece is the six-line Curitiba grew along with its BRT network, but ing — but it is at least affordable for residents in“bus rapid transit” (BRT) service, comprising long Bogotá’s BRT — “Transmilenio” — has shown a relatively low-income city. Similar networksand articulated buses that run on 72 km of dedi- how well the system can be adapted to an exist- have been implemented in seven other cities incated roads extending in spoke patterns from the ing city. The city opened Transmilenio in 2000 the Index, and are planned in several furthercity centre. The BRT is the backbone of Curitiba’s and at 84 km today, it is still growing. Nine lines cities throughout Latin America.transit system, which includes several thousand use dedicated lanes in the middle of some of thekilometers of routes and carries 1.8 million riders city’s largest avenues. In 2009, the Transmilenio Buenos Aires:per day. The BRT operates very much like a metro carried an average of 1.6 million riders per day, Bringing it all togethersystem. and it has cut journey times by a third. As part of Passengers pay to enter one of the more than the programme, the city replaced the previous Buenos Aires’s “Plan for Sustainable Mobility” is350 stations specially designed to reduce entry network of smaller, more polluting buses, which addressing city transport through an integrated22
  • 23. Ideas from other citieseffort involving initiatives in ten areas. Several of As a result, the city is trying to make cycling Santiago is expanding its metro system. It isthese involve significant infrastructure improve- safe. By the end of 2010, 100 km of new bicycle well on the way to finishing a 14 km extension toments. paths should be open in the city centre. Buenos one line, and is planning a sixth line that will cov- Introducing BRT lines on key routes has cut Aires is also creating more bicycle parking er 15 km and 12 new stations. The new line istravel times by 10% to 25%, although in some places, and plans to launch a public bicycle designed to improve the metro’s integration withcases by up to two thirds. Meanwhile, adopting rental system this year. The municipality is also rail and bus networks.articulated buses and hybrid vehicles on some offering its 120,000 employees subsidised loans On the weekends, Quito limits entry to the cityroutes will cut carbon consumption. to buy bicycles, in the hope that this will set an centre to pedestrians and bicycles. The city is also hoping to get at least 5% of example for private companies. With Metrocable, Medellín has used cable carsthe city’s commuters, roughly 300,000 people, The programme has also increased the num- to integrate various impoverished sections of theto use bicycles, about six times the current level. ber of pedestrian areas, and has widened foot- city and informal settlements with the main pub-Safety concerns are the main challenge to this paths to make walking easier. For those who lic transportation networks.effort, however. In a survey, roughly 60% of resi- remain in their vehicles, the city has installed Mexico City has a compulsory transportationdents said that they would use bicycle paths, but more modern traffic lights that react to chang- system for children going to school, reducing thehalf said that safety was their top priority when ing traffic conditions, and can even change the number of trips by parents in private cars.riding. direction of lanes if necessary. 23
  • 24. Latin American Green City Index | Exemplar projectsWastePuebla: Turning waste into cash“Green Wallet” is a private initiative to promoterecycling in Puebla. Members join the schemeand receive a debit card. They get one “peco”, anelectronic credit, for every kilogram of wastethey bring to depots located throughout the city,at schools, universities, and convenience stores.Members also get more credits for electronicwaste, depending on the item. Merchants whosponsor the scheme accept the credits in theirshops. The goods and services available rangefrom children’s clothing and books, constructionsupplies, movie tickets, and mobile phone air Ideas from other citiestime. Several merchants also give discounts sim-ply for having a membership card. ASMARE, into the waste collection system. The The project was introduced in early 2010 and city gave the association access to dedicated To ensure proper waste disposal in informal set-by August 2010 it had collected 22 tonnes of recycling points, a sorting centre, and trucks to tlements, Curitiba has a “Purchase of Garbage”solid and electronic waste. This may seem small transport material to recycling plants. The asso- programme. Residents receive food baskets in ex-compared to the estimated 819,000 tonnes that ciation divides the profits from bringing materi- change for bringing 8-10 kg of waste to centralthe municipality produces annually, but is an als to the recycling plants between members. collection points, and their neighbourhood asso-impressive beginning for a private initiative. The Since then the scheme has grown, and waste ciation receives money for community services.organisation also looks set to grow, with plans to pickers now run collection services for compa- The initiative collects about 6,800 tonnes ofbegin collecting organic waste in the future and nies and households. The association helps waste each year.to begin similar projects in the surrounding process about 450 tonnes of rubbish each São Paulo’s “Ecopoint” initiative tries to stop resi-region soon. Eventually it hopes to open fran- month, bringing the city substantial savings, dents from illegally dumping large waste itemschises throughout Mexico. even after it pays a subsidy and management on city streets. The city has established free, cen- fees to the association. tral collection points for waste too large to fit inBelo Horizonte: A win-win solution The scheme not only has a major environ- residential bins, such as old furniture, tree limbs,for waste pickers mental impact but also provides substantial eco- and construction waste. In the first six months of nomic and social benefits for the waste pickers. 2010, the city says it collected 57,400 cubic me-Waste pickers, people who rummage through The association now has 380 members and its tres of waste that would otherwise have beenwaste looking for recyclable items, are common activities employ some 1,500 people, almost all left on the streets.in many Latin American cities, and often face of whom were previously homeless. Non-gov- Santiago is working with four charities to en-lifelong social marginalisation and poor health. ernmental organizations have been brought in courage community participation in recycling.After years of public hostility to waste pickers, to give literacy training for members, and voca- Residents deposit materials at one of 39 centralBelo Horizonte took a different approach, tional training for their children. The association collection points. The charities earn money forimproving their quality of life and waste collec- provides help with life and health insurance, collecting and transferring the materials to recy-tion in the city at the same time. makes agreements with local pharmacies for cling plants. In 1993, the city entered a formal agreement low-cost medicine, and organises day careto integrate the local waste pickers association, places for children under 6 years old.24
  • 25. Water Ideas from other citiesPorto Alegre: munity groups in informal settlements. The cityDelivering water the right way gives residents a chance to legally connect their Buenos Aires intends to have water meters in- houses to the water system, and pay a “social stalled for all customers as part of a plan to reducePorto Alegre’s “Right Water” programme helps rate” of US$5 per month for up to 10,000 litres consumption by 40% by 2012.people in informal settlements access water of water, which saves up to 40% over the stan- Sabesp, the statewide water company in Sãolegally, reduces system leaks and encourages dard charge. In addition, the water bill is often Paulo, has a comprehensive programme to moni-conservation. Without a right to residency many residents’ only formal proof of residence, which tor leaks and illegal connections. They have in-of those in informal settlements cannot legally helps integrate residents into the city’s econo- creased the number of inspectors, which led to theconnect their homes to the water system. The my. The programme also educates residents detection of 12,000 illegal connections betweenresulting illegal connections, in addition to los- about the importance of clean water and January and July 2010, representing 70% of the to-ing revenue for the city, tend to be leak prone, responsible water use. In the first three years of tal number of illegal connections detected the pre-and can lead to contamination in the legal water operation, the programme helped 15,000 fami- vious year. The volume of water lost through thesesupply. lies, and the rate of unpaid water bills in informal connections was almost 2.5 billion litres. The com- The city’s water company, DMAE, started the settlements dropped from 64% to 27%, leading pany also has technology that helps it monitor all ofprogramme in 2005 in cooperation with com- to an overall citywide reduction from 14% to 9%. the water in the system, spotting major leaks quick- ly and forecasting water consumption levels based on outdoor temperatures. In addition, Sabesp runs public awareness campaigns to help residents iden- tify water leakages and water waste in their homes. Monterrey has reduced leakages in its water sys- tem from an estimated 32% in 1998 to 21% by 2008, through a comprehensive programme includ- ing checking and replacing valves, upgrading pipes, installing pressure gauges and household meters, leak detection and eliminating illegal connections. 25
  • 26. Latin American Green City Index | Exemplar projectsAir qualityThree approaches to emissions: Belo Horizonte and Porto Alegre have Index performance only tells part of the story.Quito, Belo Horizonte launched roadside inspections of diesel vehi- There is much to learn from Mexico City’sand Porto Alegre cles, which often produce the most pollution. remarkable, ongoing efforts. Belo Horizonte’s programme, called “Oxygen In 1992 the United Nations said Mexico CityVehicle exhaust is a significant air quality chal- Operations”, includes random checks on some had the most polluted air on the planet. Every-lenge for many Latin American cities, and they of the roughly 120,000 diesel vehicles in the thing about the city, then and now, seems toare addressing the problem in different ways, city. Officials fine vehicle owners who fail the impede improvement. It has a booming popula-ranging from requiring annual tests to conduct- tests, and they have the power to remove the tion and a rising number of cars. The city’s highing random spot checks on the roadside. In vehicle from the road. Porto Alegre, on the other altitude makes combustion less efficient, and2003, Quito was one of the first cities in the hand, publicly announces where it will locate the surrounding mountains create frequentregion to implement a strict vehicle monitoring checkpoints. Even with this transparency, 42% atmospheric inversions, which trap smog overpolicy. Private vehicles must pass an annual of vehicles checked in the first part of 2007 were the city. The city’s response since 1992 has beenemissions test, and buses and taxis are subject in violation of pollution standards, and were focused and comprehensive, with a series ofto testing every two years. If vehicles fail the charged an average fine of about US$70. clean air strategies that borrow from global besttests, owners must pay for the necessary repairs practice and build on the city’s previous efforts.or risk losing their registration permit. Driving Mexico City: Policy pays off The policies have all involved various initiativeswithout a permit can lead to heavy fines. The across a range of fields, recognising that air pol-municipality estimates that levels of carbon It may seem strange to highlight air quality lution is a social challenge in addition to a tech-monoxide in the city have dropped 25% to 30% efforts in Mexico City, a city that performs below nological one.since the programme was implemented. average in the Index for this category, but the The original policy, which lasted from 1990 to26
  • 27. Ideas from other cities Curitiba requires emissions audits at factories every four years. Facilities that do not meet stan-1995, combined 42 individual initiatives, and the through the 2002-10 period. For the smallest dards face fines, and the state can close downlatest, PROAIRE III, which lasted from 2002 to this particulate matter, PM2.5, the corresponding any that fail twice.year, has 89. These include the reduction of in- declines are 13% and 23% since records began in Santiago has a longstanding policy of usingdustrial and automobile emissions, urban sprawl 2004. Carbon monoxide is down noticeably and, trees along streets and in parks specifically to re-containment, policy integration, education pro- even for pollutants where the average has duce levels of particulate matter in the air. Agrammes and communicating risks to the public. stayed stable, maximum figures have tended to 2008 study in the Journal of Environmental Man- While Mexico City still performs relatively show an improvement. agement found that this strategy costs aroundpoorly compared with other cities in the region Although the city has seen definite progress, US$8,000 for every 1 tonne reduction in sus-for levels of the three air pollutants measured in it recognises there is still a long way to go. To pended air particles. This was cheaper than sev-the Index — nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide that end, the city has launched PROAIRE IV for eral types of conversion to cleaner fossil fuels.and particulate matter — there have been 2011-2020. As part of the preparation, the city In 2008, an air quality monitoring station was setimpressive reductions of these and other pollu- has a web page inviting experts and the public to up to measure pollution in the vicinity oftants in the air since the 1990s and early 2000s. suggest strategies for improving air quality. Montevideo’s La Teja refinery. It is part of a pro-By 2002, airborne lead was no longer an issue, There is no quick fix, but Mexico City’s decades- ject called ARPEL/CIDA, which is supported by theand the average level of sulphur dioxide was long efforts are showing that comprehensive regional organisation of gas and petroleum in-one-sixth that of the early 1990s. approaches, and openness to the best ideas, can dustries and the Canadian Development Agency. PROAIRE III has focussed in particular on make a huge difference. The goal is to evaluate refinery emissions to im-ozone and particulate matter. Average levels of prove the refinery’s efficiency and surroundingozone, for example, have dropped by about 20% air quality.and average daily maximum levels by 28% 27
  • 28. Latin American Green City Index | Methodology MethodologyT he Latin American Green City Index mea- sures the current environmental perfor-mance of 17 major Latin American cities, as well that the data was insufficiently reliable or com- parable to justify a detailed ranking of Index results, the Latin American Green City Index companies, municipal and regional environ- mental bureaux, and environmental ministries. The data are generally for the year 2008-2009,as their commitment to reducing their future results are presented in groups of cities’ scores in but when these were not available they wereenvironmental impact. The selection sought to relation to the average score. taken from earlier years.include the major Latin American metropolitanareas, but cities had to be omitted where city- The Index scores cities across eight categories — Data quality: Compared with Europe, the avail-specific data were significantly lacking. This was energy and CO2, land use and buildings, trans- ability and comparability of data across citiesthe case for Guatemala City (Guatemala), Sal- port, waste, water, sanitation, air quality, and was far more limited in Latin America. In somevador (Brazil), and Santo Domingo (Dominican environmental governance — and 31 individual cases the EIU used data from different adminis-Republic). indicators. Sixteen are quantitative and measure trative levels; from the city, for example, instead how a city currently performs — for example, a of the wider metropolitan area. As all indicatorsThe methodology, developed by the EIU in coop- city’s electricity consumption or waste produc- are scaled either by the corresponding area,eration with Siemens, builds on the work of the tion. The remaining 15 qualitative indicators population, or GDP, use of city or metro dataEuropean Green City Index and aims to follow its assess aspirations or ambitions — for example, a does not decrease comparability significantly. Instructure. However, to be applicable to Latin city’s commitment to reducing the environmen- fact, what constitutes a city or metropolitan areaAmerica, the structure has been adapted to tal impact of energy consumption, or green can differ largely from city to city. Quito, foraccommodate variations in data quality and standards for public building projects. example, has an administrative area thatavailability, and environmental challenges spe- includes large areas of non-urbanised land,cific to the region. An independent panel of Data collection: An EIU team collected data whereas Buenos Aires is completely urbanisedinternational experts in the field of urban sus- between April and June 2010. Wherever possi- and at the centre of a larger metropolitan area.tainability also provided important insights and ble, the data were taken from publicly available Where data gaps existed, the EIU applied robustfeedback in the construction of the Latin Ameri- official sources, such as national/regional statis- theoretical techniques to calculate estimates.can Green City Index. Moreover, due to concerns tical offices, local city authorities, local utilities These techniques, however, did not take into28
  • 29. account the effects that informal settlements ual data points. Nevertheless, it remains possi- access to potable water, municipal waste gener-might have on indicators, such as “access to ble that the EIU may have missed an alternative ated, length of transport networks, and admin-potable water” or “access to sanitation”. Informal reliable public source or more recent figures. istrative areas. In such cases, the EIU sought assettlements can vary both in size and definition, much as possible to standardise the definitionbut data generally is lacking on their infrastruc- Indicators: In order to compare data points used. However, it is possible that some differ-ture, access to municipal utilities, and popula- across cities, and to calculate aggregate scores ences still exist.tion. Therefore, the EIU has assumed that the for each city, the data gathered from variousLatin American Green City Index represents only sources had to be made comparable. For this Qualitative indicators were scored by EIU ana-the formal areas of each city. The EIU used inter- purpose, the quantitative indicators were “nor- lysts with expertise in the relevant city, based onnational CO2 coefficients provided by the UN malised” on a scale of zero to ten, with the best objective criteria that consider cities’ targets,Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to city scoring ten points and the worst zero. Most strategies, and concrete actions. The qualitativeestimate the CO2 emissions produced by each indicators use a min-max calculation, where the indicators were also scored on a scale of zero tocity’s electricity mix. Only in very exceptional best city receives ten points and the worst city ten, with ten points assigned to cities that meetcases, notably Lima and Montevideo, did the EIU zero. In some cases, reasonable benchmarks the criteria on the checklist. For the “greenhouseestimate CO2 and electricity consumption based were inserted to prevent outliers from skewing gas (GHG) monitoring” indicator, for example,on regression analysis, referencing data of peer the distribution of scores. In such cases, cities cities were assessed according to whether theycities when specific city information was not were scored against either an upper or a lower regularly monitor GHG emissions and publishavailable. benchmark, or both. For example, a lower their findings every one to three years. benchmark of 800 kg per person was used inThe EIU made every effort to obtain the most scoring “waste generated per person” and all Qualitative indicators which seek to measurerecent data, including checking quantitative cities with more than 800 kg of waste per person the existence of policies in certain areas — fordata points with the cities’ environmental received a score of zero. example, the containment of urban sprawl —departments. Data providers were also contact- Cities use varying definitions for certain indi- have also been multiplied by the city’s “Policyed where uncertainties arose regarding individ- cators, notably definitions of green space, Implementation Effectiveness Rating”, a mea- 29
  • 30. Latin American Green City Index | Methodologysure of efficiency at implementing environmental built around the average (mean) score and the ‘ Area: “small area”, with an administrativepolicies. These ratings were produced by EIU ana- standard deviation — a statistical term which area smaller than 2,000 square kilometres;lysts with thorough knowledge of the relevant describes to what extent about two-thirds of the “mid area”, with an administrative area betweencity on a scale of one to five, with five being values differ from the mean. 2,000 square kilometres and 7,000 square kilo-highly effective. The bands are defined as follows: metres; and “large area”, with an administrative ‘ Well above average: Scores more than 1.5 area larger than 7,000 square kilometres.Index construction: The Index is composed of times the standard deviation above the mean ‘ Income: “low income”, with GDP per capita ofaggregate scores of all of the underlying indica- ‘ Above average: Scores between 0.5 and 1.5 less than US$8,000; “middle income”, with GDPtors. These are first aggregated by category, cre- times the standard deviation above the mean per capita of US$8,000 to US$16,000; and “highating a score for each. These are in turn aggre- ‘ Average: Scores between 0.5 times the stan- income”, with GDP per capita of more thangated into an overall score. To create the dard deviation below and 0.5 times the standard US$16,000.category scores, within each category all the deviation above the mean ‘ Density: “low density”, with a population ofunderlying indicators received the same weight ‘ Below average: Scores between 0.5 and 1.5 less than 1,000 people per square kilometre;during aggregation. The scores were then times the standard deviation below the mean “mid density”, with a population between 1,000rebased onto a scale of zero to 100. To build the ‘ Well below average: Scores more than 1.5 people per square kilometre and 5,000 peopleoverall Index scores, the EIU assigned even times the standard deviation below the mean per square kilometre; and “high density”, with aweightings to each category score so that no population of more than 5,000 people percategory was given greater importance than any Clusters: In order to conduct a deeper analysis square kilometre.other. The Index is essentially the sum of all cate- of city trends, the 17 cities in the Index were ‘ Temperature: “low temperature”, with angory scores, rebased to 100. The equal weight- clustered into a series of groups, calculated on average temperature of below 17 degrees Cel-ing of each category reflects feedback from the population, area, income, density and tempera- sius; “mid temperature”, with an average tem-expert panel. ture. These included: perature of between 17 degrees Celsius and 20 ‘ Population: “small population”, with a popu- degrees Celsius; and “high temperature”, withFinally, the cities were placed in one of five lation below 5 million; “mid population”, with a an average temperature above 20 degrees Cel-bands, both within categories and overall, population between 5 and 10 million; and “high sius.reflecting the relevant scores. These bands are population” with a population exceeding 10 mil- lion inhabitants.30
  • 31. List of categories, indicators and their weightings Category Indicator Type Weight Description Normalisation technique* Energy CO2 emissions from electricity Quantitative 25% Total annual CO2 emissions in kilograms per capita from Min-max; upper benchmark of 10 kg per and CO2 consumption per capita electricity consumption. capita inserted to prevent outliers. Electricity consumption per unit Quantitative 25% Total annual electricity consumption, in megajoules per unit of GDP Min-max; lower benchmark of 1,250 mega- of GDP (in thousands of US$). joules per unit of GDP inserted to prevent outliers. Clean energy policy Qualitative 25% Measure of a city’s efforts to reduce carbon emissions associated Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. with energy consumption. Climate change action plan Qualitative 25% Measure of a city’s strategy to combat its contribution to climate change. Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. Land use Green spaces per capita Quantitative 25% Sum of all public parks, recreation areas, greenways, waterways and Zero-max; upper benchmark of 100 m2 and other protected areas accessible to the public, in m2 per inhabitant. per person inserted to prevent outliers. buildings Population density Quantitative 25% Population density, in persons per km2. Zero-max; upper benchmark of 7,000 per- sons per km2 inserted to prevent outliers. Eco buildings policy Qualitative 25% Measure of a city’s efforts to minimise the environmental impact Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. of buildings. Land use policy Qualitative 25% Measure of a city’s efforts to minimise the environmental and Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. ecological impact of urban development. Trans- Length of mass transport Quantitative 25% Composed of two sub-indicators: 1. Total length of all train, tram, 1. Zero-max; upper benchmark of port network subway, bus and other mass transport routes within the city’s boundaries, 7 km/km2 inserted to prevent outliers. measured in terms of the area of the city (in km/km2); and 2. Total length 2. Min-max. of all superior modes of public transport, i.e. BRT, trolleybus, tram, light rail and subway, measured in terms of the area of the city (in km/km2). Stock of cars and Quantitative 25% Total stock of cars and motorcycles, with half-weighting allocated Min-max. motorcycles to motorcycles, measured in terms of vehicles per person. Urban mass transport Qualitative 25% Measure of a city’s efforts to create a viable mass transport system Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. policy as an alternative to private vehicles. Congestion reduction policy Qualitative 25% Measure of a city’s efforts to reduce congestion. Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. Waste Share of waste collected Quantitative 25% Share of waste collected by the city and adequately disposed either in Min-max. and adequately disposed sanitary landfills, incineration sites or in regulated recycling facilities. Expressed in terms of the total volume of waste generated by the city. Waste generated per Quantitative 25% Total annual volume of waste generated by the city, including waste Min-max; lower benchmark of 800 kg per capita not officially collected and disposed, in kg per capita. person inserted to prevent outliers. Waste collection and Qualitative 25% Measure of a city’s efforts to improve or sustain its waste collection Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. disposal policy and disposal system to minimise the environmental impact of waste. Waste recycling and re-use policy Qualitative 25% Measure of a city’s efforts to reduce, recycle and re-use waste. Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. Water Water consumption per capita Quantitative 20% Total water consumed by the city, on a daily basis, expressed in Min-max; lower benchmark of 500 litres per litres per person. person per day inserted to prevent outliers. Water system leakages Quantitative 20% Share of water lost in transmission between supplier and end user, Zero-max; lower benchmark of 50% excluding illegally sourced water or on-site leakages, expressed inserted to prevent outliers. in terms of total water supplied. Population with access Quantitative 20% Share of the total population with access to on-site piped water sources Min-max; lower benchmark of 80% to potable water or protected communal sources within close proximity of living quarters. inserted to prevent outliers. Water quality policy Qualitative 20% Measure of a city’s policy towards improving the quality of water used by the city. Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. Water sustainability policy Qualitative 20% Measure of a city’s efforts to manage water sources efficiently. Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. Sani- Population with access to Quantitative 33% Share of the total population either with direct connections to sewerage, Min-max; lower benchmark of 50% tation improved sanitation or access to improved on-site sources such as septic tanks and improved inserted to prevent outliers. latrines that are not accessible to the public. This figure excludes open public latrines or sewers and other shared facilities. Share of wastewater treated Quantitative 33% Share of wastewater produced by the city that is collected and treated Zero-max. to at least a basic/primary level. Sanitation policy Qualitative 33% Measure of a city’s efforts to reduce pollution associated Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. with inadequate sanitation. Air Nitrogen dioxide concentration Quantitative 25% Annual daily mean of NO2 concentrations. Min-max; upper benchmark of 20 ug/m3 quality levels to prevent outliers. Sulphur dioxide concentration levels Quantitative 25% Annual daily mean of SO2 concentrations. Min-max. Suspended particulate matter Quantitative 25% Annual daily mean of PM10 concentrations. Min-max; upper benchmark of 20 ug/m3 concentration levels to prevent outliers. Clean air policy Qualitative 25% Measure of a city’s efforts to reduce air pollution. Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. Environ- Environmental management Qualitative 33% Measure of the extensiveness of environmental management Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. mental undertaken by the city. gover- Environmental monitoring Qualitative 33% Measure of the city’s efforts to monitor its environmental performance. Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. nance Public participation Qualitative 33% Measure of the citys efforts to involve the public in environmental Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. decision making.*Cities score full points if they reach or exceed upper benchmarks, and zero points if they reach or exceed lower benchmarks. 31
  • 32. Latin American Green City Index | Belo Horizonte_Brazil Belo Horizonte_BrazilBackground indicatorsTotal population (million) 2.4Administrative area (km2) 330.9GDP per person (current prices) (US$) 6,267.4Population density (persons/km2) 7,326.0Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 23.0Based on Belo Horizonte CityB elo Horizonte is the capital of the mineral- rich state of Minas Gerais. Located in theinterior of southeastern Brazil, Belo Horizonte improve its result in the categories of waste and environmental governance, where it comes in below average. Belo Horizonte is the only city insits at the heart of the country’s steel and mining the lower income range in the Index (with a GDPregion. The city’s economy, long dominated by per person of less than US$8,000) to earn anmining, agriculture and automotive manufac- above average overall result.turing, is now driven primarily by services indus-tries, although manufacturing has retained a Energy and CO2: Belo Horizonte rankssignificant presence. GDP per capita is US$ average for energy and CO2. With 94% of its6,300, which places it in the lower end of the electricity generated from hydropower, the cityLatin American Green City Index for average emits an estimated 31 kg of CO2 per person fromincome, and lowest among the six Brazilian electricity, one of the lowest rates in the Indexcities covered in the report. While the metropoli- and the lowest overall when compared to citiestan area, with 6.3 million people, is the country’s with similar incomes. In an effort to reduce ener-third most populous, the city proper is home to and buildings, where it ranks above average gy consumption and drive climate change poli-just 2.4 million, the 13th biggest in the Index. thanks to its high population density and well- cy, the city created a Committee on ClimateData included in the Index for Belo Horizonte developed eco-buildings policies. The city also Change and Eco-efficiency (see “green initia-comes from the city level. ranks above average for water and air quality. Its tives” under “Environmental governance” be- Belo Horizonte’s relatively low average strong performance in these categories is large- low).income does not appear to have harmed its envi- ly attributable to its policies regarding water While the committee is playing an active roleronmental performance, however. The city quality and clean air, respectively. Belo Hori- in driving policy, and the city has conducted aachieves a strong result in the Latin American zonte receives average ranks for energy and recent baseline review of greenhouse gases, itGreen City Index, placing above average overall. CO2, transport and sanitation. Despite its lacks clear CO2-emissions reduction targets andThe city performs particularly well in land use impressive overall performance, the city could has not joined any international covenants with32
  • 33. spaces (see “green initiatives” below). In the Index. Like many Latin American cities, Belo Hor- area of eco-buildings, Belo Horizonte mandates izonte has experienced an explosion of private that large buildings over 6,000 square metres car ownership. The city has, on average, 0.39 meet energy-efficiency standards. The city runs cars per inhabitant, which is more than the public awareness campaigns and has incentives Index average of 0.30, and frequently suffers in place to encourage businesses and house- from severe congestion. In many ways the city holds to save energy. Belo Horizonte’s perfor- has been proactive about the challenge. It has a mance in this category is constrained by its rela- well-developed traffic management system, for tively poor score in green spaces. Despite the example, which includes traffic light sequenc- presence of many small parks in the city, Belo ing, information systems and dedicated delivery Horizonte still has only 18 square metres of times for freight vehicles. While the city does not green space per inhabitant, which is one of the yet have any congestion reduction initiatives like lowest in the Index. São Paulo’s “no-car day”, officials say such a pro- gramme is planned. Other congestion reduction Green initiatives: In 2005 the city created a initiatives in the pipeline include carpooling municipal parks foundation to revitalise and pro- lanes, limited vehicle zones, park and ride sys- tect its green spaces. The institution manages tems and a congestion charge or road toll. and maintains the city’s 69 parks, and runs edu- cational programmes to encourage citizens to Green initiatives: The city has been develop- use the parks and create a sense of public own- ing an “urban mobility plan” since 2005. ership over the city’s green spaces. In 2008 the Although the full details have not been released institution ran an initiative entitled “One Life, yet, one aspect of the plan will reportedly focus One Tree”, in which it planted one tree in the on building more bike lanes. The city also plans name of each child born in the city that year. to add two lines to its metro system, bringing the total length to 50 km. Work on the second Transport: Belo Horizonte receives an aver- line has been slow and no timeline has been age rank in the transport category. The city’s announced for construction of the third line. metro has only one 28 km line. Therefore the superior public transport network (defined in Waste: Belo Horizonte is below average in the the Index as transport that moves large numbers waste category. The city-owned waste company of passengers quickly in dedicated lanes, such as collects and adequately disposes of 95% of the metro, bus rapid transit or trams), at just 0.08 city’s waste in a managed landfill. The company km per square kilometre of city territory, falls also operates a fleet of small collection trucks in below the Index average of 0.13 km. On the the city’s difficult-to-navigate informal settle- other hand, bus coverage is extensive. Overall ments. There is a well-developed recycling pro- the city has a slightly above average mass trans- gramme in Belo Horizonte, with dedicated binsbinding greenhouse gas emissions reduction port network, at an estimated 5.5 km per square throughout the city, and regular collections fromgoals. The city’s score in this category is further kilometre of city territory. This is the second 34 neighbourhoods. The city also scores well forhindered by a comparatively high rate of elec- longest mass transport network when mea- its waste collection and disposal policies, includ-tricity consumption compared to its economic sured against the low-incomes cities in the ing strict regulations on the city’s landfill and theoutput. Belo Horizonte consumes 850 mega-joules of electricity per US$1,000 of GDP —above the index average of 761 megajoules. Performance Belo Horizonte Other citiesGreen initiatives: Belo Horizonte’s new foot- well below average above wellball stadium, being built for the upcoming World below average average aboveCup in 2014, will have panels that generate average averageenough energy for its own operations. On days Energy and CO2with no games, the power will be sold to thelocal electricity company. Land Use and Buildings TransportLand use and buildings: Belo Horizonte Wasteranks above average in land use and buildings.As a city with a small administrative area, Belo WaterHorizonte has one of the highest population Sanitationdensities in the Index. The city’s score is also bol- Air Qualitystered by its policies regarding land use and eco-buildings. Belo Horizonte has strict laws to con- Environmental Governancetrol urban sprawl, and in 2005 the city created a Overall Resultsmunicipal parks foundation to revitalise green The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results. 33
  • 34. Latin American Green City Index | Belo Horizonte_Brazilway it monitors hazardous waste disposal. Belo Horizonte performs particularly well for its the Index average of 52%, the city still has signifi-Despite progressive policies, Belo Horizonte pro- water quality policies, which include codes to cant room for improvement in this area.duces 921 kg of waste per person per year, al- monitor and improve surface water quality, andmost twice the 17-city average of 465 kg and the enforcing standards on local industry. Copasa is Green initiatives: In 2006 Belo Horizontelargest amount in the Index, which weighs heav- also vigilant in testing for key pollutants in the secured US$80 million in financing from the fed-ily on its performance in this category. water supply. Regarding water sustainability eral government’s “Sanitation for All” pro- policies, the city has a conservation policy in gramme. The city is investing in 150 projects, 91Green initiatives: Belo Horizonte has been a place and has implemented various efficiency of which are in informal settlements, to achievepioneer in organising waste pickers to support measures, such as water meters and rainwater universal access to sanitation.the city’s overall recycling goals. Pastoral da collection and banning hose-pipes. However,Terra, a Catholic organisation, first organised the Belo Horizonte receives only partial marks for Air quality: Belo Horizonte ranks above aver-city’s homeless into a cooperative of waste col- publicly promoting efficient water consump- age in air quality. The result is underpinned bylectors. Since the early 1990s the city has regu- tion. Most such campaigns are run by the state better-than-average emissions levels for the threelated waste picker cooperatives and they have rather than on a city level. pollutants measured in the Index. For nitrogenbeen instrumental in the city’s vast recycling dioxide, a primary source of which is automobileschemes. Waste pickers have access to collected Green initiatives: Belo Horizonte has an ambi- exhaust, the city registers 34 micrograms permunicipal waste before it is dumped into the tious US$78 million plan to reduce pollution in cubic metre — not its best result, but still belowlandfill. the city’s water sources. Financed by the Inter- the 17-city average of 38 micrograms. Average That material is then processed at one of the American Development Bank, an institution that daily concentrations for particulate matter andcity’s three recycling centres and the coopera- provides loans and grants throughout Latin sulphur dioxide are much better and consider-tives divide profits between members. Around America and the Caribbean, the project will ably below the average Index concentrations.450 tonnes of recyclable materials are collected improve drainage infrastructure, and aims to The city’s emissions levels suggest that strongper month, according to Asmare, the local waste limit the dumping of untreated sanitation into air quality policies are having a positive effect.pickers association. Additionally, in 2009 Belo the rivers and water basins. One goal is to For example, the city’s Committee on ClimateHorizonte opened a waste transfer facility to cut achieve drinking-level quality in the city’s major Change and Eco-efficiency has identified airtravelling times for compactor trucks that com- bodies of water before the 2014 World Cup. pollution as one of the primary areas in which itprise the city’s waste collection fleet. These can improve. The Minas Gerais state environ-trucks offload at the transfer facility, which is Sanitation: Belo Horizonte is average in the mental foundation, FEAM, operates nine airequipped with an exhaust system to prevent the sanitation category. Its middling performance monitoring stations around the metropolitanexposure of waste to open air. High volume comes in spite of careful monitoring by Copasa, area and releases a report on pollution levelstrucks then complete the longer journey to the the state waterworks company, which subjects once a day.landfill. The city says the facility optimises costs much of the city’s wastewater to two stages ofand reduces waste transfer time. treatment. In 2008 the city adopted its Municipal Green initiatives: Belo Horizonte has a road- Sanitation Plan, which outlines policies and side vehicle inspection programme, “OxygenWater: Belo Horizonte is above average in the actions through to 2011. A key goal outlined in Operations”, in which officials perform randomwater category. The city has abundant water the sanitation plan is “universalisation”, or expan- checks on some of the roughly 120,000 dieselresources, which come primarily from two rivers sion of sanitation services to 100% of the city’s vehicles in the city. Vehicle owners that violatein the region. The state water company, Copasa, residents. The plan calls for the improvement of pollution regulations are fined and can evensupplies potable water to nearly 100% of Belo connections to the sanitation system in the city’s have their vehicle taken off the streets.Horizonte’s residents. The city consumes an informal settlements. In 2007 an estimated 95%average of 170 litres of water per person per of the city’s residents had access to sanitation, Environmental governance: Belo Hor-day, well below the Index average of 264 litres. narrowly above the 17-city average of 94%. The izonte ranks below average in environmentalAbout a third of water is lost to network leak- city’s sanitation performance is weighed down by governance. The city is marked highly for havingages, in line with the 17-city average of 35%. a wastewater treatment rate of 62%. While above a dedicated environmental department with34
  • 35. wide responsibilities and for the ability to imple- port. Belo Horizonte involves its citizens in deci- Green initiatives: Belo Horizonte’s Committeement its own environmental legislation. The sions on projects with environmental impacts. on Climate Change and Eco-efficiency is an advi-department’s remit is, however, somewhat lim- This includes engaging citizens in “participatory sory body that has responsibility for developingited, since it must cooperate closely with other budgeting”. The programme, adapted from a initiatives and working with private entities toorganisations responsible for sanitation, trans- similar one in Porto Alegre, is a process in which reduce greenhouse gas emissions, among otherport and housing, for example. But Belo Hori- city residents and elected delegates meet annu- aspects of climate change policy. Another keyzonte’s score is hindered by its approach to mon- ally to vote on a wide range of municipal spend- responsibility is knowledge sharing and coordi-itoring. For example, the city does not fully ing priorities, including for environmental areas nation, in order to harmonise policy betweenmonitor its environmental performance regular- such as transport and sanitation. However, Belo individual government departments. A cross-ly and publish the results. Also, it has conducted Horizonte receives only partial marks for provid- section of city stakeholders participates in thea baseline environmental review but left out key ing the public with access to information on committee, including representatives from uni-policy areas such as sanitation, waste and trans- environmental topics. versities, NGOs and local industry.Quantitative indicators: Belo Horizonte Average Belo Horizonte Year* Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions from electricity consumption 202.2 31.2 1, e 2007 EIU estimate; Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais; per person (kg/person ) Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Electricity consumption per US$ GDP 760.7 850.3 1 2007 Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais; Instituto Brasileiro (megajoules per thousand US$ GDP) de Geografia e Estatística; Economist Intelligence Unit Land use Population density (persons/km2) 4,503.0 7,326.0 1 2007 Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística and Buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 254.6 18.3 1 2007 Secretaria Municipal do Meio Ambiente: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística Transport Length of mass transport network (km/km2) 5.0 5.5 2, e 2009 EIU estimate; Companhia Brasileira de Trens Urbanos; 0.08 1 Prefeitura de Belo Horizonte Superior public transport networks (km/km2) 0.13 0.39 1 2010 BHTrans Stock of cars and motorcycles (vehicles/person) 0.30 95.0 1 2010 Denatran Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 96.2 920.7 1 2009 Prefeitura de Belo Horizonte / Superintendência de Limpeza Urbana Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 465.0 169.9 1 2009 Prefeitura de Belo Horizonte / Superintendência de Limpeza Urbana Water Water consumption per person 264.3 2008 Sistema Nacional de Informações sobre Saneamento; Instituto (litres per person per day) 34.0 1 Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística Water system leakages (%) 34.6 99.5 1 2008 Sistema Nacional de Informações sobre Saneamento Share of population with access to potable water (%) 97.5 2008 Sistema Nacional de Informações sobre Saneamento; 95.4 3, e Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 93.7 2007 Sistema Nacional de Informações sobre Saneamento; 61.8 1 Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística Share of wastewater treated (%) 51.5 2007 Sistema Nacional de Informações sobre Saneamento; 33.7 1 Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística Air Quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 37.8 4.4 1 2008 Fundação Estadual do Meio Ambiente Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 11.4 27.8 1 2008 Fundação Estadual do Meio Ambiente Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 48.0 2008 Fundação Estadual do Meio Ambiente* Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU Estimate, 1) Based on Belo Horizonte City, 2) Based on Belo Horizonte City. Figure based on official estimates on the length of bus routes, 3) Based on Belo Horizonte City.Data based on proportion of population with access to sewerage. 35
  • 36. Latin American Green City Index | Bogotá_Colombia Bogotá_ColombiaBackground indicatorsTotal population (million) 7.3 B ogotá is the capital of Colombia and the country’s most populous city, with 7.3 mil- lion people. Located on a high plateau in the of the figures in the Index were calculated based on the capital district. Bogotá ranks above average overall in theAdministrative area (km2) 1,776.0 Andes mountains, it is the eighth most densely Index. The city’s performance is bolstered byGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 8,411.2 populated city in the Latin American Green City above-average rankings in six of the eight cate-Population density (persons/km2) 4,087.7 Index, at 4,100 people per square kilometre. The gories: energy and CO2, land use and buildings,Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 13.0 city is Colombia’s financial centre, and the met- transport, waste, water and environmental gov-Based on Bogota, Distrito Capital ropolitan area boasts some of the country’s ernance. Its performance in the energy and CO2 largest producers of food products and cut flow- category is driven by relatively low electricity ers. Bogotá has an average GDP per person of consumption and comparatively low carbon US$8,400, the tenth highest in the Index. The emissions from electricity production. In land metropolitan area, with a population of 8.5 mil- use and buildings, Bogotá has fairly abundant lion, includes five distinct municipalities, but all green spaces and some of the better land use36
  • 37. policies among the 17 cities. Bogotá ranks be-low average in sanitation, primarily because ofrelatively weak sanitation policies, and belowaverage in air quality, a result driven by high lev-els of sulphur dioxide. The city performs stronglyin some categories when compared with citiesof similar population and income. Among thenine cities with mid-sized population (between5 and 10 million people), Bogotá has the mostgreen spaces per person and the highest shareof its population with access to potable water.And among the seven cities with incomes in themiddle range in the Index (with a GDP per per-son between US$8,000 and US$16,000), it hasthe best rate of electricity consumption per unitGDP and the lowest number of vehicles per person. lion tonnes of CO2 emissions between 2009 and space for new developments. For example, inEnergy and CO2: Bogotá ranks above aver- 2016. The project machinery will run on the bio- the plan for the city’s northern region, 132,000age in energy and CO2. It emits an estimated 40 fuel produced from the process, and the remain- new housing units will be accompanied by 76kg of CO2 per person from electricity consump- der will be distributed to local industry. hectares of parkland.tion, well below the Index average of 202 kg perperson. The figure is helped by a comparatively Land use and buildings: Bogotá ranks Transport: Bogotá ranks above average insmall industrial presence within city limits and above average in land use and buildings, a transport. The city is helped by a relativelyalso by the high share of renewables in its elec- strong result driven by abundant green space lengthy mass transport network. It stretches antricity mix. More than 80% of Bogotá’s electricity and relatively strong land use policies. At 107 estimated 6.9 km per square kilometre, the fifthis generated from hydro power. Also, according square metres per person, Bogotá’s figure for longest in the Index and higher than the Indexto local experts, around 70% of the industry that green spaces is sixth highest in the Index and average of 5 km per square kilometre. The net-does operate in the city has converted from coal first among cities with mid-sized population. work lacks a metro, but over the past decade theand diesel to natural gas. Some studies also The city also benefits from having relatively city authorities have invested heavily in thepoint out that Bogotá’s temperate climate, robust policy on the protection of green spaces “TransMilenio BRT system” and in cycle pathsbetween 13 to 18 degrees Celsius, reduces the and containment of urban sprawl as well as (see “green initiatives” below). Bogotá alsoneed for air conditioning. Moreover, the city comparably good green standards for public scores relatively well for having a low ratio ofsources more than 80% of its electricity produc- buildings. cars to people, at 0.15 vehicles per person,tion from hydropower, similar to the rest of the which is the lowest among cities with incomescountry. Bogotá also scores well for electricity Green initiatives: The “public spaces” policy in the middle range. Bogotá is marked up forconsumption, using an estimated 397 mega- acknowledges that the city needs more green having a comprehensive urban mass transportjoules for every US$1,000 in GDP, far less than space, especially in low-income areas, and sets policy and exclusive bus lanes for the BRT. Thethe Index average of 761 megajoules. This is out a general policy to increase investment in pricing system for mass transport is partly inte-also the best rate in the Index among cities with this. More specifically, Bogotá’s urban planning grated and the city has taken some steps toincomes in the middle range. Bogotá does not framework requires designers to set aside green reduce emissions from mass transport.fare as well for its energy and CO2 policies, how-ever, particularly regarding clean energy, whereit places close to the bottom of the Index. Bogotáis marked down for having an energy strategy Performance Bogotá Other citiesthat is less comprehensive than in other cities well below average above welland for not specifically sourcing or producing below average average abovemore clean and renewable energy. average average Energy and CO2Green initiatives: In the last decade the cityhas gradually replaced buses that run on carbon- Land Use and Buildingsintensive fuel with buses that run on natural Transportgas, particularly through the introduction of the Waste“TransMilenio bus rapid transit” (BRT) system(see “green initiatives” under “Transport” be- Waterlow). The total number of vehicles operating on Sanitationnatural gas in Colombia as a whole rose from Air Qualityabout 9,000 in 2002 to 300,000 as of December2009. The Doña Juana biogas project captures Environmental Governanceand treats methane from the city’s Doña Juana Overall Resultslandfill. Project designers expect to save 5.8 mil- The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results. 37
  • 38. Latin American Green City Index | Bogotá_ColombiaGreen initiatives: Bogotá’s flagship transport er, Bogotá lacks a comprehensive policy on tively high levels of sulphur dioxide and sus-initiative, the TransMilenio BRT system, opened water conservation. It is also one of a few cities pended particulate matter. At 22 microgramsin 2000. More than 1,000 buses carry about 1.6 in the Index that receives only partial marks for per cubic metre, Bogotá registers the secondmillion commuters per day using exclusive lanes promoting water conservation among the pub- highest average daily level of sulphur dioxide inthroughout the city. Passengers board on elevat- lic because awareness campaigns on the ratio- the Index.ed platforms using contactless smart cards. The nal use of water are undertaken by the national The sulphur dioxide figure was taken fromsystem connects to a feeder system of 400 addi- government rather than the city administration. 2008, the same year that the city put restrictionstional buses, and cycle paths. The BRT was Like most cities in the Index, Bogotá sets stan- on sulphur in diesel fuel (see “green initiatives”adapted from a system in Curitiba, and similar dards for levels of key pollutants in drinking below), so the city’s performance is likely tobus networks have spread throughout Latin water, regularly monitors water quality and improve over the next few years. And for aver-America. In addition, Bogotá’s 300-km cycle net- enforces water pollution standards on local age daily levels of suspended particulate matter,work is one of the most extensive in the world. industry. Bogotá measures 58 micrograms per cubicOn Sundays and holidays, Bogotá closes more metre, above the average of 48 micrograms.than 70 km of streets to cars as part of its Green initiatives: In July 2010 the mayor pro- Bogotá scores relatively well on average daily“Ciclovía” programme, which attracts thousands posed an initiative to conserve water, through a levels of nitrogen dioxide, at 33 micrograms perof cyclists, runners and pedestrians to the city twin-pronged strategy of public awareness cam- cubic metre, compared with the Index averagecentre. The idea, which was first implemented in paigns and more accurate billing. The proposal of 38 micrograms. Regarding clean air policies,1976, has been copied throughout the world, was part of a five-point strategy covering water Bogotá scores reasonably well, with good marksincluding in New York and London. policy, as well as sanitation, wetland revival and for its air quality codes, monitoring standards drainage improvements. and public awareness campaigns. The city hasWaste: Bogotá ranks above average in the 13 air quality stations continuously monitoringwaste category. The city generates the second- Sanitation: Bogotá has a below-average rank the concentration of major air pollutants andlowest amount of waste in the Index, at an esti- in the sanitation category. Although the city has publishing the information on the departmentalmated 290 kg per person, well below the Index the second highest rate of access to sanitation website.average of 465 kg. The city also manages to col- services in the Index, with official figures at nearlylect and dispose of just under 100% of the city’s 100%, it scores relatively poorly on levels of Green initiatives: A national law from 2008waste. In contrast, the city’s performance is wastewater treated. Only an estimated 29% of its requires fuel distributors to reduce the sulphurweighed down by relatively weak waste policies, wastewater is treated, compared with the Index content in diesel from 1,200 parts per million toincluding a partly integrated waste strategy average of 52%. Bogotá ranks poorly for sanita- less than 500 parts per million, with the goal ofand insufficient monitoring of illegal waste. tion policies too, mainly owing to a lack of moni- reaching 50 parts per million by 2013. All Trans-There are also shortcomings in enforcing toring and standards for wastewater treatment. Milenio buses currently use diesel with 50 partswaste disposal standards. Although Bogotá does per million of sulphur content. The city’s envi-have a recycling service, it is often informal, and Green initiatives: The city’s water and sewer- ronmental authority is working in partnershipthere are no easily accessible central collection age masterplan calls for the aqueduct network with TransMilenio and local universities on a 10-points. to be rehabilitated and extended by around 200 year air decontamination plan, which outlines km and the sewerage network to be extended policies to raise air quality over the period. TheWater: Bogotá ranks above average in the and improved by 2015. It also calls for deconta- work is in its early stages and the partnership haswater category. The city has the Index’s lowest mination of the Bogotá river, one of the region’s run a series of public workshops to gather ideas.rate of water consumption per person, at 114 main water sources. As part of the plan, thelitres per person per day compared with an aver- national government is helping to finance a new Environmental governance: Bogotáage of 264 litres. Official figures suggest that sewage plant to serve the river basin region. ranks above average for environmental gover-close to 100% of the population has access to nance. The city does particularly well in environ-potable water, which leads the Index among Air quality: Bogotá ranks below average for mental management and environmental moni-cities with incomes in the middle range. Howev- air quality, which is largely attributable to rela- toring, owing to a decade of implementing38
  • 39. some key environmental initiatives, including increasing public participation (see “green initia- the cycle paths mentioned above. Bogotá’s envi- tives” below). ronmental authority also has one of the widest remits of the 17 cities and is responsible for Green initiatives: In order to improve public monitoring most of the key environmental areas participation and environmental awareness, the covered in the Index. local government has developed an outreach The city has a relative lack of public participa- and civic engagement centre, including a pro- tion in the development of environmental poli- gramme for children called the “Environmental cies, defined in the Index by whether public con- Classroom” with meetings that take place in sultation is planned or has taken place for local parks. The civic centre also presents a vari- projects with a relatively high environmental ety of indicators that allow citizens to track the impact. However, Bogotá appears willing to planning and implementation of local environ- improve in this area, with an initiative aimed at mental projects.Quantitative indicators: Bogotá Average Bogotá Year* Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions from electricity consumption 202.2 40.4 1, e 2007 EIU estimate; Departamento Administrativo Nacional per person (kg/person ) de Estadística; International Energy Agency; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Electricity consumption per US$ GDP 760.7 396.8 1,e 2007 EIU estimate; Departamento Administrativo Nacional (megajoules per thousand US$ GDP) de Estadística Land use Population density (persons/km2) 4,503.0 4,087.7 1 2008 Depart. Administrativo Nacional de Estadística; Alcaldía Mayor de Bogotá D.C. and Buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 254.6 107.3 1 2008 Secretaría de Planeación; Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística Transport Length of mass transport network (km/km2) 5.0 6.9 2, e 2007 EIU estimate; Secretaría de Planeación Superior public transport networks (km/km2) 0.05 1 2010 Transmilenio, S.A. Stock of cars and motorcycles (vehicles/person) 0.13 0.15 1 2007 Subsecretaria de Planeacion Territorial, „Destino Capital; 0.30 Movilidad Sostenible“, Nov. 2009 Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 96.2 99.7 3, e 2009 Secretaría de Planeación; Secretaría de Hábitat Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 465.0 289.8 4, e 2009 Secretaría de Hábitat: Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística Water Water consumption per person 264.3 114.3 1 2009 Acueducto Agua y Alcantarillado de Bogota; (litres per person per day) Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística Water system leakages (%) 34.6 36.6 5, e 2009 Acueducto Agua y Alcantarillado de Bogota Share of population with access to potable water (%) 97.5 99.4 1 2007 Secretaría de Planeación Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 93.7 99.8 6, e 2007 Secretaría de Planeación Share of wastewater treated (%) 51.5 28.6 3, e 2009 Agua y alcantarillado de Bogotá Air Quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 37.8 32.9 1 2008 Secretaría Distrital de Medio Ambiente Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 11.4 21.7 1 2008 Secretaría Distrital de Medio Ambiente Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 48.0 58.0 1 2008 Secretaría Distrital de Medio Ambiente* Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU Estimate, 1) Based on Bogotá, Distrito Capital, 2) Based on Bogotá, Distrito Capital. Estimate based on average length of bus route and number of bus routes, 3) Based onBogotá, Distrito Capital, 4) Based on Bogotá, Distrito Capital. Based on total amount of waste collected, 5) Based on Bogotá, Distrito Capital. Based on total non-billed water volume, 6) Based on Bogotá, Distrito Capital. Proportion of population with access to sewerage 39
  • 40. Latin American Green City Index | Brasília_Brazil Brasília_BrazilB rasília, with 2.5 million residents, is the capi- tal city of Brazil. The purpose-built city wasfounded in 1960, when it replaced Rio de industry and is home to one of Brazil’s largest telecommunications companies and several major banks. Much of the city’s 5,800 square its mass transport system remains sub-standard. When compared with the two other cities with high incomes in the Index (with GDP per head ofJaneiro as the seat of the federal government. It kilometres of the federal district, Brasília’s above US$16,000), it has the lowest rate of CO2is today renowned for its modernist architecture administrative area, is classified as a conserva- emissions from electricity consumption.and broad avenues, and considered one of the tion area. The wider metropolitan area has agreat experiments in urban planning of the 20th population of 3.7 million people and a much Energy and CO2: Brasília has an averagecentury. The city was designed along two main larger boundary, but all data used in the Index rank for energy and CO2. With all of its electricitythoroughfares with distinct residential, com- come from the federal district. coming from renewable sources — 98% of itmercial and administrative zones. Brasília boasts Brasília ranks above average in the Index from hydroelectric plants — the city has one ofthe second highest GDP per capita in the Index, overall. It performs best in the categories for the lowest rates of CO2 emissions from electrici-at US$21,100 per person — considerably higher water, sanitation, air quality and environmental ty, at an estimated 8 kg per person. This is sec-than the 17-city average of US$11,100 per per- governance, where it ranks above average. ond only to São Paulo and considerably belowson. Public administration dominates Brasília’s Brasília’s performance is bolstered in these cate- the Index average of 202 kg per capita. Brasília’seconomy, but the city also has a large services gories by a very low rate of water system leak- CO2 emissions from electricity are particularly ages, a high share of wastewater treated, below- impressive when measured against the two average concentrations of two out of three air other cities with high incomes in the Index. The pollutants measured in the Index and a strong average emissions from electricity for high- record of environmental management. The city income cities jumps to 285 kg per person. TheBackground indicators receives average rankings for energy and CO2 city also has one of the lowest rates of electricity and land use and buildings. Despite its strong consumption compared with its economic out-Total population (million) 2.5 overall performance, Brasília has significant room put. Brasília consumes 301 megajoules of elec-Administrative area (km2) 5,802.0 for improvement in waste and transport, earning tricity per US$1,000 GDP, less than half of theGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 21,082.1 ranks of well below average in both categories. 17-city average of 761 megajoules. However,Population density (persons/km2) 436.5 Brasília generates one of the highest rates of the city’s performance on emissions and energyTemperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 21.0 waste per capita and, as a city designed for cars, consumption is partly cancelled out by weakerBased on Brasilia, Distrito Federal40
  • 41. law, and a land management plan establishes the city’s open air dump. Once the dump is limits on urban sprawl. Brasília could improve its closed, the city will build permanent houses ranking in this category by strengthening its connected to its sanitation network and with policies on eco-buildings: the city does not offer potable water connections for nearly 35,000 incentives to motivate businesses or households people living in the area, in addition to building to lower energy use nor does it have a plan for schools and other neighbourhood infrastruc- implementing green standards in public build- ture. ings or any standards for energy efficiency in new buildings. Transport: Brasília ranks well below average in transport. The city was planned in the 1950s, Green initiatives: In 2009 Brasília’s state- when Brazil’s automotive industry was taking owned property company, Terracap, began off. As a result the city is designed for cars, with work on its long-planned “Green Neighbour- few pedestrian paths. Today the city’s stock of hood” in the north-west of the city. The new res- cars and motorcycles totals 0.37 vehicles per idential community includes 220 energy-effi- person, compared with a 17-city average ofresults for government energy policy. Although cient buildings, which will be built with installed 0.30. Brasília has a 45-km metro consisting ofthe city recently formed a council on climate solar panels and eventually house an estimated two lines with about 150,000 daily passengers.change, it has failed to adopt any clear CO2 emis- 40,000 people. The neighbourhood is due to be Its superior transport network (defined in thesions reduction targets or sign up to any interna- completed by 2025. Furthermore, Brasília, with Index as transport that moves large numbers oftional covenants regarding the reduction of support of the World Bank, is also planning to passengers quickly in dedicated lanes, such as agreenhouse gases. Furthermore, Brasília is one launch a US$34 million urbanisation pro- metro, bus rapid transit or tram network) totalsof only four cities in the index not to have con- gramme in an informal settlement at the edge of about 0.09 km per square kilometre of urbanducted a recent baseline review of greenhousegas emissions. Performance Brasilia Other citiesLand use and buildings: Brasília has an well below average above wellaverage rank for land use and buildings. below average average aboveAlthough the city is renowned for urban plan- average averagening, its middling score in this category is largely Energy and CO2attributable to its low population density. At 436people per square kilometre versus the Index Land Use and Buildingsaverage of 4,500 people per square kilometre, TransportBrasília’s population density is the lowest in the WasteIndex. This is distorted by the city’s vast adminis-trative area, much of which is uninhabited. WaterHowever, Brasília was designed with large and Sanitationplentiful parks and therefore boasts an estimat- Air Qualityed 985 square metres of green space per person— the second highest in the Index, behind Environmental GovernanceQuito. Brasília’s 67 protected parks and conser- Overall Resultsvation areas are subject to an environmental The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results. 41
  • 42. Latin American Green City Index | Brasília_Brazilterritory, just below the Index average of 0.1 km. “green initiatives” below). There are 12 waste new buildings have been equipped with waterHowever, buses are the primary form of public management stations in the city and a local sys- meters, and meters will be installed in oldertransport, and they are frequently overcrowded. tem to recycle waste was launched in 2007. buildings within five years.Brasília is shown to have the shortest mass trans-port network in the Latin American Green Cities Green initiatives: In 2009 Brasília opened a Sanitation: Brasília ranks above average forIndex in relation to its size, at just 0.5 km per public bidding process to build a new managed sanitation. As a relatively young city, Brasíliasquare kilometre of urban territory compared landfill. The US$175 million, state-of-the-art benefits in this category from its comparativelywith a 17-city average of 5.0 km. The city also facility will be the city’s first and only landfill, new sanitation infrastructure. The city treatsperforms poorly in urban mass transport policy. and the winner will have one year to build the 100% of its collected wastewater, considerablyThe city’s mass transport plan, “Integrated facility. When the new landfill is fully opera- higher than the Index average of 52%. However,Brasília”, calls for investment in expanding bus tional, the city will close its existing open air an estimated 92% of Brasília’s residents haveand metro services, construction of passenger dump. The bidding process was suspended on access to sanitation services, which is slightlyterminals and the creation of more bus lanes, technical grounds, but officials say it will be lower than the 17-city average of 94%. The city’sbut has yet to be fully implemented. Brasília reopened in 2011. record in this area will likely improve thanks toscores better on policy to reduce congestion. ongoing projects (see “green initiatives” below).Although the city lacks traffic reduction initia- Water: Brasília ranks above average for water. The city’s score is further bolstered by a solidtives like carpooling lanes or park and ride sys- Its strong performance in this category is largely record in sanitation policy. It regularly monitorstems, officials have begun to promote cycling as thanks to a comparably low rate of water system on-site sanitation facilities in homes and com-a form of transport, which boosts its score. leakages. Brasília loses 27% of its water supply munal areas, for example, and like most cities in to leakages, less than the 17-city average of 35% the Index, Brasília promotes awareness of pre-Green initiatives: In 2009 Brasília started con- — only Monterrey and Puebla have lower rates. ventative sewerage maintenance mainly throughstructing the country’s first modern, electricity- Brasília’s water infrastructure is relatively new public awareness campaigns.powered tram system. Scheduled for comple- and therefore more efficient than the infrastruc-tion ahead of the 2014 World Cup, the tram line ture of many other cities in the Index. Almost Green initiatives: In 2007 the city launchedwill extend 23 km and link Brasília’s airport to 100% of the population has access to potable the $150 million “Sustainable Brasília” project inthe city’s southern, central, and northern zones, water, according to official sources. partnership with the World Bank to preserve thewith 25 stations. The US$870 million project is On average, Brasília consumes 176 litres of quality of water resources and expand environ-expected to reduce road traffic on the W3, one water per capita per day versus the Index aver- mental sanitation services. Under the pro-of Brasília’s major thoroughfares, by 30%. Fur- age of 264 litres. The capital city has a regulato- gramme Brasília is undertaking a combinationther tram lines are under consideration. ry agency for water, energy and basic sanitation, of activities to reduce pollution and prevent the which, along with the waterworks company dumping of untreated wastewater into its waterWaste: Brasília is well below average in the Caesb, regularly monitors the water system for sources. The initiatives are primarily aimed atwaste category. The city’s poor performance is pollutants. Brasília is also taking steps to pre- expanding sanitation infrastructure to currentlylargely attributable to a very high rate of waste serve the quality of its vast underground water under-served neighbourhoods and upgradingproduction: Brasília generates 875 kg of waste resources, natural springs and the man-made drainage and pipe networks. “Sustainableper person per year, considerably higher than Paranoá Lake (see “green initiatives” in “Sanita- Brasília” also has a significant urbanisation com-the Index average of 465 kg. This is even high tion” below). ponent and aims to improve living standards forwhen compared with other high-income cities residents close to the city’s natural springs.in the Index, which produce an average of 657 kg Green initiatives: In an effort to reduce waterof waste per person per year. Brasília collects and consumption, in 2009 the city adopted a mea- Air quality: Brasília ranks above average fordisposes of 95% of its waste, just below the 17- sure that offers consumers a 20% discount on air quality, together with Belo Horizonte, Quitocity average of 96%. It is one of the few major water bills if they consume less water in a given and Medellín. The city’s strong performance incities in Brazil that still operates an open-air dump, month than during the same month in the previ- this category is largely attributable to the rela-which has long been slated for closure (see ous year. In addition, over the past two years tive absence of polluting industries. Brasília42
  • 43. records an annual average daily concentration informing citizens about pollutant levels and nance, one of its best performances in theof nitrogen dioxide of just 13 micrograms per about the dangers of household pollution. Index. The city’s environmental policy and pro-cubic metre, which is the lowest in the Index, grammes seem to have been unaffected byand well below the 17-city average of 38 micro- Green initiatives: Brasília’s state-run environ- political difficulties in early 2010. The state sec-grams. The city also has the lowest concentra- mental institute, IBRAM, runs seven monitoring retariat for urban development, habitation andtion of particulate matter, at just 11 micrograms stations in the city, and in 2009 IBRAM partnered environment, Seduma, acts as the central pointper cubic metre versus the Index average of 48 with the University of Brasília to improve its capabil- of contact for public information on environ-micrograms. However daily sulphur dioxide con- ities. Together the organizations are closely moni- mental performance. The department also con-centrations of 13 micrograms per cubic metre toring air quality in highly polluted areas close to ducts regular reviews of its environmental per-are slightly higher than the average of 11 micro- the main bus station, along major streets and near formance and the results are publicly available.grams. Although the city’s performance in this a large cement factory. The organisations also co- The environment department also organisescategory is already impressive, less reliance on produce the city’s annual air quality report. regular public audiences with non-governmen-private car transport would boost its score fur- tal organisations and other stakeholders, partic-ther. Brasília monitors air quality (see “green ini- Environmental governance: Brasília ularly when drafting plans for programmes suchtiatives” below) and also promotes cleaner air by ranks above average for environmental gover- as “Sustainable Brasília”.Quantitative indicators: Brasília Average Brasília Year* Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions from electricity consumption 202.2 7.8 1, e 2009 EIU estimate; Companhia Energética de Brasilia; Secretaria de Estado de per person (kg/person ) Desenvolvimento Urbano, Habitação e Meio Ambiente Electricity consumption per US$ GDP 760.7 301.2 1 2007 Companhia Energética de Brasilia; Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia (megajoules per thousand US$ GDP) e Estatística; Economist Intelligence Unit Land use Population density (persons/km2) 4,503.0 436.5 1 2009 Secretaria de Estado de Desenvolvimento Urbano, Habitação e Meio Ambiente; and Buildings Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística Green spaces per person (m2/person) 254.6 985.1 1, e 2009 Secretaria de Estado de Desenvolvimento Urbano, Habitação e Meio Ambiente Transport Length of mass transport network (km/km2) 5.0 0.5 2, e 2009 Secretaria de Estado de Desenvolvimento Urbano, Habitação e Meio Ambiente Superior public transport networks (km/km2) 0.13 0.09 3 2010 Dftran, DFMetro Stock of cars and motorcycles (vehicles/person) 0.30 0.37 1 2010 Denatran Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 96.2 95.1 4 2009 Secretaria de Estado de Desenvolvimento Urbano, Habitação e Meio Ambiente Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 465.0 874.6 4 2009 Secretaria de Estado de Desenvolvimento Urbano, Habitação e Meio Ambiente Water Water consumption per person 264.3 175.9 1 2008 Companhia de Saneamento Ambiental do Distrito Federal; Secretaria de Estado (litres per person per day) de Desenvolvimento Urbano, Habitação e Meio Ambiente Water system leakages (%) 34.6 27.0 1 2008 Secretaria de Estado de Desenvolvimento Urbano, Habitação e Meio Ambiente Sistema Nacional de Informações sobre Saneamento; Secretaria de Estado de Share of population with access to potable water (%) 97.5 99.8 1 2008 Desenvolvimento Urbano, Habitação e Meio Ambiente Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 93.7 91.8 5, e 2008 Sistema Nacional de Informações sobre Saneamento Share of wastewater treated (%) 51.5 100.0 1 2008 Secretaria de Estado de Desenvolvimento Urbano, Habitação e Meio Ambiente Air Quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 37.8 13.4 6, e 2008 Secretaria do Meio Ambiente Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 11.4 13.4 7, e 2008 Secretaria do Meio Ambiente Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 48.0 10.9 8, e 2008 Secretaria do Meio Ambiente* Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU Estimate, 1) Based on Brasília, Distrito Federal, 2) Based on the urban area of Brasília. Not all data on bus lines accounted for due to unavailability of data, 3) Based on theurban area of Brasília, 4) Based on Brasília, Distrito Federal. Based on total waste collected, 5) Based on Brasília, Distrito Federal. Proportion of population with access to sewerage, 6) Based on Brasília, Distrito Federal. Estimated annual daily mean of NO2, 7) Based onBrasília, Distrito Federal. Estimated annual daily mean of SO2, 8) Based on Brasília, Distrito Federal. Estimated annual daily mean of PM10. 43
  • 44. Latin American Green City Index | Buenos Aires_Argentina Buenos Aires_ArgentinaB uenos Aires is the capital city of Argentina. Although the metropolitan area is home tosome 12.5 million people, the Autonomous City Argentina’s GDP. Its commercial activities are dominated by financial services, real estate, business services and manufacturing. It also well below average rank in the water category. Although all of Buenos Aires’s residents have access to potable water, the city has a high rateof Buenos Aires is considerably smaller, with 3.1 boasts one of the busiest ports in South Ameri- of water consumption and system leakages. Themillion inhabitants. Only the smaller city proper ca. The port is located on the River Plate, which city’s score is further hindered by below averageis calculated in the Latin American Green City runs along Buenos Aires and links Argentina to rankings in waste, sanitation and air quality. How-Index, making Buenos Aires the tenth biggest Uruguay. As a result, the city is a major logistics ever, when measured against other high-incomecity in the Index. The city has the highest GDP and transport hub. cities in the Index (GDP per capita above US$per capita in the Index, at an estimated Despite its relative affluence, Buenos Aires 16,000), Buenos Aires has the highest share ofUS$24,200. And along with the wider metropol- ranks below average in the Index overall. The residents with access to potable water and sani-itan area, Buenos Aires is the country’s econom- city’s best results come in the areas of energy tation services. Furthermore, the city has adopt-ic powerhouse, contributing nearly a quarter of and CO2, land use and buildings, transport, and ed one of the most ambitious climate change environmental governance; in each of these cat- action plans in the Index, and its performance in egories it ranks average. Its performance in the many categories will likely improve as a result. energy and CO2 category is driven by a relativelyBackground indicators low rate of electricity consumption per unit of Energy and CO2: Buenos Aires ranks aver- GDP and strong policies aimed at curbing the age in energy and CO2, due mainly to a highTotal population (million) 3.1 effects of climate change. In the area of trans- level of CO2 emissions from electricity usage.Administrative area (km2) 203.2 port, Buenos Aires has one of the longest public Each year the city produces 527 kg of CO2 emis-GDP per person (current prices) (US$) e 24,222.9 transport networks and well-developed policies sions per capita from electricity usage, almostPopulation density (persons/km2) 15,013.4 aimed at congestion reduction. However, the triple the 17-city average of 202 kg per person,Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 17.8 city’s overall performance is weighed down by a and the second highest level in the Index. ItsBased on Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Airese) EIU estimate44
  • 45. high level of CO2 emissions from electricity islargely due to the low share of renewables usedin electricity production. Just over a quarter ofthe electricity consumed in Buenos Aires comesfrom hydropower, while the majority is pro-duced from natural gas. On the other hand, thecity consumes 535 megajoules of electricity perUS$1,000 GDP, compared to the Index averageof 761 megajoules. However, this is the highestrate of electricity consumption when measuredagainst the two other higher-income cities in theIndex. Buenos Aires performs better when itcomes to policies aimed at reducing CO2 emis-sions. The city has adopted a comprehensive cli-mate change action plan, which is described inmore detail in the “green initiatives” below.However, Buenos Aires could improve its perfor- among residents about ways to improve energy green corridors with bicycle lanes that connectmance in this category by implementing a clean efficiency in their homes, its score is bolstered existing green spaces. This will include parks,energy strategy aimed at reducing the environ- by the city administration’s proactive measures plazas and the Costanera Sur Ecological Reserve,mental impact of energy consumption and to implement energy-efficient and environmen- in the east of Buenos Aires, which remains anincreasing investment in energy efficiency. tally friendly programmes in municipal build- important focus for environmental conserva- While several cities in the Index have already ings. The city has pledged to cut energy con- tion. Neither a timeline nor firm targets for thebegun converting local waste by-products to sumption in government buildings by 20% from programme have been announced.energy, bolstering their energy and CO2 score in 2007 levels through the end of 2012 (see “greenthe process, Buenos Aires scores less well on this initiatives” below). Transport: Buenos Aires ranks average inindicator because it has only gone as far as com- transport. The city’s public transport system ispleting feasibility studies on bio-digestion and Green initiatives: The city’s “Energy Efficiency well developed, and the density of the network,biogas recovery. The city also lags behind other Programme in Public Buildings” aims to reduce at 7 km per square kilometre of city territory isIndex cities in terms of investing in clean energy energy consumption in public buildings by 10% above the 17-city average of 5 km per squareand renewables. in 2010 and 20% from 2007 levels through the kilometre. The metro boosts Buenos Aires’s end of 2012. Under the initiative, the city first score in the area of superior public transportGreen initiatives: In 2009 the city adopted a conducted energy assessments of municipal networks (defined in the Index as transport thatcomprehensive climate change action plan. It buildings, taking into account air conditioning, moves large numbers of passengers quickly insets a target to reduce CO2 emissions 30% by heating, lighting, use of computers and other dedicated lanes, such as a metro, bus rapid tran-2030 from 2008 levels, achieving a reduction of electric equipment. Individual energy-efficiency sit or tram network). It is one of the longest in5 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Specific mea- plans were then tailored for each building to the Index at 0.26 km per square kilometre of citysures in the plan include replacing standard maximise energy-savings opportunities and will territory. However, many commuters still choosestreet lights with energy-efficient LED lights, be used as best practice to adopt in other public to drive. Buenos Aires has the highest stock ofintroducing more efficient household appli- buildings. The city is also developing a plan to cars and motorcycles in the Index, at an estimat-ances, and launching a public-awareness cam- revitalise green spaces by creating a network of ed 0.66 vehicles per person — more than twicepaign to promote energy conservation.In 2010 the city of Buenos Aires put its firsthybrid electric bus into circulation, the firststage in its “Ecobus” project. The project aims to Performance Buenos Aires Other citiesreplace the city’s entire fleet with low-pollution well below average above wellhybrid vehicles, which, authorities say, will cut below average average aboveCO2 emissions by 230,000 tonnes a year. average average Energy and CO2Land use and buildings: Buenos Airesranks average in the land use and buildings cate- Land Use and Buildingsgory. The city scores well for population density, Transportwith the highest density among the cities in the WasteIndex, at 15,000 inhabitants per square kilome-tre, compared to the 17-city average of 4,500 Waterpeople per square kilometre. However, this high Sanitationdensity comes at the expense of green spaces. Air QualityWith just 6 square metres of green spaces perperson within the city area, Buenos Aires has Environmental Governanceone of the lowest figures in the Index. While the Overall Resultscity does not actively promote awareness The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results. 45
  • 46. Latin American Green City Index | Buenos Aires_Argentinathe 17-city average of 0.3. The city is working to Hygiene Proposal for the city in July 2010. Thereduce emissions from mass transport and has plan calls for an overhaul of the city’s waste col-adopted low-emission public buses. The city also lection system, and includes the guiding princi-promotes green transport, such as cycling. pal of “zero waste”, which aims to be achieved by expanding recycling and improving collectionGreen initiatives: As part of its “Plan for Sus- and disposal services.tainable Mobility”, the city has added “preferen-tial routes” to eight major commuter thorough- Water: Buenos Aires ranks well below averagefares to improve traffic flow. Measures include for water, its poorest placement in the Index.designating separate lanes along these routes While 100% of Buenos Aires’s population havefor public and private transport. The initiative access to potable water, ranking first with Portohas cut travel times by up to two thirds and has Alegre, Curitiba and Quito, the city has consider-also reduced emissions from idling vehicles. The able scope for improvement in this category.sustainable mobility plan also foresees a bicycle The residents of Buenos Aires have the highestrental scheme, similar to those in many Euro- rate of water consumption in the Index, at 669pean cities. Users will be able to rent bicycles litres of water per person per day, more thanfrom designated locations for short periods and double the 17-city average of 264 litres per day.return them to any other station in the city. The The high rate of consumption is in part attribut- mated 99% of residents have access to sanita-city administration has not yet announced a able to the city’s lack of progress in the area of tion, which is above the Index average oftimeline for this initiative. water sustainability policy. The city does not 94% — the city is one of only two in the have a code for reducing water stress or con- Index that fails to treat its wastewater. A largeWaste: Buenos Aires ranks below average in suming water more efficiently. Buenos Aires quantity of untreated sanitation flows directlythe waste category. The city of Buenos Aires col- also loses an estimated 41% of its water to leak- into the already-polluted River Plate. Further-lects and adequately disposes of 100% of its ages, compared to an Index average of 35%. more, the city is one of just a few in the Indexwaste, compared to the 17-city average of 96%. And while the city does monitor the quality of that does not have any public awareness cam-However, the city of Buenos Aires generates 606 surface water, Buenos Aires is the only city in the paigns to promote the efficient use of sanita-kg of waste per person per year. This is the third Index that lacks a policy aimed at improving the tion systems.highest rate of waste generation in the Index — quality of its surface water.only Brasília and Belo Horizonte produce more Green initiatives: As part of the city’s waterwaste. On average the cities in the index pro- Green initiatives: Buenos Aires has adopted a master plan the government is working toduce 465 kg per inhabitant per year. The large city-wide water master plan to deal with all upgrade the outdated infrastructure of theamount of waste generation is largely attribut- facets of water management. An essential com- Radio Antiguo sewerage system, which datesable to the city’s well-developed consumer cul- ponent of the plan is the installation of water back to 19th century and accounts for 8% of theture and the high standard of living that many of usage meters across the city. While many region- total network. A lack of investment has resultedBuenos Aires’s residents enjoy. The city performs al peers have already taken this step and have in a poor record for sewage treatment, and mostbetter on waste policy because it imposes envi- cut water usage, Buenos Aires hopes to catch up efforts are currently focused solely on monitor-ronmental standards for landfills, enforces and by setting a target to reduce water consumption ing. Further initiatives in the plan include themonitors the proper disposal of hazardous by 40% from current levels by 2012. installation of new drains and secondary collec-waste, and boasts an integrated strategy aimed tors in 17 water basins around the city by 2012.at reducing waste and promoting re-use or recy- Sanitation: Buenos Aires places below aver-cling. age in sanitation. Although the high population Air quality: Buenos Aires places below aver- density of Buenos Aires and historical wealth age for air quality. The city’s dense, traffic-Green initiatives: The Ministry of Environment mean that the city has a widespread and gener- choked streets are the primary source of most ofand Public Space released its draft Urban ally robust sanitation infrastructure — an esti- the air pollution. While the city has inaugurated46
  • 47. a new air monitoring network (see “green initia- informing citizens about the danger of house- Environmental governance: Buenostives” below) it does not yet monitor sulphur hold pollutants. Aires ranks average in environmental gover-dioxide or particulate matter, which hinders its nance. The city’s score in this category is bol-score in the area of air quality monitoring. The Green initiatives: Buenos Aires has recently stered by the wide-ranging scope of its Environ-city has an average daily concentration of nitro- implemented a new air monitoring network mental Protection Agency’s activities and itsgen dioxide of 27 micrograms, one of the lowest designed to help tackle the city’s chronically regular monitoring of environmental perfor-concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in the Index poor air quality. The network has 45 monitoring mance.and well below the 17-city average of 38 micro- facilities analysing various common pollutants The city also has the legal capacity to imple-grams. Due to lack of monitoring, however, data at strategic locations throughout the city. ment its own environmental legislation, but it ison average daily sulphur dioxide and particulate Buenos Aires has also set a target to reduce marked down for the limited scope of citizen andmatter concentrations is outdated. Buenos Aires greenhouse gas emissions from mobile and sta- NGO involvement in drafting environmentalalso underperforms most other cities in the tionary sources by 10% by 2012, partly through plans. Furthermore, the city’s most recent envi-Index when it comes to having a comprehensive verifying that vehicles meet minimum emission ronmental review omitted sanitation, waste,air quality code, but it does score highly for standards. transport, land use, and human settlements.Quantitative indicators: Buenos Aires Average Buenos Aires Year* Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions from electricity consumption 202.2 527.3 1, e 2008 EIU estimate; Agencia de Protección Ambiental, Ciudad de Buenos Aires; per person (kg/person ) International Energy Agency; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Electricity consumption per US$ GDP 760.7 535.3 2 2008 Agencia de Protección Ambiental, Ciudad de Buenos Aires; (megajoules per thousand US$ GDP) Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Land use Population density (persons/km2) 4,503.0 15,013.4 2 2009 Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos de la República; and Buildings Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Green spaces per person (m2/person) 254.6 6.1 2 2008 Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Transport Length of mass transport network (km/km2) 5.0 7.0 2 2008 EIU estimate; Atlas Ambiental de la Ciudad 2009; Subgerencia de Transporte Urbano Superior public transport networks (km/km2) 0.13 0.26 2 2010 Subteraneos de B.A. Stock of cars and motorcycles (vehicles/person) 0.30 0.66 3, e 2008 Dirección Nacional del Registro de la Propiedad del Automotor; Gobierno de la Ciudad de B.A. Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 96.2 100.0 2 2008 Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Minist. de Ambiente y Espacio Público Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 465.0 606.1 2 2008 Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires; Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos de la República Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 264.3 669.2 2 2008 Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Water system leakages (%) 34.6 41.0 2, e 2008 Asociación de Entes Reguladores de Agua Potable y Saneamiento de las Américas Share of population with access to potable water (%) 97.5 100.0 2 2001 Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 93.7 99.3 4, e 2008 Anuario Estadístico 2009, Ministerio de Hacienda GCABA Share of wastewater treated (%) 51.5 0.0 2 2008 Agencia de Protección Ambiental, Ciudad de Buenos Aires Air Quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 37.8 27.0 2 2009 Agencia de Protección Ambiental, Ciudad de Buenos Aires Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 11.4 16.0 5, e 1997 Atlas de Buenos Aires Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 48.0 107.0 2 1999 World Bank* Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU Estimate, 1) Based on Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires. Based on composition of energy sources used in generation of electricity in Argentina, 2) Based on Ciudad Autono-ma de Buenos Aires, 3) Based on Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires. Year for motorcycle data is 2003, 4) Based on Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires. Based on proportion of population with access to sewerage, 5) Based on Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires. Basedon the median of minimum and maximum of the daily air emissions 47
  • 48. Latin American Green City Index | Curitiba_Brazil Curitiba_BrazilC uritiba is the capital of the Brazilian state of Paraná, situated in the country’s fertilesouthern region. Although 3.5 million people The city is also home to numerous well-known national and international companies. Curitiba boasts the eighth highest GDP per person in thereside in the metropolitan area, just 1.9 million Index, at US$10,800. The city also is widely con-live within the Curitiba city limits, making it the sidered to be the best planned of Brazil’s majorsecond smallest city in the Latin American Green cities, and it has won international recognitionCity Index. All data included in the Index is based for its efforts in sustainable development.on the smaller city proper. Its economy, the Curitiba continues to live up to its reputationfourth biggest in Brazil, is driven primarily by for sustainable urban planning with an excep-commerce and services, but industry makes up tional performance in the Index. It is the onlyabout a third of its GDP. It is, for example, the city that achieves an overall rank of well abovesecond largest car manufacturer in the country. average, making it the greenest city in the Index. Curitiba performs particularly well in the area of waste and air quality, and is the only city to achieve well above average in these categories. Its placement is bolstered by progressive policies in both waste management and clean air. InBackground indicators most other categories Curitiba places among the top performers, ranking above average. Its poor-Total population (million) 1.9 est placement is in the area of land use andAdministrative area (km2) 430.9 buildings, where it ranks average. Curitiba’sGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 10,796.6 impressive performance is largely attributable toPopulation density (persons/km2) 4,296.2 its well-developed policies. The city is amongTemperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 17.0 the best-performing cities for its policies inBased on City of Curitiba almost all categories, with a few notable excep-48
  • 49. tions. Curitiba remains at the top of the Index placement in the Index. As a city with a low pop- living in informal settlements. The city adminis-when measured against cities with similar ulation and one of the smallest administrative tration says it aims to relocate to permanentincomes and populations. areas in the Index, Curitiba has a population housing some 18,000 families living in informal density of 4,300 persons per square kilometre, settlements along Curitiba’s river banks by theEnergy and CO2: Curitiba ranks above which is mid-range for the Index and just slightly end of 2012. This project aims to improve livingaverage in energy and CO2. The city emits con- below the 17-city average of 4,500 inhabitants. standards and protect the city’s more vulnerablesiderably less CO2 from electricity than the Index The city could improve its performance in this ecological areas. In 2007 Curitiba launched aaverage, at an estimated 70 kg of CO2 per per- category by increasing its green spaces. At 52 programme to incentivise landowners to estab-son compared to the 17-city average of 292 kg. square metres per person, Curitiba is just mid- lish public parks on their private land. Landown-The city consumes 743 megajoules of electricity range in the Index. However, Curitiba receives ers who create parks are exempt from local andper US$1,000 GDP, which is just slightly below the best scores for protecting the green spaces it federal urban land taxes. The city says the pro-the average of 761 megajoules. Curitiba has a does have, and for its comprehensive plan to gramme is helping preserve green areas andgood record in trying to reduce loss of energy in contain urban sprawl. The city is a middling per- limit urban sprawl.transmission and to consume energy more effi- former on eco-buildings policies, since it has nei-ciently, and it makes at least partial efforts to ther adopted eco-efficient standards for build- Transport: Curitiba ranks above average in transport. Over the last three decades, Curitiba has based its mass transport system on bus “axes”, which are dedicated corridors where only buses operate, also known as “bus rapid transit” (BRT). The city has six such axes carrying 710,000 daily commuters. The transit system is integrated, with commuters able to pay one fare and transfer between different bus lines. Curiti- ba’s investment in buses has helped give it the second longest mass transport network in the Index, at an estimated 8.5 km per square kilome- tre, well above the 17-city average of 5 km per square kilometre. At the same time, the city scores well for its urban mass transport policy. Curitiba is taking steps to reduce emissions from urban mass transport, through the replacement of diesel-powered buses with ones running on biofuels (see “green initiatives” below). Despite its well-developed public transport system, Curitiba is marked down for its stock of cars andconvert waste by-products to energy. And ings, nor does it offer incentives for businesses motorcycles. The city has 0.50 vehicles per per-although the city scores well for its energy strat- and households to lower their energy use. son, the second highest rate in the Index andegy and investments in renewable energy — the well above the average of 0.30 cars per person.city produces 84% of its electricity from Green initiatives: Curitiba is participating in However, the city is proactively tackling its traffichydropower — it is marked down for not having the federal government’s “My House, My Life” problems, and earns top place for its congestionmonitored greenhouse gas emissions and pub- scheme to provide low-cost housing for people reduction policies. Curitiba uses a combinationlishing the results. However, this will likelychange (see “green initiatives” below). Performance Curitiba Other citiesGreen initiatives: Since 2009 the city’s envi- well below average above wellronmental authority has been conducting an below average average aboveongoing study on the CO2 absorption rate in Cu- average averageritiba’s green spaces, as well as evaluating total Energy and CO2CO2 emissions in the city. Curitiba officials saythe results will help them draft plans to neutra- Land Use and Buildingslise emissions. The city is also in the process of Transportchanging all street lights from incandescent to Wasteenergy-efficient fluorescent bulbs. It hasannounced plans to replace all diesel oil used in Waterpublic transport with environmentally friendly, Sanitationlow-emission biofuels, although the timetable is Air Qualityunclear. Environmental GovernanceLand use and buildings: Curitiba ranks Overall Resultsaverage in land use and buildings, its lowest The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results. 49
  • 50. Latin American Green City Index | Curitiba_Brazilof traffic light sequencing, traffic information sys- per person per year, slightly more than the 17- by the fact that the state-run environmentaltems, dedicated delivery times and access points city average of 465 kg. Reducing the amount of agency monitors water quality rather than thearound the city in order to reduce congestion. waste generated would boost its already impres- city itself. This should change though, as the city sive performance in this category even more. has plans to monitor water quality at 70 pointsGreen initiatives: In 2007 Curitiba started throughout the city in the future.rehabilitating the Green Line, a stretch of federal Green initiatives: In 1989 Curitiba launchedhighway that links eastern and western Curitiba. its now-renowned recycling programme. Resi- Green initiatives: The state water companyThe Green Line now has four exclusive bus lanes dents separate recyclable materials, including has extended water services — as well as sewer-and three lanes for private vehicles in each direc- glass, plastics, paper and old electronic devices, age connections — to all of the 1,790 house-tion. The aim is to cut commuting times, link which the city collects from households three holds in “Vila Zumbi dos Palmares”, an informalopposite sides of the city and the neighbor- times a week. To ensure proper disposal of waste settlement. The programme guarantees thehoods in between, and encourage the use of generated in 41 informal settlements, which delivery of clean drinking water and alsopublic transport by cutting bus travel times. Fur- have dense, winding streets that are difficult for improves water quality for Curitiba as a whole,thermore, six of the 12 buses running on the line waste companies to access, the city introduced largely because the informal settlement sitsoperate on soybean-derived biofuel. Officials its “Purchase of Garbage” initiative. The city has along the banks of the Palmital River, one of theare closely monitoring their performance, and designated central collection points where resi- city’s main water sources.eventually the city wants all of its buses to run dents receive food baskets in ex-change for eachon biofuels. The city is also establishing a public- 8-10 kg of waste they hand over. Furthermore, Sanitation: Curitiba ranks above average inprivate partnership to build the city’s first metro. the city pays the neighborhood association 10% sanitation. The city treats 98% of its wastewater,The US$1.2 billion project is scheduled to open of the value of each food basket for community the third best performance in the Index, behindin 2014, although this target seems unlikely works or services. Curitiba authorities estimate Brasília and Monterrey, and much higher thangiven that construction has not yet begun. The that 6,800 tonnes of waste are collected the 17-city average of 52%. Curitiba’s score istransport department says nearly 500,000 com- through this initiative each year. also boosted by strict standards for wastewatermuters will travel between the 22 planned treatment and regular monitoring, and the citymetro stations every day. Water: Curitiba ranks above average in the promotes public awareness on the efficient use water category. The city’s water consumption is of sanitation systems. The city could work toWaste: Curitiba is the only city in the Index to one of the lowest in the Index, behind only improve sanitation access, however. Only 93%achieve a well above average ranking in the Bogotá. On a per capita basis, the city consumes of residents have access to services, one of thewaste category. In 1988 it became the first of six 150 litres of water per day, well below the 17- lower rates in the Index and slightly below theBrazilian cities in the Index to shut down its open city average of 264 litres. The low level of water average of 94%.rubbish dump, and instead dispose of all waste consumption is largely attributable to manyin a managed landfill. Now Curitiba is one of years of successful public awareness campaigns Green initiatives: The main initiative to im-eight cities in the Index that collects and ade- to encourage water conservation. Furthermore, prove the Curitiba’s sanitation system is aquately disposes of 100% of its municipal waste. Curitiba is the leading city in the Index for the US$585 million statewide programme calledIts score is also bolstered by progressive policies strength of its water sustainability policy, which “From River to River”. This comprehensive planon waste collection and disposal, and waste is contained in the city’s municipal water involves improving sanitation, as well asrecycling and re-use. The city enforces strict resources plan. The top marks for policy are dri- drainage and the quality of the state’s waterenvironmental standards on its sole landfill and ven by the presence of several efficiency mea- basins. The programme will run through 2018.also has a programme to separately collect and sures, including water meters, separate pipes fortreat hazardous waste, as well as debris from non-drinking water, hose-pipe bans and rainwa- Air quality: Curitiba ranks well above aver-construction and demolition. Curitiba also has ter collection. The city is marked down for only age in air quality. Along with Santiago, the citythe most advanced recycling programme in partially monitoring surface water quality and boasts the most advanced clean air policy in theBrazil (see “green initiatives” below). On the imposing limits for levels of pollutants in surface Index. It regularly monitors air pollutants, forother hand, the city generates 473 kg of waste or drinking water. However, this result is skewed example, and participates in a statewide pro-50
  • 51. gramme to inform citizens about the dangers of emissions standards for industry, and mandates policy. As a result it gets the highest marks in thehousehold pollutants. It also has a comprehen- emissions audits at factories every four years. Index for public participation, along with Santia-sive air quality code, helping Curitiba achieve Authorities issue fines to facilities that do not go. While Curitiba has conducted a recent base-better than average pollutant levels. The city meet standards, and if factories fail twice, the line environmental review that included water,records an average daily concentration of nitro- state can close them down. sanitation, waste, transport, human settlementsgen dioxide at 23 micrograms per cubic metre, and climate change, the review omitted air qual-compared to the Index average of 38 micro- Environmental governance: Curitiba ity, land use and energy. Other Index citiesgrams. While still well below the average, the ranks above average for environmental gover- included all of these components in their review.city’s nitrogen dioxide emissions can likely be nance. It performs particularly well for environ-attributed to the city’s continued reliance on mental management, thanks to having a desig- Green initiatives: In 1989 Curitiba added envi-motor vehicles — they are a primary source of nated environmental department which moni- ronmental education into the curriculum of itsthis pollutant. The city also does well on sulphur tors the city’s environmental impact and drafts public schools. The school system adopted andioxide and suspended particulate matter emis- strategic plans on environmental policy. In 2010 interdisciplinary method for teaching conserva-sions, with both well below the average levels. the city allocated about US$106 million to the tion, recycling and a wide range of environmen- environmental department, or about 5% of the tal issues. The city provides training courses onGreen initiatives: In 2002 the state govern- total city budget. Curitiba also actively engages environmental education for teachers and sup-ment introduced a law that establishes strict citizens and NGOs in formulating environmental ports class fieldtrips to parks and forests.Quantitative indicators: Curitiba Average Curitiba Year* Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions from electricity consumption 202.2 70.4 1, e 2007 EIU estimate; Agência Curitiba; Curitiba, Prefeitura da Cidade; International per person (kg/person ) Energy Agency; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Electricity consumption per US$ GDP 760.7 743.5 2 2007 Agência Curitiba; Curitiba, Prefeitura da Cidade; (megajoules per thousand US$ GDP) Economist Intelligence Unit Land use Population density (persons/km2) 4,503.0 4,296.2 2 2009 Agência Curitiba; Curitiba, Prefeitura da Cidade and Buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 254.6 51.5 2 2009 Agência Curitiba; Curitiba, Prefeitura da Cidade Transport Length of mass transport network (km/km2) 5.0 8.5 2, e 2009 Agência Curitiba; Curitiba, Prefeitura da Cidade Superior public transport networks (km/km2) 0.13 0.19 2 2010 URBS Curitiba Stock of cars and motorcycles (vehicles/person) 0.30 0.50 2 2010 Denatran Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 96.2 100.0 2 2007 Agência Curitiba; Curitiba, Prefeitura da Cidade Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 465.0 473.2 2 2009 Agência Curitiba; Curitiba, Prefeitura da Cidade Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 264.3 150.0 2 2010 SANEPAR - Companhia de Saneamento do Paraná Water system leakages (%) 34.6 39.2 2 2009 Agência Curitiba; Curitiba, Prefeitura da Cidade Share of population with access to potable water (%) 97.5 100.0 2 2009 Agência Curitiba; Curitiba, Prefeitura da Cidade Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 93.7 92.5 3 2010 SANEPAR - Companhia de Saneamento do Paraná Share of wastewater treated (%) 51.5 98.3 2 2010 SANEPAR - Companhia de Saneamento do Paraná Air Quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 37.8 22.5 2 2007 Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente - Relatório de Qualidade do Ar Curitiba e RMC Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 11.4 6.6 2 2007 Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente - Relatório de Qualidade do Ar Curitiba e RMC Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 48.0 25.9 2 2007 Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente - Relatório de Qualidade do Ar Curitiba e RMC* Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU Estimate, 1) Based on City of Curitiba. Estimated from energy sources used in electricity production in Brazil, 2) Based on City of Curitiba, 3) Based on City of Curitiba. Basedon proportion of population with access to sewerage 51
  • 52. Latin America Green City Index | Guadalajara_Mexico Guadalajara_Mexico Energy and CO2: Guadalajara ranks belowG uadalajara, the capital of the Mexican state of Jalisco, is the country’s second most pop-ulous city behind Mexico City. The metropolitan al major international players locating opera- tions in the city. The manufacturing sector, including shoes and textiles, also contributes average in energy and CO2. Its performance is influenced by relatively high CO2 emissions fromarea, with a population of 4.4 million, includes significantly to the city’s economic output. electricity consumption and relatively weak poli-the municipality of Guadalajara City and seven Guadalajara boasts a GDP per person of an esti- cies to address climate change. The city, with itsother municipalities. Data included in the Latin mated US$9,400, putting it mid-range in theAmerican Green City Index are based on a com- Index in terms of income.bination of municipal, metropolitan and state Economic growth has brought environmen-figures, according to availability. The local econ- tal challenges though, and Guadalajara isomy has grown quickly in recent years, driven by ranked well below average overall in the Latinan export boom following the 1994 North American Green City Index. The city’s highestAmerican Free Trade Agreement with the US rankings are in the land use and buildings,and Canada. Guadalajara has in particular waste, and air quality categories, where it placesbecome an electronics industry hub, with sever- average. Guadalajara places below average in energy and CO2, transport and sanitation. It has significant room for improvement in the areas of water and environmental governance, placing well below average, due to a very high rate ofBackground indicators water consumption, and weaknesses in environ- mental monitoring. Guadalajara’s scores in sev-Total population (million) 4.4 eral categories are hindered by its policies,Administrative area (km2) 2,734.0 which are in many cases less robust than thoseGDP per person (current prices) (US$) e 9,408.8 of other cities in the Index; however, the cityPopulation density (persons/km2) 1,596.6 scores much better for its codes regarding cleanTemperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 20.0 energy, waste collection and air quality.Based on Guadalajara Metropolitan Areae) EIU estimate52
  • 53. tricity production. An estimated 15% of Index, although it does better for protecting Guadalajara’s electricity comes from renewable environmentally sensitive areas from develop- sources (primarily hydropower), though due to a ment. The city requires that all development lack of local data, this percentage is estimated projects pass an environmental impact study. on the basis of national figures. So far, Guadala- Guadalajara’s score is hindered by its policies jara has not regularly monitored greenhouse gas regarding eco-buildings. The city does not set levels, nor has it adopted a climate change standards for the eco-efficiency of new build- action plan of its own, although it will be cov- ings by private developers, for example, nor ered by a forthcoming plan by the state of Jalisco does it implement green standards for public (see “green initiatives” below). Guadalajara also building projects. However, its performance in has a relatively low rate of electricity consump- this area should improve thanks to the state’s tion compared to its economic output, at an esti- forthcoming climate change action plan, which mated 632 megajoules per US$1,000 of GDP, is expected to address some of these issues. below the Index average of 761 megajoules. Green initiatives: The State Action Pro- Green initiatives: The state of Jalisco is devel- gramme on Climate Change (see “green initia- oping a “State Action Programme on Climate tives” under “Energy and CO2”) will outline a Change”, modeled on other statewide plans cre- “state sustainable buildings policy project” that ated elsewhere in Mexico. Although still unfin- will promote using LEDs for public lighting, as ished, some of the plan’s details have been well as solar panels and energy-efficient appli- released. It will call for an inventory of green- ances in homes. In addition, there is a national house gas emissions in the state, and promote “Sustainable Light” plan to replace more than 45 greenhouse gas reductions through a number of million incandescent light bulbs in 11 million specific measures aimed at buildings, landfills, Mexican homes with energy-saving bulbs by transport, and forest protection. Many of these 2012. The initiative will save an estimated 2.8 measures are aimed specifically at improving million tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions Guadalajara’s environmental performance. In annually. The city of Guadalajara is also review- addition, the 2009 opening of the city’s first “bus ing existing green buildings policies across Mex- rapid transit” (BRT) could reduce the city’s CO2 ico, with a view to implementing its own regula- emissions by 30,000 tonnes per year, according tions based on best practices. to city officials (see “green initiatives” under “Transport” below). Transport: Guadalajara ranks below average in transport. The metropolitan area’s mass trans- Land use and buildings: Guadalajara is port network, which consists of a two-line average in land use and buildings. The metro- metro, an electric trolley line and a large fleet ofsignificant manufacturing sector, emits an esti- politan area has the fourth highest amount of buses, is shorter than the 17-city average, at 2.3mated 333 kg of CO2 per capita from electricity green spaces among the 17 cities in the Index, at km per square kilometre, compared to the aver-consumption, well above the Index average of 423 square metres per person. Guadalajara is, age of 5 km. While the system has suffered in202 kg. This high rate of CO2 emissions is partly however, marked down for its policies to main- the past from underinvestment and a lack ofa result of the low share of renewables in elec- tain green spaces relative to other cities in the coordinated planning, Guadalajara has recently Performance Guadalajara Other cities well below average above well below average average above average average Energy and CO2 Land Use and Buildings Transport Waste Water Sanitation Air Quality Environmental Governance Overall Results The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results. 53
  • 54. Latin America Green City Index | Guadalajara_Mexicotaken notable steps to significantly improve its Waste: Guadalajara is average in the waste tainability policies, thanks to a code aimed attransport system. In 2009, the city opened its category. The city scores well for collecting and reducing water stress and programmes to pro-first BRT line (see “green initiatives” below), fol- adequately disposing of an estimated 100% of mote public awareness about efficient waterlowing the model of several other cities in the its waste, based on official statewide figures. consumption. The city also uses water meterIndex. Its superior public transport network The Guadalajara metropolitan area generates tariffs to improve efficiency. And while(defined in the Index as transport that moves just slightly more than the average amount of Guadalajara has a code that targets the qualitylarge numbers of passengers quickly in dedicat- waste, at 473 kg per person per year versus of of surface water, it could improve its perfor-ed lanes, such as a metro, bus rapid transit or 465 kg. The city enforces environmental stan- mance by enforcing stricter water pollutiontrams) is the second longest in the Index, at 0.26 dards on landfill and incineration sites, and has standards on local industry.km per square kilometre, above the 17-city aver- rules to encourage residents to properly disposeage of 0.1 km per square kilometre. On the other of waste. Its results for recycling policies are Green initiatives: To respond to water leakagehand, the city lacks an integrated pricing system mixed, however. On one hand, Guadalajara has reports, as well as to answer general customerfor public transport, though officials say they a collection programme and recycles all of the enquiries, the Inter-municipal System of Waterwill introduce one in the future, along with five materials included in the Index — organic and Sewage (SIAPA), which manages Guadala-planned park and ride systems. But some local waste, electrical waste, glass, plastics and paper. jara’s water supply and service, has an onlinegovernment policies have served inadvertently On the other hand, it lacks an integrated strate- customer service capability, and 11 officesto increase car traffic rather than reduce it. Tax gy aimed at reducing, recycling and re-using spread across the metropolitan area. The depart-cuts for car owners have contributed to a 23% waste. ment also promotes sustainable practices fordrop in the use of public transport in the last domestic water use, such as bathroom mainte-decade, while private transport has jumped Green initiatives: Local authorities plan to nance, and informing citizens about how to con-14%, according to state statistics. Today the increase the total amount of organic and non- serve water while going about daily activitiesmunicipality of Guadalajara has 0.37 vehicles organic separated waste from 40% to 50%. such as dish washing, showering, car washingfor every inhabitant, slightly above the Index However, no specific timetable or details on how and cooking.average of 0.3. they will achieve this target have been disclosed. The city is also calling for greater emphasis on Sanitation: Guadalajara ranks below aver-Green initiatives: The city opened its US$48 the conversion of municipal waste into energy, age in the sanitation category. According to offi-million BRT system in March 2009, with routes although hard details on the investment cial figures, a high percentage of the populationtotalling 16 km. A further 56 km are scheduled required — and specific targets set — remain in the metropolitan area has access to sanita-to be added by 2010. Overseen by the state gov- elusive. tion, at an estimated 95%, just above the 17-cityernment but operated by a private company, the average of 94%. However, only an estimatedsystem of exclusive high-speed bus lanes is simi- Water: Guadalajara ranks well below average 25% of Guadalajara’s wastewater is treated,lar to many others opening across Latin America. in the water category. The city’s daily average against a much higher Index average of 52%.The city is also planning on adding a third line to consumption, at an estimated 651 litres per This estimate is based on statewide figures dueits existing metro system. Furthermore, in 2008, person per day, is the second highest in the to a lack of local data. The city could also boostGuadalajara started a free bicycle-lending pro- Index and well above the 17-city average of 264 its score by strengthening sanitation policies.gramme, “Pedalling Guadalajara”. There are now litres. This estimate is based on the municipality Guadalajara lacks a code promoting environ-200 cycle stations around the city with capacity of Guadalajara rather than the metropolitan mentally sustainable sanitation systems; also itfor up to 74,000 users per day. Guadalajara also area, due to a lack of data. Guadalajara also gets does not regularly monitor on-site treatmentlaunched a voluntary share and ride car pro- marked down for the relatively low proportion facilities like septic tanks. On the other hand, thegramme for public sector employees in 2008, of its population with access to potable water, city does have minimum standards for the treat-called “share your car”. The city is also planning at 89%, compared to the average of 98%. The ment of wastewater and regularly monitors theon introducing congestion charges and “no-car city loses 37% of its water through system leak- wastewater that is treated.days” to reduce the number of private vehicles ages, slightly more than the 35% Index average.on city roads. However the city scores better for water sus- Green initiatives: Plans are underway to build54
  • 55. two new water treatment plants, El Ahogado Like many cities in Latin America, Guadala- While it does have a dedicated environmen-and Agua Prieta, which should substantially jara has an abundance of cars, which are mainly tal department that oversees and implementsraise the rate of wastewater treatment in responsible for pollutant levels. Guadalajara policy, the department does not have the remitGuadalajara. The US$80 million El Ahogado does benefit from having relatively robust clean to address issues regarding sanitation, humanplant is already under construction, with just air policies. It has an air quality code, regularly settlements, energy or climate change. The cityover a third finished. The Agua Prieta plant, monitors pollutants at different locations does not regularly monitor its overall environ-which is estimated to need US$90 million to around the city and is participating in a nation- mental performance and publish informationcomplete, still needs approval from the state wide programme to improve monitoring capa- on its progress.congress. bilities. Furthermore, it receives full marks for To respond to enquiries by the public, measures to inform citizens about the dangers Guadalajara has a central contact point for infor-Air quality: Guadalajara ranks average in air of air pollution. mation on environmental topics and projects.quality. The city’s emissions are near the aver- But it only partly involves citizens, non-govern-ages for each of the air pollutants measured in Environmental governance: Guadala- ment organisations and other stakeholders inthe Index — sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide jara ranks well below average in environmental decisions on projects of major environmentaland suspended particulate matter. governance. impact.Quantitative indicators: Guadalajara Average Guadalajara Year* Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions from electricity consumption 202.2 332.9 1, e 2008 EIU estimate; Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía; Interna- per person (kg/person ) tional Energy Agency; Consejo Nacional de Población; Intergo- vernmental Panel on Climate Change Electricity consumption per US$ GDP 760.7 631.6 2, e 2008 EIU estimate; Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía; Consejo (megajoules per thousand US$ GDP) Nacional de Población; Economist Intelligence Unit Land use Population density (persons/km2) 4,503.0 1,596.6 3 2009 Consejo Nacional de Población and Buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 254.6 423.3 3 2005 Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía Transport Length of mass transport network (km/km2) 5.0 2.3 3 2009 Secretaría del Medio Ambiente para el Desarrollo Sustentable; Sistema de Tren Eléctrico Urbano; Consejo Nacional de Población Superior public transport networks (km/km2) 0.13 0.26 4 2010 Macrobus Stock of cars and motorcycles (vehicles/person) 0.30 0.37 4 2010 INEGI Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 96.2 100.0 1, e 2008 Secretaría de medio ambiente y recursos naturales Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 465.0 472.7 5 2008 Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía; Consejo Nacional de Población Water Water consumption per person 264.3 651.2 6, e 2008 Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía; Consejo Nacional de (litres per person per day) Población Water system leakages (%) 34.6 37.0 4 2008 Comisión Nacional del Agua Share of population with access to potable water (%) 97.5 89.1 7 2005 Consejo Estatal de Población Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 93.7 94.5 8, e 2005 Consejo Estatal de Población Share of wastewater treated (%) 51.5 24.7 1, e 2008 Comisión Nacional del Agua Air Quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 37.8 41.4 3 2008 Gobierno de Jalisco Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 11.4 11.4 3 2008 Gobierno de Jalisco Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 48.0 41.5 3 2008 Gobierno de Jalisco* Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU Estimate, 1) Based on state of Jalisco, 2) Based on state of Jalisco. GDP estimate based on figures, 3) Based on Guadalajara Metropolitan Area, 4) Based on municipality ofGuadalajara, 5) Based on Gualalajara Metropolitan Area. Based on total waste collected, 6) Based on municipality of Guadalajara. Based on daily water extraction, 7) Based on Guadalajara Metropolitan Area. Households with access to potable water, 8) Based onGuadalajara Metropolitan Area. Households with access to sewerage 55
  • 56. Latin American Green City Index | Lima_Peru Lima_PeruBackground indicatorsTotal population (million) 8.4 T he capital of Peru, Lima is home to 8.4 mil- lion people in the metropolitan area, about a third of the country’s population. It is the third performances are in the areas of energy and CO2, and transport, placing average in both. Its comparatively better placements in these cate-Administrative area (km2) 2,817.0 most populous city in the Latin American Green gories are due to a relatively low level of electric-GDP per person (current prices) (US$) 1 4,873.0 City Index. Data for Lima are based primarily on ity consumption per unit of GDP as well as robustPopulation density (persons/km2) e 2,982.2 the metropolitan area and state figures. Lima is traffic congestion reduction policies. The cityTemperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 20.0 the second poorest city in the Index in terms of places below average in most other categories,Based on Lima Metropolitana1) Based on Departamento de Lima GDP per capita, at US$4,900, which is less than but its poorest rank is in the land use and build-e) EIU estimate half the Index average. Lima is Peru’s political ings category, owing to a very small amount of and economic hub, accounting for over half of green spaces and weak policies regarding ener- the country’s GDP. Some of the biggest contribu- gy efficiency in buildings. However, when tors to the local economy are manufacturing, measured against the six other cities in the construction, and fishing. A considerable por- Index with low incomes (below US$8,000 tion of Lima’s businesses are small and micro GDP per capita), Lima has both the lowest enterprises, many operating in the informal sec- water consumption per person and the lowest tor, which hampers the authorities’ efforts to average daily concentration of nitrogen dioxide enforce environmental standards. Lima is sur- levels. rounded by a desert and has extremely low lev- els of rainfall, putting tremendous pressure on Energy and CO2: Lima ranks average for existing water resources. The metropolitan area energy and CO2. The city consumes an estimat- of Lima comprises the city of Lima, which is ed 678 megajoules of electricity per US$1,000 divided into 43 separate local government dis- of GDP, compared to a 17-city average of 761 tricts, and Callao, a separate region adjacent to megajoules. This estimate is based on statewide the city, divided into six districts. data. With 59% of its electricity coming from Lima ranks well below average overall in the hydropower, the city emits an estimated 217 kg Latin American Green City Index. The city’s best of CO2 per person from electricity consumption,56
  • 57. above the Index average of 202 kg. The city mayimprove its performance in this area in the com-ing years thanks to national legislation aimed atimproving energy efficiency and boostinginvestment in renewables. Lima is a member of“C40”, a group of large cities committed to tack-ling climate change, promoted by the ClintonFoundation. However, given that initiatives toreduce CO2 emissions fall under the auspices ofthe national environmental ministry, created in2008, the municipality’s efforts have concen-trated on energy-efficiency projects. But the cityitself lacks a comprehensive plan for reducingthe environmental impact of energy consump-tion.Green initiatives: By the end of 2010 the cityaims to replace over 6,000 incandescent traffic pality has prioritised building large recreational transportation, has attempted to reorganise buslights with new LED lights, considered to be 90% areas, such as the Water Park and several other routes and remove polluting vehicles, but withmore efficient. Furthermore, in the last few parks in the city’s poorest neighbourhoods. Offi- little success. Lima lacks an integrated pricingyears, leading electricity generators have begun cials also have been revamping public squares system for mass transport, and it has been slowusing natural gas sourced from the large natural and other green areas along the main avenues in to improve the network in general (though thisgas fields located in Camisea, in the south of the city centre. According to Grupo GEA, a non- should change as measures in the city’s masterPeru. The national government is promoting governmental organisation, green spaces have plan are adopted). The city scores better for itsnatural gas consumption in the transport and increased by about 58% since 2004. traffic management system, which includesindustrial sectors by providing financial incen- traffic light sequencing, dedicated freight deliv-tives for car conversions from oil to natural gas. Transport: Lima is average for transport. The ery times, and the construction of access pointsBy April 2010, more than 85,600 vehicles had city’s mass transport system consists of a metro around the city.been converted nationwide, from just 150 in running on one line, which is currently being2005. Furthermore, the entire fleet of buses run- extended (see “green initiatives” below), and an Green initiatives: In mid-2010 the city un-ning on Lima’s Metropolitano bus corridor (see extensive fleet of buses. In 2009 the network veiled its first “bus rapid transit” (BRT) system“green initiatives” in “Transport” below) runs on serving the metropolitan region measured an along the so-called Metropolitano corridor. The100% natural gas, resulting in a reduction of estimated 5.2 km per square kilometre, just 26 km corridor runs from north to south along185,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions annually. slightly longer than the Index average of 5 km 38 stations. Four private companies operate 75 per square kilometre. However, the overall high-capacity buses, all of which run on naturalLand use and buildings: Lima ranks well length of the network masks the generally gas and transport nearly one million passengersbelow average for land use and buildings. Like chaotic state of the city’s transport system and per day. This BRT corridor is the first stage in amany cities in Latin America, Lima experienced a serious congestion problems caused by an long-term master plan to overhaul the city’spopulation boom in the 20th century, driven by excess amount of buses and taxis. The city, in transport network. The master plan, publishedmassive waves of rural migration, and today the collaboration with the national ministry of in 2005, calls for the construction of eight addi-city faces a severe housing shortage. However,given the large size of its administrative area,the city has a below-average population densityof an estimated 3,000 people per square kilome- Performance Lima Other citiestre, compared with the Index average of 4,500 well below average above wellpeople. The metropolitan area of Lima has just 2 below average average abovesquare metres of green spaces per person, the average averagelowest amount in the Index, although the city Energy and CO2does protect its existing green spaces and envi-ronmentally sensitive areas. Lima performs less Land Use and Buildingswell in the area of eco-buildings policies. The Transportcity lacks incentives, regulations and standards, Wasteas well as awareness campaigns, to promotegreater energy efficiency in buildings. Water SanitationGreen initiatives: In 2007 the 49 districts in Air Qualitythe Lima metropolitan area signed the “GreenLima and Callao Pact”, aimed at increasing the Environmental Governanceshare of green spaces around the city. The pro- Overall Resultsgramme has yielded some results: the munici- The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results. 57
  • 58. Latin American Green City Index | Lima_Peru tional BRT corridors and the extension of the mance in this category, the city performs better city’s existing metro line. Works are currently in the area of water sustainability policies. It has underway on the metro, at a cost of US$300 mil- a policy aimed at reducing water stress and con- lion. Due for completion by July 2011, the city suming water more efficiently, and also actively will add an additional 11.7 km to the existing 9.2 promotes public awareness about efficient km line. Studies to build a second, 22-km line, water consumption. Water and sanitation ser- which will run from east to west, are due to vices are provided by Sedapal, a state-run water- begin before the end of 2010. works company with no institutional links to the municipality of Lima. The production of potable Waste: Lima ranks below average in the waste water takes place at three treatment plants, and category. Although it places comparatively the national environmental health department poorly in this category, Lima, like many other is in charge of monitoring of water quality. While low-income cities in the Index, generates one of water quality monitoring takes place, and stan- the lowest amounts of waste. The city produces dards regarding levels of pollutants exist, the 314 kg of waste per person each year, well enforcement of those standards, particularly on below the Index average of 465 kg. However, industrial polluters, tends to be low. This hinders the city collects and adequately disposes of just the city’s score in the area of water quality policy. 78% of its waste, the lowest rate in the Index and well below the 17-city average of 96%. The Green initiatives: Since 2006 the national min- city’s waste is processed in six landfills around istry of housing, construction and sanitation, has the metropolitan area. But a large portion still collaborated with Sedapal on an initiative to ends up at open-air dumps, is incinerated, or expand the potable water supply to an additional thrown into either the Rímac River or the Pacific 1 million people in Lima. The US$715 million Ocean. Each of the 49 administrative districts in national programme, known as “Water for All”, is the Lima and Callao metropolitan area collects running 344 projects, including the construction and disposes of its own waste, resulting in a of water treatment facilities. In an effort to fragmented waste strategy. Lima complies with improve water management, the national gov- national efforts to encourage residents to re-use ernment passed a new law regulating the sector and recycle, and is one of several cities in the in 2010. The law also created a national water Index that has legalised and carefully regulates authority (ANA) to act as a supervisory body. waste picking. Sanitation: Lima ranks below average in the Green initiatives: Waste pickers, who conduct sanitation category. The city’s performance is a large share of recycling in the city, are being largely attributable the negligible share of organised into unions. There are currently more wastewater treated. Lima treats just 9% of its than 200 organisations that collect solid waste wastewater, and most untreated wastewater is and more than 400 that sort and sell it to be re- dumped into the Pacific Ocean. Furthermore, used. Private and public initiatives have resulted only 86% of the population has access to sanita- in the installation of central collection points for tion services, compared to the Index average of glass, paper and plastics recycling, which have 94%. Areas with no sewage system use septic been embraced to varying degrees by the pub- tanks. Sedapal, the state-owned water company lic, depending on the district. Furthermore, the responsible for sanitation, monitors the few Huaycoloro landfill, where almost half of Lima’s existing treatment sites. But the city lacks a com- waste is processed, is implementing a waste-to- prehensive plan to provide environmentally sus- energy project. tainable sanitation services, although it is mak- ing more investment to improve its sanitation Water: Lima ranks below average for water. infrastructure (see “green initiatives” below). Lima’s water consumption, at 151 litres per per- son per day, is the third lowest in the Index and Green initiatives: Since 2006 the national well below the 17-city average of 264 litres. government has sought to reverse decades of However, this is primarily due to lack of supply underinvestment in sanitation infrastructure, rather than efficient water use. Rainfall in Lima and has named sanitation one of its top priori- averages just 9 millimetres per year; water is ties. In 2009 the government auctioned the con- therefore extremely scarce and most of the city’s struction of a large wastewater treatment plant drinking water is from the Rimac River. Just 87% known as Taboada, and by the end of 2010 it will of the city’s residents have access to potable tender a second concession to build and operate water, well below the 17-city average of 98%. another mega plant known as La Chira, at a cost Furthermore, the city loses 38% of its water sup- of US$145 million. The city expects that these ply to system leakages, compared to an Index two plants will have the capacity to treat all of average of 35%. Despite its overall poor perfor- Lima’s wastewater.58
  • 59. Air quality: Lima ranks below average for air Green initiatives: In 2001 the city created the environmental management among multiplequality. Its performance in this category is due to “Management Committee of the Clean Air Initia- institutions and levels of government. In 2006above-average levels of sulphur dioxide and par- tive for Lima and Callao”, comprised of represen- the municipality of Lima created a dedicatedticulate matter, mainly from transport. According tatives from several relevant ministries and the environmental department, but it lacks theto city officials, a majority of cars in the city oper- private sector. The committee prepared a clean authority to implement its own environmentalate on highly polluting diesel fuel. The daily con- air programme for 2005 to 2010 that identified legislation.centration of particulate matter, at 94 micro- five areas of action to reduce air pollution in the In the last five years the city has conducted agrams per cubic metre, is nearly double the Index metropolitan area, including measures to tackle baseline review of only its waste sector, omittingaverage of 48 micrograms. Sulphur dioxide con- polluting fuels and to manage traffic. However, water, sanitation and air quality, among others.centrations are also high, at 18 micrograms per according to some estimates, only about 15% of Most policy initiatives come from the recentlycubic metre, compared to a 17-city average of 11 the measures have been completed so far. created national ministry for the environment,micrograms. Only nitrogen dioxide levels are where technical expertise is concentrated. Onbelow average. The city has weak clean air poli- Environmental governance: Lima ranks the other hand, like most cities in the Index,cies, which are a reflection of the fragmentation below average for environmental governance. Lima involves citizens, NGOs and other stake-of responsibilities between several national min- This ranking is largely a result of the fragmented holders in decisions on projects with environ-istries, municipalities and other institutions. allocation of resources and responsibilities for mental impact.Quantitative indicators: Lima Average Lima Year* Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions from electricity consumption 202.2 217.1 1, e 2007 EIU estimate; Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática; International per person (kg/person ) Energy Agency; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Electricity consumption per US$ GDP 760.7 678.3 2, e 2007 EIU estimate; Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática; International (megajoules per thousand US$ GDP) Energy Agency; Economist Intelligence Unit Land use Population density (persons/km2) 4,503.0 2,982.2 3, e 2006 Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática; Municipalidad Metro- and Buildings politana de Lima Green spaces per person (m2/person) 254.6 2.0 3 2009 Pensando Lima Transport Length of mass transport network (km/km2) 5.0 5.2 3, e 2009 EIU estimate; Tren Urbano de Lima; Municipalidad Metropolitana de Lima Superior public transport networks (km/km2) 0.13 0.01 4 2010 Metropolitano , Autoridad Autonoma de Tren Electrico Stock of cars and motorcycles (vehicles/person) 0.30 0.14 4 2009 Ministerio Transportes y Comunicaciones Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 96.2 78.1 3 2009 Municipalidad Metropolitana de Lima Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 465.0 314.2 3 2009 Municipalidad Metropolitana de Lima Water Water consumption per person 264.3 151.5 3 2009 Servicio de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado de Lima; Instituto Nacional de (litres per person per day) Estadística e Informática Water system leakages (%) 34.6 37.5 3 2008 Superintendencia Nacional de Servicios de Saneamiento Share of population with access to potable water (%) 97.5 87.3 5 2007 Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 93.7 85.8 6 2007 Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática Share of wastewater treated (%) 51.5 8.5 3 2008 Servicio de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado de Lima Air Quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 37.8 24.5 3 2009 Programa Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria de Calidad del Aire Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 11.4 18.1 3 2009 Programa Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria de Calidad del Aire Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 48.0 93.5 3 2009 Programa Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria de Calidad del Aire* Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU Estimate, 1) Based on Departamento de Lima. Based on electricity consumption estimates for Departamento de Lima and composition of energy sources used in electricitygeneration in Peru, 2) Based on Departamento de Lima. Based on regression analysis. GDP figures are for Departamento de Lima and the year 2006, 3) Based on Lima Metropolitana, 4) Based on Ciudad de Lima, 5) Based on Departamento de Lima, 6) Based on Departa-mento de Lima. Population with access to sewerage and septic tanks 59
  • 60. Latin American Green City Index | Medellín_Colombia Medellín_ColombiaBackground indicatorsTotal population (million) 3.5Administrative area (km2) 1,165.0GDP per person (current prices) (US$) 5,547.8Population density (persons/km2) 3,001.5Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 22.0Based on Medellin Metropolitan Area falls below average in energy and CO2, land use and buildings, and waste. Medellín leads the Index in three individual indicators — it has the lowest stock of cars and motorcycles, generates the least amount of waste per person and has the lowest levels of sulphur dioxide. Compared to cities in the lower income range (below US$8,000 in GDP per person), Medellín has the longest mass transport network, the best rate of wastewater treatment, and the highest percent- age of people with access to sanitation. Energy and CO2: Medellín is below aver-M edellín is Colombia’s second largest city, behind Bogotá, and an important econom-ic and political centre in the country. As the capi- the Index are based on the metropolitan area, rather than the smaller municipality of Medellín. Medellín is ranked average overall in the age in energy and CO2. This performance is mainly due to the large amount of electricity consumed by the city compared to its economictal of the Antioquia department, Medellín ac- Index. Its best performance is in the sanitation output. Medellín uses 982 megajoules percounts for around 11% of Colombia’s GDP. It is category, where it is the only city rated well US$1,000 of GDP, well above the Index averagethe country’s top exporter of clothing, cut flow- above average, based on high rates of sanitation of 761 megajoules. Regarding energy and CO2ers and chemical products. The Medellín metro- access and wastewater treatment, and consis- policies, Medellín could improve its perfor-politan region has a population of 3.5 million tently strong sanitation policies. Medellín is also mance by investing in renewable energy, regu-and the third smallest average income, at above average in the air quality category, driven larly monitoring greenhouse gas emissions, andUS$5,500 GDP per person, nearly half the Index by relatively small levels of pollution and robust signing up to international covenants to reduceaverage of US$11,100. With a few exceptions clean air policies. The city is average in trans- greenhouse gas emissions. Although the city isnoted below, most of the data for Medellín in port, water and environmental governance. It marked down for not having any waste-to-ener-60
  • 61. emissions reduction projects in developing earlier this decade in the city’s “Eastern-Central countries. These credits are each equivalent to 1 zone”, a low-income area with many informal tonne of CO2, which can be traded, sold or used settlements. The city brought dwellings in line to meet carbon emission reduction targets in with building codes, cleaned up public spaces other countries. EPM and the state govern- and improved transport links, including con- ment’s local development agency are collabo- necting the area to the city’s tramway system, rating on a dam and hydroelectric plant on the Metrocable, which links with the wider metro Cauca River that will be the country’s largest system (see “green initiatives” in “Transport”, when it comes online in 2018. Capacity will be below). The PUI project has since been expand- 2.4 gigawatts, and construction is expected to ed with plans to improve neighbourhoods in the begin in 2013. Furthermore, EVAS, a Colombian northwest and downtown. waste disposal company, and Green Gas Interna- tional, a clean energy company, have partnered Transport: Medellín ranks average in trans- on a methane-capture project at the El Guacal port. The city’s mass transport network extends landfill, which receives waste from many of the 5.6 km per square kilometre across the metro- municipalities in the Medellín metropolitan politan area, compared to the Index average of 5 area. The project, which will have a capacity of km, and it is the longest among cities in the 20 megawatts, is part of the Kyoto Protocol’s Index with low incomes. The network includes a clean development mechanism as well. It is large fleet of buses, a metro and tramway. While expected to start in 2011 and last 21 years, sav- the system lacks an integrated pricing system, ing an estimated 3.5 million tonnes of carbon for which Medellín is marked down in the area of emissions. mass transport policies, the city is taking steps to encourage the public to take greener forms of Land use and buildings: Medellín ranks transport. Medellín stands out for having the below average in land use and buildings. The lowest stock of cars and motorcycles in the city is marked down for its relative lack of green Index, at 0.07 vehicles per person. The figure is spaces, at 5 square metres per person, although based on the municipality of Medellín, and is it scores better for its policies to protect and well below the average of 0.3 vehicles per per- maintain its existing green spaces and environ- son. And despite its low stock of cars, traffic can mentally sensitive areas. The city also gets mar- be chaotic. As a result city officials have imple- ked down for its eco-building policies that are mented congestion reduction measures, such as not as ambitious as those of other cities. For “no-car days” and dedicated delivery times for example, Medellín does not promote awareness freight. However the city still lacks a congestion among citizens on ways to improve energy effi- charge and carpooling lanes. ciency in buildings.gy projects, one is planned for 2011 (see “green Green initiatives: The city’s tramway system,initiatives” below), which will boost its perfor- Green initiatives: The Integral Urban Project Metrocable, opened in 2004 as a way of con-mance in this area. Medellín does have relatively (PUI) is a core component of the city’s urban necting Medellín’s least developed suburbs tolow CO2 emissions from electricity consump- development plan, primarily covering land use the wider metro system. Furthermore, works aretion, at an estimated 74 kg per person versus an but extending into transport as well. It started now underway on Metroplus, a “bus rapid tran-Index average of 202 kg. This low figure ishelped by an above average share of renewableenergies in the electricity mix: the city generatesmore than 80% of its electricity from hydropow- Performance Medellín Other citieser. The Medellín region has benefited from a well below average above wellKyoto Protocol programme allowing developed below average average abovecountries to receive carbon credits for helping average averagedeveloping countries lower their emissions (see Energy and CO2“green initiatives” below). Land Use and BuildingsGreen initiatives: In 2004 the city-owned Transportenergy company, EPM, and the Electric Power WasteDevelopment Company of Japan built a hydro-electric project on the Herradura River that sup- Waterplies nearly 32 megawatts to the Medellín met- Sanitationropolitan area. It is estimated to have cut CO2 Air Qualityemissions by about 69,000 tonnes per year. Theproject falls under the Kyoto Protocol’s “clean Environmental Governancedevelopment mechanism”, which offers carbon Overall Resultscredits for developed countries that support The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results. 61
  • 62. Latin American Green City Index | Medellín_Colombia itan area, nearly 100% of people have access to sanitation services, an estimate based on official figures. The city treats 95% of its wastewater, which is considerably more than the Index aver- age of 52%. Moreover, on these two indicators, Medellín leads the seven cities in the low- income peer group. The results suggest that the city’s comprehensive plan to address water and sanitation issues is showing results (see refer- ences under “green initiatives” above, andsit” (BRT) service. The BRT will be comprised of person per day, compared to the Index average below). Not surprisingly then, the city also per-800 new, natural gas-powered buses serving of 264 litres. Medellín is marked down for its forms well on sanitation policies, mainly owingtravellers in dedicated lanes. Medellín’s BRT is higher-than-average water leakage rate, at 37%, to high standards for wastewater treatment,modelled on Bogotá’s TransMilenio, and the compared to the average of 35%. It also has one regular monitoring, and its promotion of aware-concept is spreading quickly in Latin America in of the lower rates of access to potable water, at ness around efficient use of sanitation systems.various forms. The expectation is that the BRT 97%, just below the Index average of 98%, a fig-will reduce traffic and improve air quality, since ure based on the municipality. Medellín does Green initiatives: In addition to the city’s Riverthe new buses run on cleaner fuel, and at the well for its water quality policies, which include Sanitation programme that has been ongoingsame time many of the city’s older, more pollut- establishing a water quality code, regular moni- since 1993, a new wastewater treatment planting models will be taken out of service as part of toring of surface water quality and enforcing is scheduled to open in late 2012 as part of thethe programme. Furthermore, the “pico y placa” water pollution standards for local industry. The plan. Furthermore, the city is targeting 100%(“peak and plate”) programme restricts vehicles city could improve its water efficiency policies, treatment for the wastewater it collects.from driving in the city during peak periods for however, as it lacks initiatives outlined in thetwo days of the week, on a rotating basis, based Index such as water meters and tariffs, and facil- Air quality: Medellín ranks above average inon license plate numbers. ities for rainwater collection. air quality, and first among cities with low incomes in the Index, largely thanks to relativelyWaste: Medellín is below average in the waste Green initiatives: Medellín’s River Sanitation robust clean air policies, as well as the lowestcategory. The city generates the least amount of Programme, which encompasses water manage- average daily emissions of sulphur dioxide in thewaste in the Index, at 252 kg per person per ment as well as sanitation improvements, has Index. At only 1 microgram per cubic metre inyear, versus the Index average of 465 kg. How- been recognised as a good-practice model for comparison to an average of 11 micrograms, itever, the share of city waste collected and ade- urban water policy by the Inter-American Devel- reflects the high share of clean hydroelectricquately disposed of, at 87%, falls short of the opment Bank. The first phase of the programme sources for so much of the city’s power. In theIndex average of 96%. Moreover, Medellín’s upgraded aqueduct networks and encouraged two other air-pollutant metrics used in thewaste disposal standards and monitoring are landowners along the Medellín River to adopt Index—nitrogen dioxide and suspended partic-some of the weakest in the Index. The city is also land preservation and water conservation prac- ulate matter—Medellín’s average daily levels areone of the least rigorous when it comes to recy- tices. The local government also oversees a just above the Index averages. Medellín has acling. It recycles glass, plastics and paper, for water management plan for the Aburrá-Medellín number of clean air policies in place, includingexample, but not organic or electrical waste, river basin, which includes cleaning up small trib- an air quality code, regular monitoring and pub-although it does have on-site collection and cen- utaries and channels, and improving water quali- lic awareness campaigns.tral collection points. ty and hydropower capacity. Environmental governance: MedellínWater: Medellín ranks average in the water Sanitation: Medellín ranks well above aver- ranks average in environmental governance.category. The city has the fourth-lowest water age in the sanitation category, and is the only The city performs relatively well in environmen-consumption level in the Index, at 152 litres per city at this level in the category. In the metropol- tal monitoring and public participation, but the62
  • 63. overall governance score is brought down by port, land use, human settlements, or climate started working with civilian groups to identifyweaker environmental management policies. change. The city authorities offer citizens a cen- industrial polluters and force the companiesFor example, the city has a dedicated environ- tral contact point for environmental perfor- responsible to comply with existing laws. Themental authority that regularly monitors and mance, and also involve citizens and stakehold- authorities have set up a system where citizenspublishes information about environmental per- er groups in decisions on projects that have can report facilities that are dumping untreatedformance, but it does not have the ability to major environmental impact. industrial wastewater into the sewerage net-implement its own environmental legislation. work. This initiative is a major component of theThe city has conducted a baseline environmen- Green initiatives: Recognising that it lacks the city’s sustainable development plan and thetal review within the last five years, but this did infrastructure to enforce some of its environ- local government hopes it will enable betternot look at some specific areas such as trans- mental regulations, the local government has responses and planning.Quantitative indicators: Medellín Average Medellín Year* Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions from electricity consumption 202.2 74.4 1, e 2008 EIU estimate; Gobernación de Antioquia, Anuarios Estadísticos de Antioquia, per person (kg/person ) Empresas Públicas de Medellín - EPM, Empresa Antioqueña de Energía - EADE; Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística; International Energy Agency; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Electricity consumption per US$ GDP 760.7 982.1 1 2007 Gobernación de Antioquia, Anuarios Estadísticos de Antioquia, Empresas (megajoules per thousand US$ GDP) Públicas de Medellín - EPM, Empresa Antioqueña de Energía - EADE; Econo- mist Intelligence Unit Land use Population density (persons/km2) 4,503.0 3,001.5 1 2009 Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística; and Buildings Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá Green spaces per person (m2/person) 254.6 5.0 1 2007 Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá; Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística Transport Length of mass transport network (km/km2) 5.0 5.6 1 2009 Metro de Medellín; Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá. Subdirección de Movilidad y Transporte; Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá Superior public transport networks (km/km2) 0.13 0.08 2 2010 Metro de Medellin Stock of cars and motorcycles (vehicles/person) 0.30 0.07 2 2010 Secretaria de Transportes y Transito de Medellin Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 96.2 86.8 1 2008 Gobernación de Antioquia, Anuario Estadístico de Antioquia, Empresas Varias de Medellín Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 465.0 252.3 1 2008 Gobernación de Antioquia, Anuario Estadístico de Antioquia, Empresas Varias de Medellín; Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística Water Water consumption per person 264.3 152.4 1 2008 Gobernación de Antioquia, Anuarios Estadísticos de Antioquia, Empresas Púb- (litres per person per day) licas de Medellín - EPM; Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística Water system leakages (%) 34.6 37.0 1 2008 UN-Water Decade Programme on Capacity Development Share of population with access to potable water (%) 97.5 97.0 3 2008 Municipalidad de Medellín Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 93.7 99.7 4, e 2009 Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá, Encuesta de Calidad de Vida; Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística Share of wastewater treated (%) 51.5 94.8 1 2008 Gobernación de Antioquia, Anuarios Estadísticos Air Quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 37.8 40.0 1 2009 Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 11.4 1.0 1 2009 Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 48.0 56.8 1 2009 Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá* Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU Estimate, 1) Based on Medellin Metropolitan Area, 2) Based on municipality of Medellin, 3) Based on municipality of Medellin. Based on households with access to potablewater, 4) Based on Medellin Metropolitan Area. Proportion of population with access to sewerage 63
  • 64. Latin America Green City Index | Mexico City_Mexico Mexico City_MexicoBackground indicatorsTotal population (million) 8.8Administrative area (km2) 1,485.0GDP per person (current prices) (US$) 20,358.9Population density (persons/km2) 5,954.2Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 17.0Based on Mexico D.F.W ith 20 million residents, the metropolitan area of Mexico City is home to one-fifth ofMexico’s population. Three decades of explosive the Index, at US$20,400, behind Buenos Aires and Brasília. But, like many cities in the Index, income inequality remains very high. and air quality categories, where it places below average. Its performance in air quality is a result of higher-than-average concentrations of thepopulation growth from the 1960s through the Mexico City is also hosting the World Mayors three air pollutants measured in the Index.1980s transformed Mexico City into the third Summit on Climate change in November 2010,largest urban agglomeration in the world. The which will promote the strategic importance of Energy and CO2: Mexico City ranks abovecity proper constitutes about one-fifth of the local communities in global climate change miti- average for energy and CO2, the best placementtotal urban area, and is delineated by the Federal gation efforts. It is taking place ahead of the in this category among the three cities withDistrict, which is home to some 8.8 million resi- United Nations Framework Convention on Cli- higher incomes in the Index. The city’s perfor-dents. Mexico City’s metropolitan region mate Change’s Conferences of the Parties in mance in this category is bolstered by the lowestspreads into the neighbouring states of Mexico Cancun, Mexico (COP 16) in November and level of electricity consumption in comparisonand Hidalgo. The Index data for Mexico City are December 2010. to its economic output. The city consumes justtaken from the smaller Federal District, making Despite significant challenges posed by its 279 megajoules of electricity per US$1,000 ofMexico City the second most populous city in large population, Mexico City ranks average GDP, which is well below the 17-city average ofthe Latin American Green City Index, behind São overall in the Latin American Green City Index. 761 megajoules. Mexico City’s score is furtherPaulo. The wider metropolitan region is the Its strongest performance is in the area of envi- boosted by its clean energy policies and climatecountry’s political, cultural and financial capital, ronmental governance, where it ranks well change action plan (see “green initiatives”and by far the most important engine of eco- above average, thanks to robust environmental below). According to the climate change actionnomic activity, producing one-third of Mexico’s monitoring, the wide remit of its environmental plan, around 90% of CO2 emissions in the citytotal GDP. Dangerous levels of air pollution in the department and a high level of public participa- result from the production, transformation,1990s led officials to relocate a significant por- tion. The city ranks above average in the cate- transport and use of energy. The city makestion of heavy industry away from the city. It gories of energy and CO2, land use and build- efforts to consume energy more efficiently, andremains an important industrial hub, but over ings, and transport. Mexico’s capital receives has conducted a baseline environmental reviewthe past two decades services have increasingly average rankings in the waste and water cate- of its emissions. On the other hand, CO2 emis-dominated the city’s economic activity. Mexico gories. However, the citys overall performance sions are fairly high. Over 80% of the city’s elec-City boasts the third highest GDP per capita in is hindered by poor outcomes in the sanitation tricity comes from oil, coal and natural gas. Mex-64
  • 65. policies, which include a plan to certify buildings port that moves large numbers of passengers as environmentally sustainable. Under the pro- quickly in dedicated lanes, such as a metro, bus gramme, the city offers incentives to encourage rapid transit or trams), at 0.33 km per square developers to integrate emissions reduction kilometre, compared to the 17-city average of measures in building designs. Mexico City 0.1 km per square kilometre. And the overall receives a middling score for land use policies. public transport network totals 5.6 km per The city’s rapid population growth and increas- square kilometre of city territory, just above the ing urbanisation have made it difficult to con- 17-city average of 5 km, with some 4.4 million tain urban sprawl and conserve environmentally passengers riding the network each day. Howev- sensitive areas, although officials have a set of er, cars remain a major form of transport and the policies in place to address both problems. The city has one of the largest stocks of cars and city has 28 square metres of green spaces per motorcycles in the Index, at 0.4 vehicles per per- person, and with nearly 6,000 people per square son compared to the Index average of 0.3 vehi- kilometre, the Federal District has the fifth high- cles. Regarding transport policies, although est population density in the Index. Mexico City has a comprehensive urban mass transport policy, and is making investments in Green initiatives: Since unveiling its “Green green transport, the city lacks an integrated pric- Plan” in 2007 (see “green initiatives” under “Envi- ing system for the public transportation system. ronmental governance” below), the city has The city has already implemented “no-car days”, conserved some 13,600 hectares of environ- a park and ride system, and a traffic light mentally sensitive areas. The city is also prepar- sequencing system to reduce congestion and ing to deploy an environmental surveillance improve traffic flow, but lacks congestion force, which will have the technical expertise to charges and carpooling lanes. protect conservation areas and limit the impact of informal settlements. The Green Plan also Green initiatives: The city has been proactive- includes a reforestation programme, which calls ly overhauling its transport system, and has a for planting 2.5 million plants per year. In addi- wide-range of initiatives underway. In 2005 the tion, there is a national “Sustainable Light” plan city inaugurated its first “bus rapid transit” (BRT) to replace more than 45 million incandescent system, with a dedicated bus lane on the Aveni- light bulbs in 11 million Mexican homes with da Insurgentes, the city’s main north-south thor- energy-saving bulbs by 2012. The initiative will oughfare. A second BRT line running east to save an estimated 2.8 million tonnes of green- west opened in 2007, and a third line is now house gas emissions annually. under construction. Under Mexico City’s inte- grated public transport plan for 2007-2012 andico City produces an estimated 15% of its elec- Transport: Mexico City is above average for its climate change action plan, the city hastricity from renewable energy sources, though transport. The city’s public transport network is launched several additional initiatives to expanddue to a lack of local data, this percentage is esti- comprised of a metro system, heavy and light the public transportation network and promotemated on the basis of national figures. The city rails, electric trolleybuses, and an extensive bus alternatives to cars. Works are currently under-emits an estimated 318 kg of CO2 from electrici- system. It boasts the longest superior public way on a 12th metro line. In early 2010, Mexicoty consumption per person, well above the aver- transport network in the Index (defined as trans- City introduced a public rental bike schemeage of 202 kg.Green initiatives: The city adopted its climatechange action plan in 2008, with the goal of cut- Performance Mexico City Other citiesting CO2 emissions by 12% — the equivalent of well below average above wellseven million tonnes — by 2012, and to lay the below average average abovefoundations for further long-term reductions. average averageThe plan is comprehensive in its ambitions. It Energy and CO2aims to change consumption habits, attractinvestment and financing for greenhouse gas Land Use and Buildingsmitigation projects, promote technological Transportinnovation, position Mexico City as a leader in Wasteinternational mitigation efforts, and set guide-lines for climate change policies. Water SanitationLand use and buildings: Mexico City Air Qualityranks above average in land use and buildings,which is the best placement in this category for Environmental Governancea high-income city. Its strong performance is Overall Resultslargely attributable to its ambitious eco-building The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results. 65
  • 66. Latin America Green City Index | Mexico City_Mexicoknown as “Ecobici”, which provides around high rate of water system leakages, at 37% ver- Green initiatives: In 2009 the government fin-1,200 public bikes at 86 docking stations. In addi- sus the average of 35%. The Federal District’s ished building two new wastewater treatmenttion, the city has a compulsory transportation waterworks company has established standards plants at San Pedro Atocpan and Lago de Texco-system for children going to school, reducing the for key pollutants in drinking water and also co, and a third plant is currently under construc-number of trips by parents in private cars. enforces industrial water pollution standards. tion. The city has instituted on-site monitoring However, Mexico City has some of the least to ensure that businesses comply with existingWaste: Mexico City ranks average in the waste ambitious water sustainability policies in the standards.category. The city collects and adequately dis- Index. About 63% of the water supply comesposes of all of its waste, according to official from local sources, including the Mexico Valley Air quality: Mexico City ranks below aver-sources. However, its score in this category is and Lerma aquifers, and external sources from age in the air quality category despite havinglowered by the amount of waste the city gener- the Balsas and Cutzamala basins supply the made significant improvements in recent years.ates: at 489 kg per person per year, this is above remaining 37%. But the water supply is under The city no longer tops the list of the world’sthe Index average of 465 kg. According to the tremendous pressure in Mexico City, owing to most polluted cities, as it did in the early 1990s.city’s Environmental Agenda for 2007 to 2012, overexploitation and contamination of local This is the result of two decades of new mea-60% of the city’s waste is inorganic, and just sources. Although the city has a water efficiency sures to combat air pollution, such as investingunder half is generated by the residential sector. policy and promotes conservation, it lacks many in high-tech monitoring equipment, trainingAll waste is sent to the Bordo Poniente landfill. measures to use water resources more efficient- experts, and working on a consensual long-The facility is, however, close to reaching maxi- ly, such as water meters or rainwater collection. term plan across all levels of government andmum capacity, presenting the city with a signifi- with city residents. Yet the city’s score is low-cant challenge in the years to come. The city’s Green initiatives: To reduce water consump- ered by still higher-than-average levels of theperformance in the waste category is also tion, the city has raised water tariffs, although three pollutants evaluated in the Index—sul-weighed down by its collection and disposal poli- prices remain heavily subsidised, by anywhere phur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and suspendedcies. The enforcement of industrial waste stan- between 65% and 95% depending on the particulate matter. Mexico City’s geography is adards is insufficient; only about half of all indus- neighbourhood. The city also has a programme hindrance too. It is surrounded by a ring of hightries comply with the existing norms. Patchy to replace 10,000 km of water pipes per year, in peaks and volcanoes, which block the windsmonitoring of illegal waste disposal, including lit- an effort to reduce system leakages. The Feder- that might otherwise disperse pollutants natu-tering and illegal dumping, is also a critical issue. al District government has set an example for rally.Although thousands of waste pickers perform an the city by announcing a goal to reduce itsimportant waste selection service, their activities water consumption by 20%. Green initiatives: The city’s clean air pro-are not regulated comprehensively. gramme, PROAIRE, has 89 measures to improve Sanitation: Mexico City ranks below average air quality, including bi-annual vehicle checks,Green initiatives: The city has introduced for sanitation. An estimated 99% of residents strict emissions limits and regulations to removemonetary incentives for firms that use have access to sanitation, according to official the most polluting vehicles from the roads.biodegradable materials in their packaging. In sources, yet the city only treats 13% of its waste- Between 2007 and 2009, more than 35,000mid-2010 the city approved a ban on free plastic water. This is considerably below the 17-city taxis — out of a total fleet of more than 110,000bags in shops. The measure will start in 2011, average of 52%, although the city is taking steps — were replaced by less-polluting taxis, andwhen services and retail businesses are expect- to improve its wastewater treatment perfor- 20,000 were removed altogether. Mexico Cityed to have biodegradable options in place. Sell- mance (see “green initiatives” below). As a result has also been replacing its fleet of old microbus-ers that fail to comply will face hefty fines. of a longstanding lack of investment, sanitation es with cleaner, more efficient vehicles. As of infrastructure is out of date and damaged. 2009, 839 of the older buses had been removedWater: Mexico City ranks average for water. Although wastewater treatment standards are from the city’s streets and replaced with clean-The city consumes an estimated 178 litres of good and monitoring takes place, the city’s plan burning ultra low sulphur diesel fuel. The citywater per person per day, well below the 17-city to promote environmentally sustainable sanita- says this measure will also reduce CO2 emissionsaverage of 264 litres. However, the city has a tion services remains patchy. by 80,000 tonnes a year. Furthermore, the city66
  • 67. has instituted voluntary audits for industrial pol- two decades the city has made significant Green initiatives: In mid-2007, city authoritiesluters that have led to reductions of about 3,000 progress to improve its performance. Its rank is unveiled a 15-year, cross-departmental “Greentonnes of air pollution emissions per year. bolstered by the environmental secretariat’s Plan” lasting until 2021. proactive approach to environmental manage- The US$1 billion plan, supported by theEnvironmental governance: Mexico ment. World Bank and the United Nations, contains 26City ranks well above average in environmental The city’s monitoring programme is the best strategies and 113 specific action points togovernance, one of only two cities at this level in in the Index, along with Rio de Janeiro. It also improve the city’s sustainability. When progressthe category. Worrying levels of air pollution in has the capacity to implement its own environ- was last reviewed in mid-2009, three-quartersthe early 1990s pushed environmental issues to mental legislation. Public participation in envi- of the action points had been started and 7%the top of the public agenda, and over the past ronmental projects is also high. had been completed.Quantitative indicators: Mexico City Average Mexico City Year* Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions from electricity consumption 202.2 318.3 1,e 2008 EIU estimate; Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía; International per person (kg/person ) Energy Agency; Consejo Nacional de Población; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Electricity consumption per US$ GDP 760.7 279.1 2 2008 Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía; Economist Intelligence (megajoules per thousand US$ GDP) Unit Land use Population density (persons/km2) 4,503.0 5,954.2 2 2009 Consejo Nacional de Población and Buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 254.6 28.4 2 2009 Environmental Secretariat of Mexico DF Transport Length of mass transport network (km/km2) 5.0 5.6 2 2009 Departamento de Transporte, Mexico D.F.; Consejo Nacional de Población Superior public transport networks (km/km2) 0.13 0.33 2 2010 Transparencia DF , Servicios de Transportes Electricos S.A. , Metro DF Stock of cars and motorcycles (vehicles/person) 0.30 0.40 2 2008 INEGI Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 96.2 100.0 2 2010 Programa de Gestión Integral de los Residuos Sólidos para el Distrito Federal 2010 Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 465.0 489.0 2 2010 Programa de Gestión Integral de los Residuos Sólidos para el Distrito Federal 2010 Water Water consumption per person 264.3 178.0 2, e 2010 Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México (Información elaborada por la (litres per person per day) Dirección Técnica) Water system leakages (%) 34.6 37.0 2 2010 Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México (Información elaborada por la Dirección Técnica) Share of population with access to potable water (%) 97.5 98.0 2 2010 Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México (Información elaborada por la Dirección Técnica) Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 93.7 98.9 3, e 2007 Secretaría de medio ambiente y recursos naturales Share of wastewater treated (%) 51.5 12.9 2 2008 Comisión Nacional del Agua Air Quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 37.8 60.0 2 2009 Secretaría del Medio Ambiente (Información elaborada por la Dirección General de la Gestión de la Calidad del Aire) Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 11.4 13.0 2 2009 Secretaría del Medio Ambiente (Información elaborada por la Dirección General de la Gestión de la Calidad del Aire) Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 48.0 51.0 2 2009 Secretaría del Medio Ambiente (Información elaborada por la Dirección General de la Gestión de la Calidad del Aire)* Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU Estimate, 1) Based on Mexico D.F. Based on national electricity composition, 2) Based on Mexico D.F., 3) Based on Mexico D.F. Proportion of population with accessto sewerage 67
  • 68. Latin American Green City Index | Monterrey_Mexico Monterrey_MexicoBackground indicators Agreement between Mexico, Canada and the city’s overall environmental performance should US. A range of big-name multinational compa- improve during the next five years, however, asTotal population (million) 4.0 nies have set up base there, and some large an ambitious statewide climate change actionAdministrative area (km2) 3,177.0 firms with a strong Latin American presence plan comes fully into effect. The plan includesGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 15,220.6 have also chosen Monterrey as a location for several initiatives to reduce CO2 emissions fromPopulation density (persons/km2) 1,254.5 operations. However, the economy is still domi- many different sources in the city.Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 22.0 nated by carbon-heavy manufacturing: steel,Based on Monterrey Metropolitan Area glass, cement and auto parts are among the Energy and CO2: Monterrey ranks average major industries. The strong economy results in in energy and CO2. The city emits an estimated the fourth highest GDP per person in the Index, 723 kg of CO2 from electricity consumption, at US$15,200. considerably higher than the Index average of Monterrey is ranked average overall in the 202 kg. Consuming 848 megajoules of electrici- Index. Its best results are in the categories of ty per US$1,000 of GDP, Monterrey also exceedsM onterrey, with 4 million residents in the metropolitan area, is the capital of theMexican state of Nuevo León, and the third most waste, water and sanitation, with above average performances. The city shows particularly strong results for the amount of green spaces the Index average of 761 megajoules. One of the contributing factors to Monterrey’s relatively high CO2 emissions and electricity consumptionpopulous city in the country after Guadalajara per person in the city, and it has the lowest rate is the region’s climate, which, at the extremes,and Mexico City. The data for Monterrey in the of water system leakages in the entire Index. can reach as high as 44° Celsius in the summerLatin American Green City Index comes mainly Indeed, the city won an international award in and as low as -12° Celsius in the winter. This sub-from the metropolitan area or statewide figures, 2010 for its decade-long efforts on reducing stantially increases the use of air-conditionersrather than the smaller city of Monterrey, which leakages. Monterrey is average in two cate- and heaters. An extensive and relatively energy-has a population of 1.1 million. Monterrey’s gories — energy and CO2, and land use and inefficient manufacturing base in Monterreyeconomy has prospered in recent years, boosted buildings — and below average in transport, air may also be a factor in driving up CO2 levels fromin part by the 1994 North American Free Trade quality and environmental governance. The electricity consumption. And Monterrey, like68
  • 69. 2012. The initiative will save an estimated 2.8 million tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions annually. Transport: Monterrey is below average in transport, a ranking explained mainly by the city’s relatively short mass transport network in relation to its area. Although the system is domi- nated by an extensive bus network, and supple- mented by a two-line metro, the metropolitan area’s relatively wide administrative boundary means the length in the Index registers at an estimated 0.8 km per square kilometre, com- pared to the Index average of 5 km per square kilometre. Monterrey receives relatively high marks when it comes to urban mass transportother Mexican cities in the Index, only produces more up-to-date data. Monterrey’s performance policy, despite the complexity of managing15% of its electricity from renewable energy for green spaces is partly helped by having a rel- transport across multiple municipalities in thesources, versus the Index average of 64%. Envi- atively low population, but the city also has metropolitan area. Monterrey is marked up forronmental authorities seem to recognise the strong land use policies. Monterrey scores par- having an integrated pricing system for publicneed for action, however, with Monterrey scor- ticularly well for green spaces protection and transport and for taking steps to reduce emis-ing very well for its energy and climate change urban sprawl containment. In terms of eco- sions from mass urban transport. However, thepolicies. The city has had a recent baseline envi- buildings policies, Monterrey’s local authorities city receives low marks for congestion reductionronmental review of greenhouse gas emissions. are marked down for not setting green stan- policies. The city has so far failed to introduceIt also regularly monitors its emissions and pub- dards for public building projects. measures such as “no-car days”, carpoolinglishes the findings. Monterrey is one of only four lanes, and park and ride systems.cities in the Index that converts local waste by- Green initiatives: The state’s climate changeproducts to energy. And the city is covered by a action plan includes a US$2.5 million residential Green initiatives: The statewide climatecomprehensive climate change action plan (see programme to replace energy-inefficient light- change action plan calls for the construction of a“green initiatives”, below). ing with LEDs, and electrical appliances with 27 km “bus rapid transit” (BRT) system, and ini- more energy-efficient equivalents. tial work has already begun. The plan also fore-Green initiatives: The state government’s cli- It also includes a US$3.5 million plan to sees a new light rail line, which is expected tomate change action plan, which covers Monter- install solar heaters and energy-efficient air con- increase the current capacity of the transit net-rey, calls on the city to reduce CO2 emissions sig- ditioning devices. Furthermore, the state has work by more than two-thirds to 600,000 pas-nificantly during 2010-2015. The report was budgeted US$2.3 million to build “eco-industrial sengers per day.developed by the Monterrey Institute of Tech- parks”, which utilise energy-efficient design andnology and Higher Education, in cooperation limit emissions. In addition, there is a national Waste: Monterrey ranks above average in thewith the federal and state government. The plan “Sustainable Light” plan to replace more than 45 waste category. The city scores well for manag-proposes numerous measures to reduce CO2 million incandescent light bulbs with energy- ing to collect and dispose of all of the waste itemissions in buildings, transport, and waste dis- saving bulbs in 11 million Mexican homes by generates, an estimate based on collection ratesposal, among others (see “green initiatives” inspecific categories, below). In 2003, the stategovernment entered into a joint venture withBioeléctrica de Monterrey, a private company, to Performance Monterrey Other citiesopen a US$17 million electricity-generation well below average above wellfacility, “BENLESA”. The facility uses solid, non- below average average abovehazardous waste as a renewable source of ener- average averagegy, by burning methane in landfills. The project Energy and CO2supplies all of the electricity to run the city’s two-line metro system and 45% of the city’s electrici- Land Use and Buildingsty used for public lighting. The goal is to supply Transport100% of public lighting electricity by 2012. Local Wasteauthorities say the project has cut CO2 emissionsby 1.2 million tonnes since starting operations. Water SanitationLand use and buildings: Monterrey is Air Qualityaverage in the land use and buildings category.The city has the third highest amount of green Environmental Governancespaces in the Index, at 750 square metres per Overall Resultsperson, a figure from 2005, due to a lack of The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results. 69
  • 70. Latin American Green City Index | Monterrey_Mexicothroughout the state. At the same time, Monter- initiatives” below). Water consumption in Mon- itation systems, which included the building ofrey also produces a relatively low amount of terrey, at an estimated 228 litres per person per 73 km of new water delivery pipelines and sixwaste per person per year — 317 kg versus the day, is also lower than the Index average of 264 pumping stations throughout the metropolitanIndex average of 465 kg. Regarding waste dis- litres. An estimated 95% of Monterrey’s popula- region. The city is set to improve its water sys-posal policies, Monterrey scores well for enforc- tion has access to potable water, a figure based tem even further, since the state climate changeing and monitoring industrial hazardous waste on access across the state as a whole, which is action plan has budgeted US$2 million tostandards. The city has some recycling services slightly below the 17-city average of 98%. The upgrade infrastructure and modernise residualin place, with central collection points and the city scores well for measuring key pollutants in water treatment plants across the state.ability to recycle organic waste, glass, plastics surface and drinking water. It also has waterand paper. The city also has an integrated policy meters and tariffs, but is marked down for lack- Sanitation: Monterrey is above average inaimed at reducing, reusing and recycling waste. ing other efficiency measures covered in the the sanitation category. Ninety-five percent of Index, such as rainwater collection facilities, its population has access to sanitation, accord-Green initiatives: The city of Monterrey has separate pipes for non-drinking water, hose- ing to official figures based on access across theimplemented a recycling programme in 500 pipe bans and recycling grey water. state as a whole. But the city is one of only two inneighbourhoods that collects organic and non- the Index — Brasília is the other — that managesorganic waste on different days of the week. Green initiatives: Monterrey has reduced leak- to treat 100% of its wastewater, well above the ages in its water system from an estimated 32% average of 52%. These impressive figures are theWater: Monterrey ranks above average in the in 1998 to 21% by 2008, through a comprehen- result of significant investment in the metropoli-water category. The city’s strong overall perfor- sive, internationally recognised water manage- tan region’s sanitation capacity over the past 15mance is underpinned by the most efficient ment programme. This ongoing effort has years. Since 1995, the state government haswater system in the entire Index — it loses a involved checking and replacing valves, upgrad- built four wastewater treatment plants to servecomparatively low 21% of its water flow through ing pipes, installing pressure gauges and house- the Monterrey metropolitan area, and has justleaks, considerably better than the Index aver- hold meters, leak detection and eliminating ille- finished the “Monterrey V” project, which has aage of 35%. In 2010, the Inter-American Devel- gal connections. In 2010, the city’s state-run significant sewerage element (see “green initia-opment Bank awarded Monterrey its “Latin Drainage and Water Service of Monterrey tives” below). The city has relatively strongAmerican water prize” for the city’s efforts to (SADM) finished “Monterrey V”. This US$237 results on sanitation policies as well, particularlyreduce leaks over the past decade (see “green million plan further improved the water and san- for regularly monitoring sanitation facilities, set-70
  • 71. ting minimum standards for wastewater treat- average sulphur dioxide and suspended particu- rey ranks below average in the environmentalment, and for publicly promoting the efficient late matter levels, which are driven in part by the governance category. It has a dedicated environ-use of sanitation systems. presence of heavy industry in the city. Levels of mental department that oversees policy, but its particulate matter, at 77 micrograms per cubic powers are shared with the state government,Green initiatives: The sanitation component of metre, are among the highest in the Index, and which has a strong influence on policy, and hasthe state’s US$237 million “Monterrey V” pro- well above the average of 48 micrograms. taken the lead on climate change, for example.gramme (see also “green initiatives” in the “water” Authorities recognise the need for action, In the Index, Monterrey is one of only five citiessection, above) includes new sewerage lines and reflected in the city’s positive results on clean air marked down for not regularly monitoring andwastewater collectors, and has increased waste- policies. It regularly monitors air quality around publishing information on its overall environ-water treatment capacity from 9,000 litres per the city, including each of the pollutants covered mental performance.second to 13,500 litres per second. in the Index, and informs citizens about the dan- The city has, however, conducted a baseline gers of household pollutants. environmental review within the last five years,Air quality: Monterrey ranks below average covering water, waste, air quality, transport,in air quality. This result reflects higher-than- Environmental governance: Monter- energy and climate change.Quantitative indicators: Monterrey Average Monterrey Year* Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions from electricity consumption 202.2 722.7 1, e 2008 EIU estimate; Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía; per person (kg/person ) International Energy Agency; Consejo Nacional de Población; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Electricity consumption per US$ GDP 760.7 847.5 2 2008 Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía; (megajoules per thousand US$ GDP) Gobierno de Nuevo León; Economist Intelligence Unit Land use Population density (persons/km2) 4,503.0 1,254.5 2 2009 Marco Geoestadistico Municipal, INEGI 2007, and Buildings Consejo Nacional de Población Green spaces per person (m2/person) 254.6 749.8 2 2005 Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía; Consejo Nacional de Población Transport Length of mass transport network (km/km2) 5.0 0.8 3, e 2009 Gobierno de Nuevo León; Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía; Consejo Nacional de Población Superior public transport networks (km/km2) 0.13 0.02 4 2010 TransMetro y MetroBús, STC Metrorrey, Despacho de Transmetro y Metrobús Stock of cars and motorcycles (vehicles/person) 0.30 0.36 4 2008 INEGI Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 96.2 100.0 5 2008 Secretaría de medio ambiente y recursos naturales Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 465.0 316.9 6 2008 Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 264.3 228.5 7, e 2008 Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía Water system leakages (%) 34.6 21.0 2 2008 Comisión Nacional del Agua Share of population with access to potable water (%) 97.5 95.2 5, e 2007 Secretaría de medio ambiente y recursos naturales Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 93.7 95.2 8, e 2007 Secretaría de medio ambiente y recursos naturales Share of wastewater treated (%) 51.5 100.0 5 2008 Comisión Nacional del Agua Air Quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 37.8 33.1 2 2009 Gobierno de Nuevo León Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 11.4 14.0 2 2009 Gobierno de Nuevo León Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 48.0 76.6 2 2009 Gobierno de Nuevo León* Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU Estimate, 1) Based on Monterrey Metropolitan Area. Based on composition of energy sources used in electricity production in Mexico, 2) Based on Monterrey MetropolitanArea, 3) Based on Monterrey Metropolitan Area. The figure on bus routes used for this indicator does not include all bus routes, but only the length of roads covered by at least one bus route. The length of bus routes was not available, 4) Based on Municipality of Mon-terrey, 5) Based on Nuevo León, 6) Based on Monterrey Metropolitan Area. Based on annual collection of municipal waste, 7) Based on Monterrey Metropolitan Area. Based on daily water extraction, 8) Based on Nuevo León. Based on access to sewerage 71
  • 72. Latin American Green City Index | Montevideo_Uruguay Montevideo_UruguayBackground indicatorsTotal population (million) 1 2.0 M ontevideo is the capital of Uruguay and the country’s economic and financial centre. With a population of 2 million in the metropoli- in the Index and below the average of US$11,100. Montevideo is ranked below average overallAdministrative area (km2) 2 525.5 tan area, it is Uruguay’s biggest city, but still one in the Index. Its best result is for environmentalGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 1 6,417.3 of the least populous among the 17 cities in the governance, where it ranks above average, duePopulation density (persons/km2) 2 2,546.7 Latin American Green City Index. Data included particularly to its efforts in monitoring the city’sTemperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 3 16.0 in the Index are based on a combination of the environment and publicly releasing the results.1) Based on Montevideo Metropolitan Area, 2) Based on Departamentode Montevideo, 3) Based on Montevideo City metropolitan area and the smaller Montevideo In the transport category, the city sees an aver- City, which has a population of 1.3 million. Mon- age performance, but its result in this category is tevideo stands on the estuary of the River Plate, bolstered by a strong public transport policy, an and is home to the country’s main port, a con- integrated pricing system for mass transit and duit for the bulk of Uruguay’s meat, dairy and promoting green transport. The city ranks below grain exports. average in five other categories — energy and The city has an older downtown area, near CO2, waste, water, sanitation and air quality — the port, which contains the main university and for the most part because of relatively less ambi- government offices, and a newer area, towards tious policies than other cities in the Index. How- the coast, which houses the city’s burgeoning ever, Montevideo does score particularly well for logistics and high-tech sectors. Economically, generating one of the smaller amounts of waste the metropolitan area generates a GDP of among the 17 cities, and it has some of the best US$6,400 per person, which is the fifth-lowest water quality policies in the Index.72
  • 73. Energy and CO2: Montevideo ranks belowaverage in energy and CO2. The city scores wellfor CO2 emissions from electricity consumption,at an estimated 80 kg per person across the met-ropolitan area, which is significantly below theIndex average of 202 kg. Almost 90% of Monte-video’s electricity comes from renewable sources,with most of that from hydropower. Electricityconsumption compared to economic output ismuch more than the average, however, at anestimated 1,100 megajoules per US$1,000 GDP,compared to the 17-city average of 760 mega-joules. The city’s relatively high energy con-sumption is due partly to generous public subsi-dies for electricity, especially for medium-sizedand large businesses, although the nationalenergy company, UTE, has in the past year start- one of the lower population densities in the ing green spaces specifically, the plan aims toed to implement tariff differentiations to Index — at 2,500 people per square kilometre, recover existing areas in the city’s urban coreencourage more energy efficiency among cus- compared to the average of 4,500 people per that have suffered from a lack of maintenancetomers (see “green initiatives” below). Monte- square kilometre — and fewer green spaces and to expand green areas in outlying neigh-video has policies on clean energy and climate than most Index cities, at 9 square metres per bourhoods. The city also has an educational pro-change in place, but they could be strength- person. Most of Montevideo’s green spaces are gramme, called “Montevideo Verde”, to publiclyened. For example, the city’s climate change parks set aside in the 19th century and the promote the importance of green spaces con-action plan covers only energy, but not other beginning of the 20th century, and the city’s servation among residents. The first events tookareas like water, sanitation, waste, transport or approach to green spaces has traditionally been place in 2009, and they include guided tours ofbuildings. On the other hand, Montevideo has to protect existing areas, rather than create new most of the city’s parks and other environmen-signed up to international covenants to reduce ones. This approach is set down in the city’s cur- tally sensitive areas such as wetlands. In onegreenhouse gases. rent land use plan, in force since 1998, which part of the programme, for example, botanists says construction activity must protect and lead groups of children in planting vegetation inGreen initiatives: The national energy utility, improve existing green areas. A new, more com- parks.UTE, has implemented different tariffs for resi- prehensive system of protection is in the plan-dential customers, including a dual tariff for ning stages (see “green initiatives” below), Transport: Montevideo ranks average in thepeak and non-peak hours. There is also a “mini- which will also involve measures that should transport category. The mass transport networkmal use tariff” currently covering 150,000 boost the amount of green spaces in the future. extends 1.9 km per square kilometre across thehouseholds that have committed to using less metropolitan area, compared to the Index aver-than 170 kilowatts per month in exchange for a Green initiatives: Montevideo is currently age of 5 km per square kilometre. Montevideolower bill. A variant of this system is planned for developing a more comprehensive urban sus- lacks a metro, so mass transport in the city con-commercial users, but no concrete plans exist at tainability plan for 2010 to 2020 that will sists mainly of fleets of older buses. Centralthe moment. In addition, the Uruguay national encompass wetlands, beaches and the rural roads tend to be congested, although trafficgovernment is promoting wind energy and it environment, along with green spaces. Regard- flows more freely than in most Latin Americanhas overseen a few pilot projects, one of which issupplying electricity for Montevideo’s streetlights. Another project initiated by the nationalgovernment is a 2 megawatt wind farm that will Performance Montevideo Other citieshave the capacity to supply 20% of the city’s well below average above wellpublic electricity. It is expected to start opera- below average average abovetions at the end of 2010. The city itself is now in average averagethe planning stage of developing its own larger Energy and CO2wind farm within city limits, although officialshave not yet announced the capacity or costs. Land Use and Buildings TransportLand use and buildings: Montevideo is Wastewell below average for land use and buildings,largely because of comparatively weak policies Wateron eco-buildings and land use. For example, the Sanitationcity has partial codes covering eco-standards in Air Qualitynew buildings, but it does not yet have incen-tives in place for businesses and households to Environmental Governancelower their energy use. The city’s performance in Overall Resultsthis category is also weighed down by having The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results. 73
  • 74. Latin American Green City Index | Montevideo_Uruguaycapitals. The city also has one of the smaller Green initiatives: The municipality and the areas. The pipeline is expected to meet the city’sstocks of cars and motorcycles in the Index, at national government agreed to build Monte- water needs until 2035.0.16 vehicles per person versus the Index aver- video’s first landfill for hazardous industrialage of 0.3. The city has a comprehensive urban waste, which is scheduled to be finished by the Sanitation: Montevideo is below average inmass transport policy, including an integrated end of 2010. Furthermore, the city has launched the sanitation category. Only an estimated 50%pricing system and dedicated bus lanes. an educational programme for children and of wastewater is treated in Montevideo City, young adults about proper waste disposal in compared to the Index average of 52%. The per-Green initiatives: Montevideo’s “Mobility Plan public places. The initiative includes a television centage of residents with access to sanitation is2010-2020” aims to reduce car use through advertisement broadcast on local stations. The also below the average, at an estimated 83%measures such as promoting public transport programme grew out of a previous waste dis- compared to 94%. The city scores well for its pol-and increasing the number of pedestrian-only posal promotion campaign in 2008 and 2009. icy on monitoring on-site sanitation facilities inareas in the urban centre. An important part of homes and communal areas. Although Montev-the plan is to extend public transport from the Water: Montevideo ranks below average in ideo still has much work to do, sanitary normsurban centre to peripheral areas through exclu- the water category. The city scores well for have strengthened in recent years and the citysive bus lanes. water quality policies, which include relatively has ambitious goals. The government has a Construction began on the first of these bus robust standards for surface water, regular sur- comprehensive plan to improve its sanitationcorridors in 2009, and is expected to be finished face water quality monitoring, and drinking (see “green initiatives” below), and has publiclyin the first half of 2011. Also in 2009, the city water standards. The percentage of the popula- declared its goal to be the “Latin American citystarted building an exclusive cycle route that tion with access to potable water is equal to the with the best sanitation system”.runs parallel to a main city street. The bike lane average, at an estimated 98%. However, manyruns along the Camino Carrasco, and the city cities already have achieved universal access to Green initiatives: Montevideo has a US$260has plans for building a second route on General drinking water. The city’s score is further hin- million plan to provide proper sanitation to theFlores as one of the first steps in the decade-long dered by a very high rate of water consumption entire city by 2020, and improve wastewaterMobility Plan. — the third highest in the Index — at 375 litres treatment. The assessment phases have ended, per person per day across the metropolitan area, and works have gradually started on the plan,Waste: Montevideo is below average in the compared to the 17-city average of 264 litres. which foresees the construction of a new waste-waste category. It scores well for generating one Due to Montevideo’s location on an estuary of water facility that will treat about 44% of theof the lower amounts of waste in the Index, at the River Plate, water supply is plentiful. And as a city’s disposed water, and help to clean up the303 kg per person per year across the metropoli- result, the city has been slow to adopt water sus- city’s bay. It also calls for upgrading wastewatertan area, much better than the average of 465 tainability policies. Montevideo is one of two collection and transport capabilities.kg. The city is marked down for only collecting cities in the Index that lacks a code aimed at con-and disposing of an estimated 85% of its waste, suming water more efficiently; the city has not Air quality: Montevideo is below average incompared to the 17-city average of 96%. In gen- implemented water meters, separate pipes for the air quality category, a result mainly due toeral Montevideo’s policies covering waste dis- non-drinking water, recycling of graywater, higher than average concentrations of nitrogenposal and recycling can be improved. For exam- hose-pipe bans or rainwater collection. Howev- dioxide and sulphur dioxide. Relatively lax auto-ple, the city has environmental standards er, it does run public awareness campaigns to mobile emissions standards are mainly tocovering landfills and incineration sites, as well encourage the rational use of water. blame, in addition to pollution from the city’sas for disposing industrial hazardous waste, but port area. Montevideo’s location on an estuarythese are only partially monitored and enforced. Green initiatives: In early 2010, OSE, the helps to disperse pollution, but this effect isMontevideo has been proactive about the dis- national agency in charge of delivering potable often cancelled out by the region’s humid cli-posal of special waste, however, by establishing water to the city, finished a three-year project to mate, which tends to trap pollution over the city.an on-site collection scheme that will accept build a sixth water pipeline connecting the The city’s clean air policies are relatively robust,electronic equipment and other large household country’s largest potable water treatment facili- however, and officials have taken measures toitems. ty to the city of Montevideo and surrounding tackle the problem in recent years, especially in74
  • 75. core urban areas. Montevideo, for example, has ARPEL/CIDA, which is supported by the regional publishing the results, and the city provides resi-an air quality code, regularly monitors air quality organisation of gas and petroleum industries dents with a central point of contact for informa-at different locations around the city (see “green and the Canadian development agency. tion about environmental projects.initiatives” below), and informs residents aboutthe dangers of air pollution. Environmental governance: Monte- Green initiatives: Montevideo is the only city in video ranks above average in environmental gov- Uruguay to adhere to the principles of Agenda 21,Green initiatives: In 2005 Montevideo estab- ernance — its best performance. It has an envi- a United Nations blueprint with guidelines forlished an extensive air quality monitoring net- ronmental department overseeing policy, with including environmental considerations whenwork, consisting of eight stations in different the ability to implement its own environmental developing government policies. To this end, theparts of the city, to monitor a wide range of pol- legislation. The department’s remit is somewhat city has established the “Montevideo Environ-lutants. In 2008, an air quality monitoring sta- limited compared to the best-scoring cities in mental Group”, an association of non-govern-tion was set up to measure pollution in the vicin- the Index, however. Policies on waste, transport, mental organisations, businesses and publicity of the La Teja refinery, located in the city’s energy and climate change, for example, are not organisations that provides oversight and tracksbay. The goal is to evaluate refinery emissions to directly monitored by the municipal environ- the city’s commitment to environmental goals. Itimprove the refinery’s efficiency, and surround- mental authority. Montevideo performs well for also runs workshops on environmentaling air quality. It is part of a project called monitoring its environmental performance and topics such as air quality and waste management.Quantitative indicators: Montevideo Average Montevideo Year* Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions from electricity consumption 202.2 79.6 1, e 2007 EIU estimate; Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas; International Energy per person (kg/person ) Agency; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Electricity consumption per US$ GDP 760.7 1,146.6 2, e 2007 EIU estimate ; Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas; International Energy (megajoules per thousand US$ GDP) Agency; Oficina de Planeamiento y Presupuesto Land use Population density (persons/km2) 4,503.0 2,546.7 3 2009 Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas and Buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 254.6 9.2 4 2007 Servicio Geomática, Intendencia Montevideo; Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas Transport Length of mass transport network (km/km2) 5.0 1.9 4 2009 Unidad Ejecutiva Plan Movilidad Urbana, Intendencia Montevideo; Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas Superior public transport networks (km/km2) 0.13 0.07 5 2010 Administradores de Ferrocarriles del Estado Stock of cars and motorcycles (vehicles/person) 0.30 0.16 5 2006 Estadisticas de Transporte Anuario 2007, Direccion Nacional de Tranporte Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 96.2 85.0 4, e 2008 El Pais Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 465.0 303.0 4 2010 Departamento de Desarrollo Ambiental Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 264.3 374.9 4 2008 Obras Sanitarias del Estado; Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas Water system leakages (%) 34.6 36.1 4, e 2008 Obras Sanitarias del Estado Share of population with access to potable water (%) 97.5 98.0 6, e 2008 Obras Sanitarias del Estado Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 93.7 83.4 7, e 2009 Servicio de Estudios y Proyectos, Intendencia de Montevideo; Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas Share of wastewater treated (%) 51.5 50.0 5, e 2009 Servicio de Estudios y Proyectos, Intendencia de Montevideo Air Quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 37.8 52.0 5 2009 Grupo Ambiental de Montevideo Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 11.4 28.0 5 2009 Grupo Ambiental de Montevideo Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 48.0 39.0 5 2009 Grupo Ambiental de Montevideo* Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU Estimate, 1) Based on Montevideo Metropolitan Area. Based on electricity consumption estimates and energy sources used in electricity generation in Uruguay,2) Based on Montevideo Metropolitan Area. Estimate based on robust analysis of the relationship between GDP, population and energy consumption in other cities in Latin America where the data were available, 3) Based on Departamento de Montevideo,4) Based on Montevideo Metropolitan Area, 5) Based on Montevideo City, 6) Based on access to water for Uruguay due to lack of data, 7) Based on Montevideo City .Based on access to sewerage 75
  • 76. Latin American Green City Index | Porto Alegre_Brazil Porto Alegre_BrazilP orto Alegre is the capital of Brazil’s southern- most state, Rio Grande do Sul. Long a mag-net for foreign immigrants, the metropolitan Porto Alegre before being exported around the world. Services also play an important role in the city’s economy, as do some heavy industries, city’s high electricity consumption, its failure to adopt a climate change action plan, and its mixed progress in clean energy policies. Thearea is now home to 4.7 million people. Howev- including steel and car manufacturers. metropolitan region consumes 974 megajouleser, with a few exceptions noted below, data Porto Alegre ranks average overall in the of electricity per US$1,000 GDP, which is one ofincluded in the Latin American Green City Index Latin American Green City Index. The city’s best the highest rates in the Index and well above theare based on figures for the city of Porto Alegre, performance is in the waste category, where it 17-city average of 761 megajoules. Porto Alegrewhich has 1.4 million residents. Located at the ranks above average, thanks to a well-developed does not monitor greenhouse gas emissionsconfluence of five rivers, the city has a major recycling programme and strong policies and, while it is investing in developing clean andport that serves as a transport hub for all of regarding waste collection and disposal. Porto renewable sources of energy, the city earns onlysouthern Brazil, and contributes significantly to Alegre achieves average rankings in the areas of partial marks for its investment in waste-to-the local economy. In particular, agricultural land use and buildings, water, sanitation, and air energy programmes. On the other hand, withproducts from around the state pass through quality. Despite its middling rank in water and nearly 90% of its electricity already produced sanitation, the city is one of a few in the Index from renewable sources, primarily hydropower, that has achieved universal access to potable the Porto Alegre metropolitan region has a water and sanitation services, according to offi- much stronger record in terms of CO2 emissions cial figures. On the other hand, the city has sig- from electricity. It emits an estimated 86 kg of nificant room for improvement in energy and CO2 per inhabitant annually in the metropolitanBackground indicators CO2, transport, and environmental governance. area, considerably lower than the Index average It places below average in these three cate- of 202 kg. Furthermore, Porto Alegre’s perfor-Total population (million) 1.4 gories. mance in the energy and CO2 category will likelyAdministrative area (km2) 497.0 improve following the creation of a governmentGDP per person (current prices) (US$) e 12,081.9 Energy and CO2: Porto Alegre ranks below body charged with guiding policy in the area ofPopulation density (persons/km2) 2,895.0 average in energy and CO2. Its poor perfor- Renewable Energies (see “green initiatives”Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 20.0 mance in this category is attributable to the below).Based on City of Porto Alegre, e) EIU estimate76
  • 77. Green initiatives: In September 2009 the city’s tal basis. The ten solar panels will capture Green initiatives: Porto Alegre is investingenvironmental department launched a new enough energy to heat 600 litres of water a day. US$380 million to extend the metro, adding 10agency, the Resource Centre on Renewable The city is also building 210 houses, as part of its km and four stations towards the city’s northernEnergies, to promote renewable energy in Porto social housing project, with solar-powered suburbs. Though long discussed, plans for a sec-Alegre. The centre distributes information about water heaters as an alternative to electric show- ond metro line have not been specified. Howev-renewable technologies, including details on ers, which are common in much of Brazil. er, the city has unveiled a US$17 million projectinstallation costs and vendor names. The centre to construct a 1 km connection from the interna-is also responsible for developing potential Transport: Porto Alegre ranks below average tional airport to the metro. This so-called Aero-renewable energy policies. for transport. The city has a higher-than-average movel, an air-propelled train, is being financed stock of cars and motorcycles, at 0.38 vehicles per by the federal government in preparation for theLand use and buildings: Porto Alegre person, compared to the 17-city average of 0.30. World Cup, and is scheduled to open in lateranks average in the land use and buildings cate- The length of the mass transport network is also 2011. Furthermore, the city is adding 40 km ofgory. The population density, at 2,900 persons shorter than average, at an estimated 3.6 km per bike lanes to encourage residents to use greenerper square kilometre inside the city limits, falls square kilometre, compared to the Index average forms of transport.below the 17-city average of 4,500 inhabitants. of 5 km. The city performs well, however, forAt the same time, the metropolitan region of urban mass transport policies, thanks to its inte- Waste: Porto Alegre ranks above average in the waste category, its best performance in the Index. This is largely due to its waste collection and disposal policy, and a well-developed recy- cling and re-use programme. Recyclable materi- al is collected twice a week, and local authorities run public information campaigns on recycling and waste reduction. Porto Alegre also does well on waste collection, gathering and disposing of 99% of the waste produced in the city limits. The city of Porto Alegre generates 345 kg of waste per person per year, compared to the Index aver- age of 465 kg. In 1997 the city was one of the first in the country to open a managed landfill. It was closed in 2002 when it reached capacity, in favour of the privately run Recreio landfill, locat- ed 113 km outside of the city. And since 2006 the city has run a separate collection scheme for medical and other special forms of waste.Porto Alegre has one of the lowest amounts of grated pricing system and the presence of exclu- Green initiatives: In August 2010, Porto Ale-green space in the Index, with only 6 square sive bus lanes. The city also has a traffic manage- gre announced a pilot project to place 1,000metres per person. Despite its small amount of ment system with 40 cameras connected to a household waste containers around the city, ingreen spaces, the city is making an effort to central control room, where the traffic lights are an effort to reduce the amount of waste left onplant trees along city roads and in parks and to managed according to the flow of vehicles. streets, improve transport logistics and cut backpreserve native vegetation. Porto Alegre alsohas strict guidelines for environmental licensingaimed at protecting conservation areas, boost-ing its performance in land use policies. Like- Performance Porto Alegre Other citieswise, the city performs well in the area of eco- well below average above wellbuildings policy. It has a well-developed set of below average average abovestandards to guarantee the eco-efficiency of average averagenew buildings and actively promotes awareness Energy and CO2about ways for citizens to improve energy effi-ciency of buildings. On the other hand, it is one Land Use and Buildingsof several cities in the Index that does not incen- Transporttivise businesses and households to lower their Wasteenergy use. WaterGreen initiatives: While Porto Alegre lacks a Sanitationcomprehensive strategy aimed at improving Air Qualityenergy efficiency in municipal buildings, theenvironmental secretariat has taken tentative Environmental Governancesteps in this direction, by using solar energy to Overall Resultsheat water at one of its offices on an experimen- The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results. 77
  • 78. Latin American Green City Index | Porto Alegre_Brazilon collection time. Officials plan to introduce fy and curb illegal connections, and offers grace Air quality: Porto Alegre ranks average in airthe programme in the city centre in 2011, along periods and instalment plans for residents who quality. Like many cities in the Index, road trafficwith a promotion campaign. cannot pay their water bills in full. The city says is the primary source of air pollution. The city the delinquency rate has dropped from 14% a has one of the lowest concentrations of sulphurWater: Porto Alegre ranks average in the few years ago to less than 10% today. dioxide in the Index, with daily levels at an esti-water category. The city’s water company, mated 2 micrograms per cubic metre versus anDMAE, loses 29% of water to system leakages, Sanitation: Porto Alegre ranks average in Index average of 11 micrograms. Porto Alegre’swhich, though high, is still one of the lowest the sanitation category. All of the city of Porto daily concentration of particulate matter is 34leakage rates in the Index, and below the aver- Alegre’s residents have access to sanitation ser- micrograms per cubic metre, less than the aver-age 35%. The city provides potable water to all vices, according to official figures — well above age of 48 micrograms. However, the city per-of its residents, according to official figures. The the 17-city average of 94%. In contrast, the city forms less well for nitrogen dioxide emissions, acity lies on the eastern bank of the Guaiba Lake, treats only 20% of this wastewater, well below primary cause of which is automobiles: averageat the convergence of five rivers, so as a result the Index average of 52%. However, Porto Ale- daily concentrations total an estimated 54water is plentiful in Porto Alegre. Porto Alegre gre sees the need for improvement and has micrograms per cubic metre versus an Indexalso performs well in water sustainability poli- comprehensive sanitation policies in place, average of 38 micrograms. While the city oper-cies thanks to public awareness campaigns pro- including an ambitious goal to significantly ates two monitoring stations near major inter-moting conservation. The city’s water ranking is increase the share of wastewater treated (see sections that measure only particulate matterhindered, however, by relatively high water con- “green initiatives” below). and carbon dioxide emissions, the state environ-sumption; the city consumes 313 litres per per- mental projection agency operates three moni-son per day, considerably more than the 17-city Green initiatives: In 2000 the city unveiled its toring stations in Porto Alegre that check for aaverage of 264 litres. comprehensive sanitation plan. The US$250 variety of air pollutants. million “Pisa” project set a goal to increase waste-Green initiatives: In 2005 the city’s water water treatment to 77% by 2012, although the Green initiatives: While many cities requirecompany launched the “Right Water” pro- city appears far from meeting that target. Four- cars to pass yearly emissions tests, the city ofgramme to reduce the number of clandestine teen projects are currently under way, including Porto Alegre instead performs random checkslinks to the water network and expand access to new wastewater treatment facilities, new pipes on trucks and buses, under its “Operation Cleanpotable water in informal settlements. The city and effluent collectors and upgrades to existing Air” programme. City officials set up checkpointsworks with local residents’ associations to identi- pumping stations. along major streets and pull drivers aside for78
  • 79. emissions tests. Vehicles that fail are impounded remains active in drafting legislation and guid- ing sanitation, for example, city officials say theand owners can be fined. ing policy. The city also makes efforts to involve process has directly resulted in the expansion of the public by guaranteeing access to environ- services.Environmental governance: Porto Alegre mental information. In 2009, Local Governments for Sustainabili-ranks below average for environmental gover- ty, an international association of which Portonance. The city hasn’t conducted a baseline Green initiatives: In 1989 Porto Alegre be- Alegre is a member, named the city as one ofenvironmental review in the last five years, and came the first city in Brazil to adopt a “participa- five “model” cities to take part in a renewableenvironmental issues are split within various tory budget” process, which has since become a energy initiative. With the organisation’s back-departments of the local government, which model for cities around the country. Each year ing, model communities develop a sustainablemay hamper comprehensive action and lead to a the city holds a series of neighbourhood, region- energy strategy. The city created the Resourcelack of efficiency in policy implementation. al and citywide meetings where residents and Centre on Renewable Energies (see “Energy andHowever, Porto Alegre was the first major Brazil- elected delegates vote on a wide range of CO2” section above) as part of the programme,ian city to establish an environmental secretariat spending priorities, including for environmental and is studying other potential projects.in 1976, and the environmental department areas such as transport and sanitation. Regard-Quantitative indicators: Porto Alegre Average Porto Alegre Year* Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions from electricity consumption 202.2 85.6 1, e 2008 EIU estimate; Balanco Energetico do RS/CEEE, Sulgas; International per person (kg/person ) Energy Agency; Governo do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul; Intergo- 2008 vernmental Panel on Climate Change Electricity consumption per US$ GDP 760.7 973.7 2, e 2008 Balanco Energetico do RS/CEEE, Sulgas; Fundação de Economia e (megajoules per thousand US$ GDP) Estatística; Economist Intelligence Unit Land use Population density (persons/km2) 4,503.0 2,895.0 3 2009 Fundação de Economia e Estatística; Instituto Brasileiro de and Buildings Geografia e Estatística Green spaces per person (m2/person) 254.6 6.0 4 2008 Secretaría Municipal do Meio Ambiente; Fundação de Economia e Estatística Transport Length of mass transport network (km/km2) 5.0 3.6 4, e 2010 Porto Alegre Sanitation Secretariat; METROPLAN Superior public transport networks (km/km2) 0.13 0.02 3 2010 etpc Porto Alegre, Trensurb Stock of cars and motorcycles (vehicles/person) 0.30 0.38 3 2008 Denatran Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 96.2 98.6 3, e 2008 Departamento Municipal de Limpeza Urbana (DMLU) Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 465.0 344.6 3 2008 Departamento Municipal de Limpeza Urbana (DMLU); Fundação de Economia e Estatística Water Water consumption per person 264.3 313.0 3 2008 Departamento Municipal de Água e Esgotos; (litres per person per day) Fundação de Economia e Estatística Water system leakages (%) 34.6 28.6 3 2009 Departamento Municipal de Água e Esgotos Share of population with access to potable water (%) 97.5 100.0 3 Departamento Municipal de Água e Esgotos Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 93.7 100.0 3, e 2000 Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística Share of wastewater treated (%) 51.5 20.0 3 2009 DMAE Air Quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 37.8 53.8 3, e 2009 PROAR Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 11.4 1.9 3, e 2008 PROAR Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 48.0 34.3 3 2009 ECCPHA* Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e EIU Estimate, 1) Based on Porto Alegre Metropolitan Region. Based on composition of energy sources used for electricity generation in Brazil,2) Based on Porto Alegre Metropolitan Region. GDP data for 2007, 3) Based on City of Porto Alegre, 4) Based on Porto Alegre Metropolitan Region 79
  • 80. Latin American Green City Index | Puebla_Mexico Puebla_MexicoBackground indicatorsTotal population (million) 1 2.6Administrative area (km2) 1 2,223.0GDP per person (current prices) (US$) 2, e 6,535.2Population density (persons/km2) 1 1,185.6Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 3 16.0e) EIU estimate, 1) Based on Puebla-Tlaxcala Metropolitan Area,2) Based on State of Puebla, 3) Based on Municipality of PueblaL ocated in south-central Mexico, Puebla is the capital of the state of Puebla. With 2.6 millionresidents, it is the fourth most populous metro- and transport, where it drops to below average. Puebla’s placement in these areas is a reflection of poor policy implementation in both clean energy energy policy and efforts to adopt a climate change action plan. Its poor performance in both areas is a result of policy being driven at thepolitan area in the country, and 11th largest city and urban mass transport. When measured state and national rather than city level. Howev-in the Latin American Green City Index. The data against the six other low-income cities (those er the city has a few local initiatives to reduce thefor Puebla in the Index is a mix of figures from with GDP per capita below US$8,000), Puebla has environmental impact of energy consumption,the metropolitan area, the municipality of the lowest rate of electricity consumption per unit including a plan to install solar panels in parksPuebla and estimates based on statewide statis- of GDP, and, along with Quito, the highest rate of and to upgrade lighting on city streets (seetics. The city has a strong manufacturing pres- waste collected and adequately disposed. “green initiatives” below).ence, which is dominated by automobiles, auto-parts and logistics. Despite this, Puebla has the Energy and CO2: Puebla is below average Green initiatives: The State of Puebla is due tosixth lowest income in the Index, at an estimat- in energy and CO2. Puebla produces an estimat- publish its “Mitigation Strategy to Adapt to Cli-ed US$6,500 GDP per capita. As in other Mexi- ed 15% of its electricity from renewable energy mate Change” in November 2010. The strategycan cities, air pollution is a substantial challenge sources, though due to a lack of local data, this will outline actions to curb carbon emissions andin Puebla. The problem is compounded by the percentage is estimated on the basis of national promote sustainable urban development. At thecity’s geographical setting: it is situated in a val- figures. The low contribution of renewables to city level, officials have identified lighting as oneley surrounded by mountains and the Trans- the electricity mix results in a high rate of CO2 of the key areas to improve energy efficiencyMexican volcanic belt. emissions from electricity consumption, at an and reduce electricity consumption. In 2008 Despite its low income, Puebla ranks average estimated 242 kg per person each year, com- Puebla launched a US$6.2 million programmein the Index overall. The city’s placement is pared to the 17-city average of 202 kg. However, to upgrade public lighting on city streets. Pueblabuoyed by a particularly strong performance in Puebla does well on electricity consumption per also installed its first solar-powered public light-the waste category, where it ranks above average unit of GDP, at an estimated 661 megajoules of ning in several major city parks. Furthermore,thanks to a high rate of waste collected and ade- electricity per US$1,000, below the Index aver- Puebla has installed infrastructure at its mainquately disposed, and a low amount of waste age of 761 megajoules and the lowest amount landfill to flare methane, but the final phases ofgeneration. The city earns average ranks in most among cities with similar incomes. Puebla’s per- the project are still being planned, before itother categories, except for in energy and CO2, formance in this category is hindered by its clean becomes operational.80
  • 81. US$7.3 million in these initiatives, creating traffic-management system in place. The city more than 50 acres of green spaces and planting does not have traffic light sequencing or a traffic more than 37,700 trees. Puebla also joined information system, nor does it have dedicated forces with several major Mexican companies to delivery times for freight. Furthermore, the city substitute over 1 million incandescent light also lacks congestion-reduction initiatives in the bulbs with energy-efficient LED bulbs in resi- form of carpooling lanes, “no-car days” or park dences around the city. In addition, there is a and ride systems. national “Sustainable Light” plan to replace more than 45 million incandescent light bulbs in Green initiatives: Authorities are planning a 11 million Mexican homes with energy-saving “bus rapid transit” (BRT) system for Puebla, bulbs by 2012. The initiative will save an esti- although time frames and targets have not been mated 2.8 million tonnes of greenhouse gas released publicly. The system would be mod- emissions annually. elled on a system implemented across Latin America, in which buses operate unimpeded in Transport: Puebla is below average in trans- exclusive lanes throughout the city. port. It does not have a metro system and is the only city in the Index that lacks any form of supe- Waste: Puebla is above average in the waste rior transport (defined in the Index as transport category, its strongest performance in the that moves large numbers of passengers quickly Index. The city’s strong placement is largely in dedicated lanes, such as a metro, bus rapid thanks to its comprehensive policies regarding transit or tram network). Overall, Puebla’s mass waste collection and disposal. The city enforces transport network measures an estimated 5.1 strict environmental standards at its Chiltepec km per square kilometre across the metropolitan managed landfill and organizes separate collec- area, which is just slightly longer than the 17- tion and disposal of many forms of special city average of 5.0 km. The transport system is waste, including: household hazardous waste, dominated by an extensive bus network, but medical and infectious waste and chemical and taxis also play an important role, and they con- pharmaceutical waste. Furthermore, Puebla has tribute to traffic congestion. Puebla’s stock of an integrated policy to encourage residents to cars and motorcycles is 0.24 vehicles per person, reduce, re-use and recycle. a figure based on the municipality. This is just The city generates a relatively small amount below the Index average 0.30 vehicles, but the of waste, at an estimated 310 kg per person per second highest when measured against cities year compared to the Index average of 465 kg. with similar incomes. Puebla receives only par- And an estimated 100% of the waste produced tial marks for its urban mass transport policy in the city is collected and adequately disposed,Land use and buildings: Puebla ranks because it is driven by the state rather than local though due to a lack of local data this estimate isaverage for land use and buildings. The city government. The city also lacks an integrated based on state figures.boasts 303 square metres of green space per pricing system for its mass transport network.person, the fifth highest amount in the Index. In On the other hand, it has taken steps to reduce Green initiatives: In an effort to increase recy-recent years Puebla has made a concerted effort emissions from mass transport. Puebla is also cling rates in Puebla, a private initiative knownto improve its parks and protect green spaces one of a handful of cities in the Index that has no as the “green wallet”, was introduced this year.(see “green initiatives” below), which boosts itsperformance in the area of land use policies. Thecity has a code aimed at containing urbansprawl, and it protects environmentally-sensi- Performance Puebla Other citiestive areas from development. It also scores full well below average above wellmarks for having green standards for public below average average abovebuildings. However the city does not actively average averagepromote awareness about ways for residents to Energy and CO2improve the energy efficiency of their homesand businesses. Its performance in this category Land Use and Buildingsis further hindered by its low population density. TransportWith just 1,900 inhabitants per square kilome- Wastetre, Puebla falls considerably below the Indexaverage of 4,500 persons. Water SanitationGreen initiatives: Puebla has two main initia- Air Qualitytives aimed at protecting, preserving and restor-ing its green spaces: the “Urban Reforesting Pro- Environmental Governancegramme” and the “Green City Programme”. Overall ResultsSince 2009 the city has invested more than The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results. 81
  • 82. Latin American Green City Index | Puebla_MexicoThe programme promotes residents’ participa- Sanitation: Puebla is average in the sanita-tion in waste recycling and re-use through incen- tion category. Its performance is hindered by atives and rewards. Residents get one point credit- below average percentage of residents withed to their card for every kilogram of solid waste, access to sanitation services. Only an estimatedincluding plastic, metal, glass, carton-tetra pak 80% of Puebla’s population has access to sanita-and electronic devices, they drop off at specific tion, the lowest in the Index and considerablysites. Points can be exchanged for discounts and below the 17-city average of 94%. Furthermore,benefits in a variety of shops and institutions SOAPAP treats only 43% of the city’s wastewater,across the city. More than 3,000 cards have been which is below the Index average of 52%.distributed and more than 22 tonnes of waste However, the city’s sanitation rank is boostedhave been collected so far in 2010. by its extensive policies, which suggests the city is addressing the problem. SOAPAP has, inWater: Puebla ranks average in the water cat- recent years, invested heavily in expandingegory. Today, 99% of the residents of the munic- wastewater treatment and sanitation services.ipality of Puebla have access to potable water, The city has strict standards for wastewateraccording to official figures. But the city’s water treatment and regularly monitors its facilities. Itsupply comes from some of the most over- also conducts outreach programmes to raiseexploited aquifers in the country, and experts awareness about the safe and efficient use ofexpect that the region will experience severe sanitation systems.water shortages by 2016. Residents in themunicipality consume an average of 203 litres Green initiatives: SOAPAP has several pro-per person each day, compared to the Index grammes under way to expand access to sanita-average of 264 litres. However this relatively low tion services, particularly in low-income neigh-level of water consumption is likely more a con- bourhoods, and to increase wastewatersequence of the limited water supply than policy treatment. For example, it has invested operated by the State Environmental Monitor-aimed at rational usage. On the other hand, the US$400,000 to lay 12 km of pipes to connect ing System. Air pollution levels are publicised viamunicipal waterworks company, SOAPAP, does several low-income communities previously radio, television, newspapers and on the organi-promote public awareness around efficient without access to sanitation services. sation’s website.water consumption. The city also performs wellin the area of water quality policies thanks to the Air quality: Puebla ranks average for air Green initiatives: In an effort to reduce air pol-careful monitoring of its water supply and quality. Transport contributes over 80% of the lution, the Puebla state Secretary of Environ-enforcing of water quality standards. Additional- city’s air pollutants, and the problem is com- ment and Natural Resources has outlined aly, Puebla records a comparatively low rate of pounded by its location. Puebla is situated in a series of air quality initiatives for the Puebla met-system leakages, which at 25%, are the second valley surrounded by mountains and volcanoes, ropolitan region. These include automatedlowest in the Index and well below the 17-city which limits dispersion. The municipality industrial emissions control equipment in facto-average of 35%. records an average daily concentration of sul- ries, the reduction of gas leaks in households, phur dioxide of 15 micrograms per cubic metre and the adoption of vapour recovery equipmentGreen initiatives: In an effort to reduce system versus a 17-city average of 11 micrograms. at gas stations, among others. While the stateleakages and improve supply, SOAPAP has Nitrogen dioxide levels, at 40 micrograms, are has required vehicle emissions tests since 1993,invested more than US$30 million since 2009 in just slightly above the Index average of 38 the state agency also calls for the programme toinfrastructure works, including repairing tanks micrograms, but particulate matter concentra- be strengthened, through campaigns to raiseand pumps, constructing a new 5,500-cubic- tions, at 31 micrograms per cubic metre, fall awareness about the requirement and bettermetre storage tank, and drilling 10 new water below the Index average of 48 micrograms. surveillance of vehicles that fail to comply withwells. Puebla has four monitoring stations, which are the testing regulations.82
  • 83. Environmental governance: Puebla is ering the areas of water, sanitation, waste, air cation and information department, which pro-average in environmental governance. While quality, transport, land use, human settlements, motes public awareness of environmental issuesthe state’s Secretary of Environment and Natural energy and climate change, Puebla has failed to through research, media campaigns and schoolResources is active in driving environmental pol- do so, hindering its overall placement in this cat- outreach programmes.icy, the municipality of Puebla has its own Envi- egory. Local NGOs such as Puebla Metropolitana,ronmental Protection and Sustainable Develop- and Puebla Verde, are also working to enhancement Agency (see “green initiatives” below). The Green initiatives: Puebla’s Environmental Pro- public awareness through public events andagency promotes citizen and other stakeholder tection and Sustainable Development Agency information campaigns. In addition, theseparticipation, further boosting its score. On the was established as a decentralised agency that organisations are lobbying the city administra-other hand, while many cities in the Index have actively engages with and involves citizens, tion to implement sustainable environmentalconducted baseline environmental reviews cov- NGOs and the private sector. It also has an edu- policies.Quantitative indicators: Puebla Average Puebla Year* Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions from electricity consumption 202.2 242.0 1, e 2008 EIU estimate; Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía; per person (kg/person ) International Energy Agency; Consejo Nacional de Población; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Electricity consumption per US$ GDP 760.7 661.0 2, e 2008 Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía; (megajoules per thousand US$ GDP) Economist Intelligence Unit Land use Population density (persons/km2) 4,503.0 1,185.6 3 2009 Consejo Nacional de Población and Buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 254.6 303.3 4, e 2009 Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía; Consejo Nacional de Población Transport Length of mass transport network (km/km2) 5.0 5.1 5, e 2008 Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transporte; Consejo Nacional de Población Superior public transport networks (km/km2) 0.13 0.00 6 2010 N/A Stock of cars and motorcycles (vehicles/person) 0.30 0.24 7 2008 INEGI Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 96.2 100.0 2, e 2008 Secretaría de medio ambiente y recursos naturales Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 465.0 310.2 2, e 2008 Secretaría de medio ambiente y recursos naturales; Consejo Nacional de Población Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day)264.3 203.0 7 2009 Inf. Básica 2009 Org. Operadores/UDAPI/SOAPAP. Water system leakages (%) 34.6 25.1 7 2009 Inf. Básica 2009 Org. Operadores/UDAPI/SOAPAP. Share of population with access to potable water (%) 97.5 98.5 7 2009 Inf. Básica 2009 Org. Operadores/UDAPI/SOAPAP. Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 93.7 79.6 8, e 2007 Secretaría de medio ambiente y recursos naturales; Consejo Nacional de Población Share of wastewater treated (%) 51.5 42.7 2 2008 Comisión Nacional del Agua Air Quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 37.8 39.5 7 2009 Secretaría del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales del Estado de Puebla Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 11.4 14.9 7 2009 Secretaría del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales del Estado de Puebla Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 48.0 30.6 7 2009 Secretaría del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales del Estado de Puebla* Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU Estimate, 1) Based on State of Puebla. Based on composition of energy sources used in electricity generation in Mexico, 2) Based on State of Puebla, 3) Based on Puebla-Tlaxcala Metropolitan Area, 4) Based on green space figures for 2005 in Puebla-Tlaxcala metropolitan zone, 5) Based on Puebla Metropolitan region, 6) Such a system does not operate in Puebla, 7) Based on Municipality of Puebla, 8) Based on State of Puebla. Total pop-ulation with access to sewerage. 83
  • 84. Latin American Green City Index | Quito_Ecuador Quito_EcuadorBackground indicatorsTotal population (million) 2.1Administrative area (km2) 4,204.0GDP per person (current prices) (US$) e 2,976.5Population density (persons/km2) 504.9Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 14.0Based on Quito Metropolitan District, e) EIU estimateQ uito is the capital of Ecuador and its second most populous city. With 2.1 million resi-dents in the metropolitan area, it is one of the and a well developed clean air policy. The city is average in the energy and CO2, water and envi- ronmental governance categories. Quito has Like many cities in Latin America, Quito has seen a rapid rise of private car ownership in the past decade. While 52% of Quito’s electricity is gener-smaller cities in the Latin American Green City room for improvement in land use and buildings ated by hydropower, many other cities in theIndex. The city is set in a high valley in north- and sanitation, where it ranks below average. It Index have an even higher share of renewables incentral Ecuador, flanked by active volcanoes. is, for example, one of only two cities in the electricity production. But Quito established aApart from being the country’s administrative Index, along with Buenos Aires, with no waste- small-scale waste-to-energy project in 2007 tohub, Quito is also home to the headquarters of water treatment facilities. However, Quito has produce electricity from captured methane gasesthe majority of Ecuador’s largest companies. Its the most green spaces in the Index, and there is at its Zambiza landfill, which supplies 3,000economy is dominated by services, including also increasing interest within the city to imple- households with electricity. The city does notwholesale and retail, financial services and ment environmental policies at the municipal appear to be making other larger-scale invest-tourism. Manufacturing, particularly auto-parts level, but these have to compete against finan- ments in clean energy, which hinders its score inproduction, is also present. Quito accounts for cial and administrative challenges. the area of clean energy policies. However Quitoaround one-fifth of Ecuador’s total GDP. The places near the top of the Index for its climatecity’s GDP per capita, at US$3,000 is the lowest Energy and CO2: Quito ranks average for change action plan. The city monitors its CO2in the Index. The data for Quito in the Index is energy and CO2. The city has the highest rate of emissions and recently adopted a strategy aimedbased on the metropolitan area, with the excep- electricity consumption in the Index, at 1,400 at reducing them (see “green initiatives” below).tion of the figure for the length of the transport megajoules per US$1,000 GDP, well above the It is also marked up for having joined internation-network, which is based on the urban area. 17-city average of 761 megajoules. It achieves a al covenants with emissions reduction goals. Quito is ranked average overall in the Index. middling position in the area of CO2 emissionsThe city’s best results are for the transport, from electricity. Quito emits an estimated 151 kg Green initiatives: In 2009 the city adopted itswaste and air quality categories, where it ranks of CO2 per person from electricity consumption local Climate Change Strategy to limit carbonabove average. In air quality, particularly, the each year, below the Index average of 202 kg. emissions and reduce the environmental impactcity is marked up for having low concentrations According to city officials, road transport of energy consumption. The strategy includesof the three pollutants measured in this report, accounts for over half of the total CO2 emissions. improving greenhouse gas monitoring, streng-84
  • 85. 4,500. Quito also scores poorly for its eco-build- Transport: Quito ranks above average for ings policies, which are lacking an environmen- transport. Quito started to focus on mass trans- tal code for new buildings or any substantial port policies only in the late 1990s. The earliest incentives and awareness campaigns to moti- project was a system of electric and diesel pow- vate businesses and households to lower the ered buses running on exclusive lanes, serving energy consumption of buildings. Except for the most populated areas. Currently there are small energy-saving schemes in place since three dedicated bus lanes crossing the city from 2008, such as using LED light bulbs in city north to south, and transporting over 450,000 offices, there are no green standards for public people per day. Quito’s mass transport network buildings in place. in its urban area is an estimated 5.5 km per square kilometre, just above the Index average Green initiatives: Quito has an ambitious plan of 5 km per square kilometre. There are plans to to protect and reforest its green spaces. The expand it, but progress has been slow due to the “Forestation and Reforestation Project” began in city’s complicated geography — peripheral 2001, and by 2008 the programme had led to neighbourhoods are often located in adjacent the planting of about 6 million trees, mostly valleys — and to financing constraints. The city native species. The latest high visibility city ini- benefits in the Index from having the second- tiative is to employ city workers and volunteers lowest stock of cars and motorcycles, at 0.12 per to replant 300,000 trees lost in forest fires dur- person, versus the average of 0.3 vehicles perthening oversight on energy and CO2 issues, ing summer 2009. In 2006, the city ran a tree- person.establishing public information campaigns, and planting competition with neighbourhoodpromoting concrete CO2 abatement policies. groups in 145 districts. The “My Neighbourhood Green initiatives: Quito has a comprehensiveAbatement policies include blocking urban is Dressed in Trees” competition led to the plan- congestion reduction policy to limit the effectsdeforestation and promoting greenhouse gas ting and maintenance of 140,000 trees. of rising car ownership. In addition to restrictingreduction schemes at landfills.Land use and buildings: Quito is belowaverage in land use and buildings. The city is Performance Quito Other citiesmarked up for its abundant green spaces, which well below average above wellinclude urban parks, forested areas and 25 below average average abovenature reserves located within the municipality’s average averageadministrative area. With almost 1,500 square Energy and CO2metres of green spaces per person, Quito hasthe most in the entire Index. Its large amount of Land Use and Buildingsgreen spaces is in part due to the administrative Transportboundaries of the city, since almost 80% of terri- Wastetory under the Quito City Council jurisdiction isconsidered non-urban. But the city has also Waterbeen proactive over the last two decades in cre- Sanitationating parks in undeveloped areas in the urban Air Qualitycentre. Quito’s performance in the overall cate-gory is, however, weighed down by a low popu- Environmental Governancelation density, at just over 500 inhabitants per Overall Resultssquare kilometre versus an Index average of The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results. 85
  • 86. Latin American Green City Index | Quito_Ecuadorparking in some core urban areas and building most of its fresh water from nearby mountainexclusive cycling lanes, officials close the city streams and glaciers, as well as from a few un-centre to cars on weekends. Moreover, in 2010 derground aquifers. Although water rationing isQuito became the first city in Ecuador to restrict uncommon, Quito can suffer from low rainfallthe number of vehicles coming into the city dur- during the dry season, from June to October,ing peak hours on weekdays. The scheme is which puts pressure on the city’s reserves. Waterbased on license plate numbers, which is similar consumption of 197 litres per person per day isto a measure in place in São Paulo. The city says lower than the 17-city average of 264 litres, andit has reduced traffic at peak times by as much as the water leakage rate, at 33%, is also just below30% in certain areas. the average of 35%. The city performs well in the area of water sustainability policies thanks toWaste: Quito ranks above average in the public awareness campaigns which encouragewaste category. The publicly owned metropoli- water conservation. On the other hand, Quito istan waste company, EMASEO, collects and ade- the only city in the Index failing to enforce water Air quality: Quito is above average for airquately disposes of an estimated 100% of the pollution standards on local industry. quality. The city’s placement in this category iscity’s waste. Quito’s score is further bolstered by largely due to very low average daily concentra-the relatively small amount of waste it produces. Green initiatives: A new US$4 million water tions of the three pollutants measured in theThe city generates 300 kg per person per year, treatment plant to the northwest of the city is due Index. For example, the city records nitrogenone of the lowest rates in the Index, and consid- to be finished in June 2011, and will supply potable dioxide concentrations at 26 micrograms pererably below the 17-city average of 465 kg. In water to around 480,000 residents. The plant will cubic metre, versus a 17-city average of 38the past decade Quito has taken an active role in also relieve supply pressures for the city’s planned micrograms. And sulphur dioxide levels are alsomanaging waste, improving collection and clos- new international airport, which will be located low, at 9 micrograms per cubic metre, compareding open-air dumps. The city’s new landfill, nearby and expected to open at the end of 2011. to the Index average of 11 micrograms. Thislocated 45 km away from the urban centre, reflects the city’s small manufacturing base andaccepts hazardous, medical and infectious Sanitation: Quito ranks below average in strict policies on vehicle emissions. Further-waste, in addition to household trash, and the the sanitation category. Even so, Quito still pro- more, Quito’s below-average daily concentra-city imposes strict environmental standards on vides sanitation services to an estimated 97% of tion of particulate matter, at 30 micrograms perthe facility. So far, Quito lacks comprehensive its residents, according to official figures, which cubic metre compared to a 17-city average of 48recycling and re-use programmes, though its is better than the Index average of 94%. The city micrograms, stems in part from its temperaterecord here will likely improve in the coming is marked down, however, because it lacks weather, which substantially reduces the needyears (see “green initiatives” below). wastewater treatment facilities. Efforts are un- for heating devices. The city also does well in der way to improve monitoring and creating a informing its citizens about the dangers of airGreen initiatives: Although the city has been wastewater treatment strategy, but for the pollution. And its efficient, 24-hour air qualityslow to provide recycling services, it has plans to moment Quito’s residential and industrial monitoring, which relies on automatic equip-set up 48 central collection points between 2010 wastewater is dumped, untreated, into the city’s ment in remote stations around the metropoli-and 2012 for paper, plastic and glass bottles. In two main rivers, Machángara and San Pedro. tan area, further bolsters its score.association with private businesses, the city alsoexpects to establish 1,000 collection points for Green initiatives: During the rainy season the Green initiatives: In 2003 Quito became thehazardous household waste, including batteries. city’s sewage system often collapses, causing first city in Ecuador and in the Andean commu- major flooding. To address this problem the city nity of nations, which includes Ecuador, Peru,Water: Quito ranks average in the water cate- has unveiled a plan to build two back-up water Colombia and Venezuela, to require automo-gory. It is one of the four cities in the Index collection facilities to capture excessive rainfall biles to pass emissions tests when they are regis-which provides potable water to all of its resi- and avoid flooding. These facilities are set to be tered. The tests happen every year for privatedents, according to official figures. The city gets completed by mid-2011. cars and every two years for “public purpose”86
  • 87. vehicles, such as buses and taxis. If the automo- environmental policies, and provides residents in the areas of water, air, transportation andbile fails, the owner must pay for upgrades to with a central contact point for information on waste, require public participation. In 2010, forpass the test and register the vehicle. The city environmental projects. In 2004 Ecuador’s Min- example, the municipality developed a compre-estimates that carbon monoxide levels have istry of the Environment granted the city envi- hensive transport and congestion abatementdropped 25% to 30% since the programme ronmental planning capacities and legal author- strategy in collaboration with different intereststarted. ity to draft environmental legislation. Quito has groups, such as transport representatives, pri- also made efforts to improve transparency and vate-sector associations and residents. How-Environmental governance: Quito promote greater involvement of citizens and ever, the city’s performance in the Index is weak-ranks average for environmental governance. stakeholders in decision-making. Major projects ened by slow progress on consistent and timelyQuito’s environmental secretariat coordinates that have an environmental impact, in particular environmental reviews and monitoring.Quantitative indicators: Quito Average Quito Year* Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions from electricity consumption 202.2 151.2 1, e 2009 EIU estimate; Empresa Eléctrica de Quito; International Energy Agency; Insituto per person (kg/person ) Nacional de Estadística y Censos; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Electricity consumption per US$ GDP 760.7 1,426.8 1, e 2009 EIU estimate; Empresa Eléctrica de Quito; (megajoules per thousand US$ GDP) Economist Intelligence Unit Land use Population density (persons/km2) 4,503.0 504.9 2 2009 Insituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos; Programa de Educación and Buildings para la Prefectura del Pichincha Green spaces per person (m2/person) 254.6 1,494.7 2 2009 Mapa de Uso de Suelo y Cobertura Vegetal del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito; Insituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos Transport Length of mass transport network (km/km2) 5.0 5.4 3, e 2009 Empresa Metropolitana de Movilidad y Obras Públicas; Programa de Educación para la Prefectura del Pichincha Superior public transport networks (km/km2) 0.13 0.15 3, e 2010 Empresa Metropolitana de Movilidad y Obras Públicas Stock of cars and motorcycles (vehicles/person) 0.30 0.12 4 2009 Corporacion Municipal para el Mejoramiento del Aire de Quito, “Inventario de Emisiones 2007” and “Informe Calidad del Aire 2009”; Corporacion Municipal para el Mejoramiento del Aire de Quito, “Inventario de Emisiones 2007” and “Informe Calidad del Aire 2” Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 96.2 100.0 2, e 2009 Empresa Pública Metropolitana de Aseo; Secretaría de Ambiente/SIAD Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 465.0 300.3 2 2009 Empresa Pública Metropolitana de Aseo; Insituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos Water Water consumption per person 264.3 197.2 2 2009 Empresa Metropolitana de Alcantarillado y Agua Potable; (litres per person per day) Insituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos Water system leakages (%) 34.6 32.7 2 2009 Empresa Metropolitana de Alcantarillado y Agua Potable Share of population with access to potable water (%) 97.5 100.0 2 2009 Empresa Metropolitana de Alcantarillado y Agua Potable; Insituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 93.7 96.7 5, e 2009 Empresa Metropolitana de Alcantarillado y Agua Potable; Insituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos Share of wastewater treated (%) 51.5 0.0 6 2010 Municipio del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito Air Quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 37.8 25.9 2 2008 Corporación Para el Mejoramiento del Aire de Quito Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 11.4 8.7 2 2008 Corporación Para el Mejoramiento del Aire de Quito Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 48.0 30.3 2 2008 Corporación Para el Mejoramiento del Aire de Quito* Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU Estimate, 1) Based on Quito Metropolitan District. Based on composition of energy sources used in electricity generation in Ecuador, 2) Based on Quito Metropolitan District3) Based on the urban area of Quito, 4) Based on Quito, 5) Based on Quito Metropolitan District. Total population with access to sewerage, 6) Based on Quito Metropolitan District. Confirmation from Municipio del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito that currently no waste-water treatment plants exist in Quito. These are foreseen for the year 2012, 7) Based on Quito Metropolitan District GDP figures for 2004 and national GDP growth rates 87
  • 88. Latin American Green City Index | Rio de Janeiro_Brazil Rio de Janeiro_BrazilW ith 12.3 million residents, Rio de Janeiro is the second most populous metropolitanarea in Brazil. Just over half of its residents live er of Rio de Janeiro. Together with the wider metropolitan region, Rio generates just over 5% of Brazil’s GDP; it is the second largest economy American Green City Index. The city’s best place- ment is in the area of environmental gover- nance, where, with Mexico City, it ranks wellwithin the Rio city limits, about 6.4 million, mak- in the country, behind São Paulo. The city’s com- above average. Its impressive performance ining it the sixth most populous city in the Latin mercial activities are largely dominated by this category is thanks to a robust record onAmerican Green City Index. All of the figures tourism and services. Brazil’s oil industry is environmental monitoring and environmentalincluded in the Index are based on the city prop- based in Rio, as are the country’s biggest mining management. Rio also performs well in the company and one of the most important televi- energy and CO2, and land use and buildings cat- sion networks. Recently the city has received a egories, emerging above average. The city great influx of investments ahead of a series of boasts a strong clean energy policy and strictly high-profile events, including the UN Confer- regulates environmental standards for the con- ence on Sustainable Development in 2012, the struction of new buildings. Rio de Janeiro World Cup in 2014 and the 2016 Olympic receives average ranks in the areas of transport,Background indicators Games. Rio is therefore in a unique position in waste, sanitation and air quality. Its overall score the Index to greatly improve its urban develop- is constrained, however, by a below averageTotal population (million) 6.2 ment and environmental performance over the placement in the water category, which is dueAdministrative area (km2) 1,182.0 coming years. Investments are predominantly partly to having the highest rate of water systemGDP per person (current prices) (US$) e 11,580.8 being made in infrastructure to accommodate leakages in the Index. Rio’s performance com-Population density (persons/km2) 5,234.1 an expected heavy inflow of visitors. pares favourably when measured against theTemperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 25.0 Rio ranks above average overall in the Latin seven cities of similar incomes (those with a GDPBased on City of Rio de Janeiro, e) EIU estimate88
  • 89. Rio’s electricity comes from renewable sources, commercial areas around its port. The US$200 primarily hydropower. The city consumes 678 million project involves refurbishing historical megajoules of electricity per US$1,000 of GDP, buildings, improving transport access and sani- which is below the Index average of 761 mega- tation services, and creating cycling lanes and joules. green spaces, including a green corridor lined by 11,000 trees. Around 30,000 people currently Green initiatives: In 2009 the city unveiled its live in the run-down port area, and the city esti- comprehensive climate change programme, “Rio mates that the neighbourhood will be home to Sustainable”. The plan foresees an 8% reduction more than 100,000 residents when the project — from 2005 levels — in the emission of CO2 and is finished in 2016. Additionally, Rio’s climate other greenhouse gases in the city by 2012, a change action plan calls for the reforestation of 16% reduction by 2016 and a 20% reduction by protected areas. To achieve this, the city is 2020. As part of the programme, the city con- investing US$15 million to plant 1,500 hectares ducted a full review of CO2 emissions in collabora- of trees through 2012. tion with the federal university of Rio de Janeiro. The plan outlines a number of ways the city will Transport: Rio de Janeiro ranks average in meet its reduction targets, including the mitiga- the transport category. Rio’s public transport tion of emissions from transport and waste, the system consists of both buses and a metro, and installation of energy-efficient LED lights in is the longest in the Index, measuring an esti- municipal buildings and street lights, and public mated 8.7 km per square kilometre of city terri- awareness initiatives, among other programmes. tory — considerably longer than the 17-city average of 5 km per square kilometre. Its superi- Land use and buildings: Rio ranks above or transport networks (defined in the Index as average in the land use and buildings category. transport that moves large numbers of passen- The city scores particularly well thanks to its very gers quickly in dedicated lanes, such as a metro, ambitious land use and eco-buildings policies, bus rapid transit or trams) measure 0.12 km per which are among the best in the Index. More- square kilometre of city territory, just slightly over, the city, which has two of the world’s longer than the Index average of 0.10 km. Rio’s largest urban forests, the Pedra Branca Natural metro runs along two lines, extending a total of Park and the Tijuca Forest, boasts 58 square 47 km, which leaves large portions of the city metres of green space per person. Although the served only by buses. The city’s third metro line latest available data for Rio dates back to 2001, is currently under construction, scheduled for while the data for other cities is more current, completion by 2016 (see “green initiatives” this is relatively high by Index standards. The city below). Rio’s climate change action plan delin- strives to maintain its green spaces, and boasts a eates goals for expansion of mass transport ser- strict set of laws aimed at protecting these areas vices, and further plans are laid out by the state from development. transportation secretariat. According to official sources the city has 0.26 vehicles per inhabitant, Green initiatives: Ahead of the 2016 Olympic which is just less than the Index average of 0.30 Games, Rio is redeveloping the residential and vehicles. This is the lowest ratio among theper capita between US$8,000 and US$16,000).It is one of three mid-income cities that ranksabove average overall, and has the second low-est stock of cars and motorcycles among the Performance Rio de Janeiro Other citiessame peer group. well below average above well below average average aboveEnergy and CO2: Rio de Janeiro ranks average averageabove average in energy and CO2. The city’s per- Energy and CO2formance in this category is largely due to its Land Use and Buildingsclean energy policies and its clear goals for thereduction of CO2 emissions outlined in the city’s Transportclimate change action plan (see “green initia- Wastetives” below). In 1988 Rio became the first city inLatin America to publish an inventory of CO2 Wateremissions. The city emits an estimated 73 kg of SanitationCO2 per person from electricity usage, below the Air Quality17-city average of 202 kg. This relatively lowlevel of CO2 emissions is a result of a very high Environmental Governancecontribution of renewable energy to the city’s Overall Resultselectricity production. Eighty-eight percent of The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results. 89
  • 90. Latin American Green City Index | Rio de Janeiro_BrazilBrazilian cities in the Index. Nonetheless Rio con- following the adoption of a state initiative to Green initiatives: Nova Cedae, the statetinues to suffer from endemic traffic problems, improve waste collection and disposal, and waterworks company, is investing US$58 mil-and the city has been slow to implement con- improve landfill standards across the entire state lion per year to stop illegal connections to thegestion reduction policies. Officials say they are of Rio de Janeiro. The programme will provide city’s water supply. The company also now sup-creating limited vehicle zones, but other mea- municipalities a total of US$88 million each plies potable water to 111 of the city’s informalsures such as “no-car days” or carpooling lanes year to eradicate all of the state’s open air settlements to reduce the need to connect ille-are missing so far. dumps and ensure that waste is properly dis- gally. Additionally, schools in Rio teach water posed. It also places emphasis on recycling and conservation as part of the curriculum.Green initiatives: The city and state trans- composting.portation departments are implementing an Sanitation: Rio de Janeiro ranks average inambitious range of projects to improve public Green initiatives: Rio’s Gramacho landfill will the sanitation category. An estimated 83% oftransport ahead of the World Cup and Olympic be closed in 2011 and replaced by a new one Rio’s residents have access to sanitation, whichgames. The state is investing US$678 million to currently under construction at Seropédica. The is one of the lowest rates in the Index and welldouble the capacity of the two existing metro US$47 million state-of-the-art facility will cut below the average of 94%. In contrast, Rio treatslines to 1.1 million passengers a day. In addition CO2 emissions by 1.4 million tonnes each year an estimated 85% of its collected wastewater,to purchasing new trains, two new metro sta- by capturing methane gasses, and will also have considerably more than the Index average oftions are being built and existing lines extended. the capacity to generate biogas. 52%. New treatment facilities currently underIn 2010, the city was scheduled to start building construction will further improve Rio’s perfor-its US$2.9 billion third metro line (“Line 4”) Water: Rio de Janeiro ranks below average in mance. Rio’s sanitation performance is alsoto serve Rio’s western region. The state trans- the water category, largely due to high water weighed down by a poor score for sanitationportation secretariat says the line will have the system leakages and an above-average water policies, primarily because it lacks a plan to pro-capacity for 230,000 passengers per day. Fur- consumption rate. Rio loses 58% of its water to mote environmentally sustainable sanitationthermore, by 2016 the city will have four major leakages, the highest percentage in the Index services. The city fares better, however, in termsbus corridors, modelled after Curitiba’s “bus and well above the already high 17-city average of wastewater treatment standards.rapid transit” (BRT) system. Rio also plans to of 35%. The state waterworks company, Novaextend cycling lanes from 140 km in 2009 to Cedae, estimates that 15% of the city’s total Green initiatives: Rio’s largest initiative to340 km in 2012. water supply is lost to illegal connections in both improve sanitation, ongoing since 1994, is the informal settlements and large apartment Guanabara Bay Depollution Programme. At aWaste: Rio de Janeiro ranks average in the blocks, and is investing heavily to expand water cost of US$793 million, the programme involveswaste category. The city generates 525 kg of services in order to tackle this problem (see the construction of 1,248 km of effluent collec-waste per person per year, which is above the “green initiatives” below). Rio consumes 301 tors, 28 km of drains, eight wastewater treat-17-city average of 465 kg per person per year, litres of water per person per day, compared to ment facilities and the expansion of sanitationalthough it collects and disposes of nearly all of the Index average of 264 litres. Although the services to 139,000 households. The pro-it. The city’s waste is disposed in the Gramacho city does promote public awareness about effi- gramme is designed to address all aspects of thelandfill, which is being replaced in 2011 (see cient water consumption and encourage ratio- bay’s environmental performance. It also“green initiatives” below). nal use with water tariffs, Rio earns only partial includes works to improve flood control and the The city earns middling scores for its policies points in the area of water efficiency policy, supply of potable water and waste collection foron waste collection and disposal, and recycling because it lacks separate pipes for non-drinking residents who live near the bay, though 90% ofand re-use. While Rio does enforce environmen- water and does not recycle graywater. Accord- the budget has been allocated to sanitation.tal standards for its landfills, its failure to dispose ing to official data, nearly all of Rio’s residentsof household hazardous waste and chemical have access to potable water, and nearly 80% of Air quality: Rio de Janeiro ranks average inand pharmaceutical waste separately from regu- this is supplied by the world’s biggest water the air quality category. The city’s traffic-chokedlar municipal waste holds it back. Its perfor- treatment plant, Guandu, a facility that pro- streets are the main source of pollution, fol-mance in this area will likely improve, however, duces 43,000 litres of potable water per second. lowed by pollution derived from municipal90
  • 91. waste. Rio’s rugged topography prevents the requires yearly emissions tests for all licensed to environmental monitoring, management anddispersion of pollutants and high temperatures cars, and vehicles that exceed emissions limits enforcement. The city has a strong record forexacerbate the problem. Rio city has the highest are not allowed on state roads. Furthermore, the monitoring air, water, waste, sanitation, trans-incidence of nitrogen dioxide in the Index, with city is testing 15 so-called B20 buses that run on port, land use, human settlements, energy andaverage daily levels at 58 micrograms per cubic diesel with a blend of 20% biodiesel. The city green spaces, including urban forests. Rio alsometre, versus the 17-city average of 38 micro- aims to have 8,500 B20 buses in operation by engages residents and NGOs on environmentalgrams. However, thanks to Brazil’s extensive 2016. Authorities say the full fleet of B20 buses projects. Non-governmental stakeholders have,ethanol programme, levels of sulphur dioxide will reduce CO2 emissions by 148,000 tonnes for example, played a significant role in draftingare much lower at 4 micrograms per cubic and particulate matter by 3,300 tonnes per year. plans for infrastructure development ahead ofmetre, well below the Index average of 11 the 2016 Olympics. Rio has a designated envi-micrograms. Levels of particulate matter are Environmental governance: Rio ranks ronmental authority that oversees and imple-also low, at 24 micrograms per cubic metre ver- well above average for environmental gover- ments all aspects of environmental policy. Thesus the Index average of 48 micrograms. nance, its best placement in the Index. This is authority collaborates closely with other city mainly because of the efficient network of departments, including housing, transportation,Green initiatives: The state of Rio de Janeiro municipal and state-level institutions dedicated science and technology, and urban planning.Quantitative indicators: Rio de Janeiro Average Rio de Janeiro Year* Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions from electricity consumption 202.2 73.0 1, e 2009 EIU estimate; Light; International Energy Agency; Instituto Brasileiro de per person (kg/person ) Geografia e Estatística; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Electricity consumption per US$ GDP 760.7 677.8 1 2007 Light; Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística; Economist In- (megajoules per thousand US$ GDP) telligence Unit Land use Population density (persons/km2) 4,503.0 5,234.1 1 2009 Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística and Buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 254.6 58.0 1 2001 Secretaría Municipal de Meio Ambiente Transport Length of mass transport network (km/km2) 5.0 8.6 1 2009 Secretaría de Transportes; MetroRio; Confederação Nacional do Trans- porte; Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística Superior public transport networks (km/km2) 0.13 0.12 1 2010 Secretaria dos Transportes Metropolitanos Stock of cars and motorcycles (vehicles/person) 0.30 0.26 1 2010 Denatran Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 96.2 98.6 1, e 2008 Secretaría Municipal de Meio Ambiente; Companhia Municipal de Limpeza Urbana Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 465.0 525.2 1 2008 Secretaría Municipal de Meio Ambiente; Instituto Brasileiro de Geo- grafia e EstatísticaWater Water consumption per person 264.3 301.3 1 2008 Sistema Nacional de Informações sobre Saneamento;Instituto (litres per person per day) Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística Water system leakages (%) 34.6 57.7 1 2008 Sistema Nacional de Informações sobre Saneamento Share of population with access to potable water (%) 97.5 98.4 1 2007 Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 93.7 83.4 2, e 2007 Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística Share of wastewater treated (%) 51.5 85.3 1, e 2008 Sistema Nacional de Informações sobre Saneamento Air Quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 37.8 57.7 1 2009 Instituto Estadual do Ambiente Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 11.4 3.5 1 2009 Instituto Estadual do Ambiente Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 48.0 24.0 1 2009 Instituto Estadual do Ambiente* Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU Estimate, 1) Based on City of Rio de Janeiro, 2) Based on City of Rio de Janeiro. Total population with access to sewage. 91
  • 92. Latin American Green City Index | Santiago_Chile Santiago_ChileBackground indicatorsTotal population (million) 6.8 S antiago is Chile’s administrative and finan- cial capital, and the country’s most populous city, with 6.8 million residents in the metropoli- substantial overhaul and influx of investment in the transport network, and well-developed poli- cies in this area. Santiago also places above aver-Administrative area (km2) 15,403.2 tan area. With a few exceptions noted below, all age in the areas of waste, water and sanitation,GDP per person (current prices) (US$) 7,721.1 data included in the Latin American Green City thanks largely to its policies aimed at improvingPopulation density (persons/km2) 1 10,920.7 Index are based on the Santiago metropolitan services and reducing environmental impact.Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 14.0 region. The region is a booming financial centre, The city receives average ranks in land use andBased on Santiago Metropolitan Area,1) Based on Gran Santiago generating about two-fifths of Chile’s economic buildings, air quality and environmental gover- output. The city serves as the Latin American nance. The city has the most room for improve- hub for many multinational companies, as well ment in the energy and CO2 category, where it as the base for most Chilean conglomerates. It is places well below average, due to its high level also home to some of the region’s most modern of electricity consumption and CO2 emissions retail centres. City administration across the from electricity. metropolitan area is divided into 52 “com- munes”, each with its own mayor. An “Inten- Energy and CO2: Santiago ranks well dant”, appointed directly by Chile’s president, below average for energy and CO2. The city has heads up the metropolitan regional govern- the second highest rate of electricity consump- ment, which is responsible for harmonising mul- tion compared to its economic output among tiple local and national policies on the environ- the 17 cities, at 1,200 megajoules per US$1,000 ment and other municipal issues. of GDP, which is considerably more than the Santiago ranks average overall in the Index. average of 761 megajoules. Santiago also has Its best result is in the transport category, where higher-than-average CO2 emissions from elec- it is the only city to rank well above average. San- tricity consumption, at an estimated 463 kg per tiago’s score in this category is bolstered by a person per year, compared with the average of92
  • 93. 202 kg, although it should be noted that Santia-go’s figure is from 2005. Many of Santiago’s poli-cies regarding energy and climate change areonly partial. For example, it lacks a comprehen-sive strategy to reduce the environmentalimpact of energy consumption, and its climatechange action plan covers water, buildings andenergy; but not sanitation, waste or transport.Santiago has signed up to international covenantsto reduce greenhouse gases and is makingefforts to reduce waste in transmission and con-sume energy more efficiently. However, ratherthan pioneering its own energy policies, the cityfollows those set down by the national environ-mental commission, Conama, which has nowbeen replaced by the new Ministry of Environ-ment, created in October 2010. However, following the devastating earthquake the Index and the only city to achieve this high that struck central-southern Chile in February rank. The city’s public transport system is under-Green initiatives: Santiago’s state-owned metro 2010, which damaged or destroyed many build- pinned by a metro and a “bus rapid transit” (BRT)company has several initiatives to cut CO2 emis- ings in Santiago, the government is now back- system, which are further supported by a largesions and reduce electricity consumption by 35 ing the use of solar energy in new buildings, and fleet of feeder buses. Santiago’s overall networkgigawatts per year, which equals the electricity may introduce tax incentives for homeowners to extends to an estimated 5.1 km per square kilo-consumed by about 19,400 households. The use solar panels, which should help boost its metre, just about in line with the Index averagecompany is implementing an automated train score in this category. of 5 km. But its superior public transport net-control system that improves energy efficiency, work (defined in the Index as transport thatand is also switching to more efficient lighting in Green initiatives: The “Santiago Metropolitan moves large numbers of passengers quickly instations. These and other initiatives are expect- Regulation Plan”, which outlines the city’s over- dedicated lanes, such as a metro, bus rapid tran-ed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by all strategy for coping with population growth to sit or trams) extends an estimated 0.22 km per17,000 tonnes per year. In 2009 Chile’s national 2030, includes initiatives aimed at increasing square kilometre, which makes it the fourthenergy commission announced a programme to green spaces. The plan calls on private develop- longest in the Index. It should be noted that thesubsidise the purchase of high-efficiency elec- ers to transform 3,900 hectares of city area into data in the Index for transport are based on Grantric motors by the industrial sector. The commis- public parks and green spaces in exchange for Santiago. In 2007, the city brought all bus oper-sion is introducing 6,000 new motors through accessing another 5,700 hectares for develop- ators under one umbrella organisation and stan-2010, which will cut CO2 emissions by an esti- ment. It also includes plans to revitalise three dardised routes. Authorities have also reducedmated 2,600 tonnes a year. Furthermore, the city parks and to plant more trees along major the total number of buses from 7,000 to 4,500commune of Vitacura, one of the independent roads, which will be supported by the national and are gradually replacing older vehicles withadministrative areas within the Santiago metro- forestry department. lower-emission models. The city’s metro haspolitan region, has said it will become the first undergone almost continuous expansion sincecarbon-neutral municipality in Latin America in Transport: Santiago ranks well above aver- opening in 1975, and it currently carries more2010 by purchasing carbon credits to offset age for transport, the city’s best performance in than 2.3 million passengers per day on five lines1,500 tonnes of CO2 emissions.Land use and buildings: Santiago ranksaverage for land use and buildings. The city has Performance Santiago Other citiesthe second highest population density in the well below average above wellIndex, at 10,900 people per square kilometre, a below average average abovefigure based on a smaller boundary within the average averagemetropolitan area, referred to as “Gran Santia- Energy and CO2go”. This figure is well above the 17-city averageof 4,500 people per square kilometre. Santiago Land Use and Buildingshas 26 square metres of green spaces per per- Transportson, a figure also based on Gran Santiago, and Wasteone of the lower amounts of green spaces in theIndex. Santiago has some of the strongest poli- Watercies in the Index to limit urban sprawl and pro- Sanitationtect environmentally sensitive areas. The city Air Qualityhas been slow, however, to adopt energy effi-ciency standards in public buildings, and neither Environmental Governancehas the city adopted a code establishing eco- Overall Resultsefficiency standards on new private buildings. The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results. 93
  • 94. Latin American Green City Index | Santiago_Chilecovering roughly 90 km. In addition to overhaul- 39 central collection points for residents to vol- Aguas Andinas is conducting a major decontam-ing its mass transport system, the city has also untarily deposit recyclable materials, including ination project (see “green initiatives” underadopted several traffic management measures paper, plastics, batteries and glass. The charities “Sanitation” below).to reduce congestion, including traffic light keep the proceeds they earn from collecting andsequencing, a traffic information system, “no transferring the materials to recycling plants. Sanitation: Santiago is above average in thecar days” for vehicles without catalytic convert- The commune has also launched residential sanitation category. An estimated 97% of Santia-ers, and some toll roads. Santiago has one of the recycling collection in 80 buildings in the city. go’s residents have access to sanitation services,smallest stocks of cars and motorcycles in the Residents voluntarily separate household waste, according to official sources, which is higherIndex, at just 0.14 vehicles per person, com- and deposit recyclable materials in special con- than the Index average of 94%. The city treats anpared to the 17-city average of 0.3, a figure tainers. Several other communes around the estimated 73% of its wastewater, according tobased on Gran Santiago. metropolitan area have similar programmes. 2003 data, which is much higher than the 17-city average of 52%. And the city’s wastewater treat-Green initiatives: In 2010 the city started build- Water: Santiago is above average in the water ment performance is likely to have improveding its sixth metro line, which will cover 12 sta- category. Nearly 99% of Santiago’s population since 2003, thanks to a national initiative aimedtions along a 15 km route when it opens in has access to potable water, according to official at treating all of its wastewater by 2012, a target2014. Furthermore, Providencia, a commune sources. It also has a lower-than-average per- the city appears well on track to meeting (seewithin the metropolitan area, started a bicycle centage of leaks, at an estimated 30%, which is “green initiatives” below). Strong regulationsrental scheme in 2009, complemented by sub- still high but compares favourably to the Index have also driven improvements in wastewaterstantial investments in bicycle lanes. Users can average of 35%. Since Chile privatised the coun- treatment. The national body overseeing sanita-rent a bicycle for up to one day, picking it up and try’s water services in 1998, Spanish-owned tion has powers to impose heavy fines on the pri-dropping it off in specially designated areas. Aguas Andinas has provided Santiago’s water. vate companies providing sanitation services The company regularly monitors the quality of when standards are not met.Waste: Santiago is above average in the waste its drinking water, a programme enforced by thecategory, a strong performance driven by robust national environmental agency. There are chal- Green initiatives: As part of a wider plan towaste disposal policies. Each of the city’s 52 com- lenges associated with one of the city’s water improve sanitation in the region, the privatemunes is individually responsible for managing sources, the Mapocho River, which is contami- company Aguas Andinas is scheduled to finish awaste collection and disposal, and their nated by sewage and waste from copper mining US$350 million wastewater treatment plant byapproaches vary. Some communes have banded upstream (see “green initiatives” in the “Sanita- 2012, which will allow the city to treat all of itstogether to found their own collectively con- tion” category, below), but the city has a robust wastewater. In 2007 Santiago’s regional envi-trolled company, while others have contracted policy for governing industrial pollution. ronmental authority, Corema, commissionedseparately with a private firm, KDM. The system is another project, also managed by Aguas Andi-relatively efficient, since together the communes Green initiatives: Upon privatisation of water nas, to stop the flow of untreated wastewatercollect and adequately dispose of an estimated services in 1998, and a subsequent rise in water into the Mapocho River, a major source of water99% of the city’s waste. Santiago complies with prices, the national government introduced a for the city. Under the plan, the companystrict national guidelines governing its many direct subsidy for low-income households, in decommissioned 21 pipes that previously dis-landfills — open air dumps are illegal in Chile — order to guarantee access. The country’s provin- charged untreated wastewater into the river.as well as the disposal of hazardous waste. The cial governments pay between 25% and 85% ofcity generates a relatively large amount of waste, the water bills for the poorest fifth of the popula- Air quality: Santiago ranks average in airhowever, at 563 kg per person per year, com- tion, and are then reimbursed by the national quality. Tackling air pollution is a national priori-pared with an Index average of 465 kg. government. In 2004 the national government ty, and Santiago has the strongest clean air poli- also introduced a programme to pay for the first cies in the Index, along with Curitiba. BecauseGreen initiatives: The commune of Santiago 15 cubic metres of water used by families living the city often experiences critical air pollutionhas teamed up with four charities to encourage in extreme poverty. Furthermore, to guarantee levels, Santiago has introduced an emergencycommunity participation in recycling. There are the sustainably of Santiago’s Mapocho River, environmental protection plan that forces indus-94
  • 95. try to shut down polluting engines on days istry has a regional office, which monitors air pol- tion, thanks to initiatives overseen at the nation-when air pollution is deemed too high; similar lution in the metropolitan area. When pollution al level (see “green initiatives” below). The newlyrestrictions are placed on vehicles (see “green reaches critical levels, authorities limit the num- created national ministry of environment nowinitiatives” below). Also, the use of chimneys in ber of vehicles entering the city according to serves as a central contact point for informationhomes is forbidden. The city therefore receives licence plate numbers. Also, Santiago has a long- on environmental performance and projects.top marks particularly for its air quality code and standing policy of using trees along streets and in Santiago’s score in this category is hindered bymonitoring efforts, and air quality has improved parks specifically in order to reduce levels of par- its limited ability to implement its own environ-through these emissions control measures. But ticulate matter in the air. A 2008 study in the Jour- mental legislation. With 52 different com-the city’s valley setting, bordered to the east by nal of Environmental Management found that munes, city governance can be complicated, sothe Andes mountains, means air is trapped over this strategy costs around US$8,000 for every 1 officials often take the lead from the nationalSantiago for much of the year, and pollution tonne reduction in suspended air particles, which government on environmental policy.remains relatively high. Average daily concen- is cheaper than several types of conversion totrations of particulate matter, for example, are cleaner fossil fuels, although this could change in Green initiatives: The ministry of environmentamong the highest in the Index, at 66 micro- the future if prices for conversion come down. has a formal process to encourage public inputgrams per cubic metre, compared with the 17- on all projects with an environmental impact.city average of 48 micrograms. Environmental governance: Santiago Residents, non-governmental organisations and ranks average for environmental governance. other stakeholders are regularly invited toGreen initiatives: Chile’s national health min- The city has a strong record on citizen participa- express opinions to influence policy.Quantitative indicators: Santiago Average Santiago Year* Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions from electricity consumption 202.2 463.3 1, e 2005 EIU estimate; Insitituto Nacional de Estadísticas; International Energy per person (kg/person ) Agency; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Electricity consumption per US$ GDP 760.7 1,247.0 1 2005 Insitituto Nacional de Estadísticas; Banco Central de Chile; Economist (megajoules per thousand US$ GDP) Intelligence Unit Land use Population density (persons/km2) 4,503.0 10,920.7 2 2009 Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas; Foreign Investment Committee and Buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 254.6 26.1 2 2009 Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente; Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas Transport Length of mass transport network (km/km2) 5.0 5.1 3, e 2009 Metro de Santiago; Ministerio de Transporte; Grupo CB Superior public transport networks (km/km2) 0.13 0.22 3, e 2010 Jefe de Estaciones de Trenes Metropolitanos, S.A., Metro de Santiago Stock of cars and motorcycles (vehicles/person) 0.30 0.14 2 2010 Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 96.2 98.9 1, e 2008 Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 465.0 563.1 1 2008 Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente; Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas Water Water consumption per person 264.3 243.0 1 2009 Superintendecia de Servicios Sanitarios; Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas (litres per person per day) Water system leakages (%) 34.6 30.3 1, e 2008 Superintendecia de Servicios Sanitarios Share of population with access to potable water (%) 97.5 98.6 1 2008 Superintendecia de Servicios Sanitarios; Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 93.7 97.1 4, e 2008 Superintendecia de Servicios Sanitarios; Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas Share of wastewater treated (%) 51.5 73.2 1, e 2003 Superintendencia de Servicios Sanitarios Air Quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 37.8 41.0 1 2009 Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 11.4 10.0 1 2007 Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 48.0 66.0 1 2009 Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente* Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU Estimate, 1) Based on Santiago Metropolitan Area, 2) Based on Gran Santiago, 3) Based on Gran Santiago area, 4) Based on Santiago Metropolitan Area. Total populationwith access to sewerage. 95
  • 96. Latin American Green City Index | São Paulo_Brazil São Paulo_Brazil A teeming megacity with 20.7 million resi- dents, São Paulo is Brazil’s most populous metropolitan area. With 11 million people living been transformed in recent decades and is now dominated by services. Today it is Brazil’s eco- nomic and financial capital, and a major centre inside the São Paulo city limits, the city is also for multinational companies operating in LatinBackground indicators the most populous in the Latin American Green America, though several big industries remain in City Index. All data included in the Index is based the periphery of the city, including car manufac-Total population (million) 11.0 on city figures, except for data on electricity con- turers. São Paulo generates around 12% of theAdministrative area (km2) 1,509.0 sumption and CO2 emissions from electricity country’s GDP and has the fifth highest GDP perGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 15,090.2 consumption, which are based on the metropol- person in the Index, at US$15,100. Long a mag-Population density (persons/km2) 7,314.5 itan area. São Paulo grew over the past century net for both Brazilians and foreign immigrants,Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 19.6 as a dynamic industrial hub, but its economy has São Paulo has over the past century experiencedBased on City of São Paulo96
  • 97. a massive population explosion that has led torapid and often chaotic urbanisation. Despite the massive challenges posed by thesize of its population, São Paulo ranks aboveaverage in the Latin American Green City index.The city’s strongest performance is in the energyand CO2 category, where it places well aboveaverage. This impressive placement is a result ofvery low CO2 emissions from electricity con-sumption and one of the most robust climatechange action plans in the Index. São Pauloplaces above average in all other categories withthe exceptions of air quality and environmentalgovernance. It ranks average in both categoriesdue to the lack of a comprehensive clean air pol-icy and a low level of public participation in envi-ronmental projects. São Paulo is, however, tak- Index, at 7,300 inhabitants per square kilometre, others, the initiative sets a series of goals in theing proactive steps to improve its environmental considerably higher than the 17-city average of area of land use and buildings. These includeperformance, receiving high scores for govern- 4,500 inhabitants per square kilometre. The city constructing 50 new neighbourhood parks andment policies in many categories. also has robust eco-buildings policies, thanks to a three parks along the Tietê River, in addition to local law requiring that all new buildings include planting 800,000 trees. Agenda 2012 alsoEnergy and CO2: São Paulo ranks well solar panels for hot water, and new energy-effi- includes an initiative, run by the city’s housingabove average in energy and CO2. With all of its ciency standards that came into effect in 2009 department, to install infrastructure andelectricity generated by hydropower plants, São (see “green initiatives” below). The city has 55 upgrade housing in 81 flood-prone informal set-Paulo is unique in the Index for having an esti- square metres of green spaces per person — a tlements, expected to affect 75,000 families.mated zero CO2 emissions from electricity usage. middling result among the 17 cities in the Index. The city is also in the process of upgrading hous-This is considerably better than the 17-city aver- With the exception of a few parks, São Paulo’s ing, installing basic infrastructure and establish-age annual emissions rate of 202 kg per person dense inner city is relatively void of green spaces, ing waste recycling programmes in what wereper year. São Paulo also has some of the most but the city’s result in this area would likely two of São Paulo’s largest informal settlements,comprehensive clean energy and climate change improve if the metropolitan area had been includ- Heliopolis and Paraísopolis, as well as in otherpolicies in the Index (see “green initiatives” ed. The city has significant room for improvement areas. As a result, these former settlements havebelow). In 2005 the city conducted a full invento- in the area of land use policy, with only partial evolved into low-income neighbourhoods.ry of CO2 emissions which showed that transport efforts to contain urban sprawl and protect envi- Regarding buildings, a 2009 law requires all newwas the largest single source of the city’s emis- ronmentally sensitive areas. municipal buildings to meet energy-efficiencysions, followed by waste disposal. The São Paulo standards and that existing buildings be retrofit-metropolitan region consumes 553 megajoules Green initiatives: In 2009 São Paulo adopted ted with technology to improve energy efficien-of electricity per US$1,000 of GDP, well below Agenda 2012, which established a set of 223 cy and to mitigate their environmental impact.the Index average of 761 megajoules. short- and medium-term goals for the city. While the agenda covers a wide range of areas, from Transport: São Paulo ranks above average inGreen initiatives: In 2009 São Paulo officials political transparency to social inclusion, among the transport category, an impressive placementadopted an ambitious, comprehensive climatechange policy, which commits the city to reduceCO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions by 30%of 2005 levels by 2012. The city also established Performance Sao Paulo Other citiesa climate change committee to monitor pro- well below average above wellgress. The city says it is has made impressive below average average abovestrides to meeting this goal and has already average averagereduced emissions by 20%. This rapid reduction Energy and CO2is a result of two waste-to-energy conversionplants. The city closed operations at its two main Land Use and Buildingslandfills, Bandeirantes and São João, in 2007 and Transport2009, respectively, and installed thermoelectric Wastepower plants at both facilities. By capturing andburning methane, the landfills supply a total of Water350,000 megawatt hours per year, and will cut SanitationCO2 emissions by 11 million tonnes through 2012. Air QualityLand use and buildings: São Paulo ranks Environmental Governanceabove average in land use and buildings. The city Overall Resultsproper has the fourth highest density in the The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results. 97
  • 98. Latin American Green City Index | São Paulo_Brazilfor a city widely known for its endemic traffic end in specified digits are prohibited from enter- Sabesp. São Paulo consumes an average of 220problems. And indeed, the city has one of the ing the zone on certain days. Violators are sub- litres of water per person per day, according tolargest stocks of cars and motorcycles in the ject to heavy fines and repeat offenders can lose official figures, slightly below the 17-city aver-Index — 0.44 vehicles per person, compared to their licenses. And in another move to reduce age of 264 litres. But the city appears commit-the 17-city average of 0.30. However, São Paulo congestion, the city has since 2007 been widen- ted to lowering consumption even further, hav-is trying to limit the effects of the city’s deeply ing a ban on heavy vehicles on certain high-vol- ing installed water meters in most residentialentrenched car culture with comprehensive ume avenues during peak hours. buildings. Nearly all of the population livingcongestion-reduction policies. These include within the city limits has access to potableregulations limiting the number of cars entering Waste: São Paulo ranks above average in the water, according to official sources. São Paulothe city centre and limited vehicle zones (see waste category. According to official figures, loses 31% of its water to system leakages,“green initiatives” below). Despite progress the São Paulo collects and adequately disposes of all which, though high, is below the 17-city aver-city still lacks other congestion reduction mea- of the waste produced in the city limits. Two pri- age of 35%.sures, such as carpooling lanes, congestion vate contractors collect residential and house-charges and park and ride systems, which would hold waste, as well as recyclable materials. The Green initiatives: Sabesp, the statewide waterboost its score in this category. To further allevi- waste is disposed of in two managed landfills. company, has prioritised the elimination of leaksate chronic congestion and encourage the use The city has a strong record in waste collection and illegal connections to the water network. Itof public transport, the city and state are work- and disposal policies thanks to strict enforce- has therefore increased the number of inspec-ing together on a US$18 billion plan calling for ment of environmental standards on its landfills tors and adopted new technology that helps itnew metro lines, new bus terminals, and and careful monitoring of the disposal of haz- monitor all of the water in the system, spottingimproved traffic control and signalling by 2020. ardous waste by industry. Despite its well-man- major leaks quickly and forecasting water con-São Paulo’s metro is modern and relatively effi- aged waste disposal programme, São Paulo pro- sumption levels based on outdoor tempera-cient but its coverage is limited to some 69 km duces 550 kg of waste per inhabitant per year, tures. Furthermore, Sabesp has an ongoing ini-and four main lines. The city is building a fifth above the Index average of 465 kg. tiative called “PURA”, to promote conservation inline, but progress has been slow. Nevertheless, São Paulo through public information cam-the city’s superior transport network (defined in Green initiatives: São Paulo’s “Ecopoint” initia- paigns and water-saving technology. Using bestthe Index as transport that moves large numbers tive is reducing the illegal dumping of large practices developed in collaboration with theof passengers quickly in dedicated lanes, such as waste items on city streets. The city has central Polytechnic University of São Paulo, Sabespmetro, bus rapid transit or tram networks) is the collection points for residents to dispose, free of works with institutions such as schools, hospi-fifth longest superior transport network in the charge, items that do not fit in residential bins, tals and prisons to encourage conservation,Index. It measures 0.21 km per square kilometre up to one cubic metre in volume, such as furni- repair leaks and install water conservationof city territory, which is twice the 17-city aver- ture, tree cuttings and construction waste. The equipment. Sabesp says it has reduced waterage of 0.10 km. Bus transport remains the most city has 38 collection centres and will open 10 consumption in its own administrative offices bycommon form of public transport and the city more by the end of 2010. 72% and in municipal schools by 38%.boasts an extensive bus network, which, unlike In the first six months of 2010 the city says itthe metro, covers all areas of São Paulo. Overall, collected 57,400 cubic metres of waste that oth- Sanitation: São Paulo ranks above averagethe mass transport system within the city limits erwise would have been left on the streets. By in the sanitation category. Ninety-nine percentmeasures 7.5 km per square kilometre, well 2012 the city aims to have 96 stations in opera- of São Paulo’s residents have access to sanita-above the Index average of 5 km. tion, which will offer access to a majority of the tion, an estimate based on official figures, which population. is better than the 17-city average of 94%. TheGreen initiatives: Officials prohibit 20% of the city does not do as well on the percentage ofcity’s cars from entering a large portion of cen- Water: São Paulo ranks above average in the wastewater treated, but still better than thetral São Paulo during peak hours of each work water category. The city performs particularly average, at 75% versus 52%. This means a largeday. Restrictions are based on license plate num- well in water quality policies thanks to close amount of untreated wastewater is still dumpedbers. For example, cars with license plates that monitoring by the statewide water company, into the city’s main water source, the Tietê River.98
  • 99. Sabesp, the state water company, closely moni- Air quality: São Paulo ranks average in the gory have policies that specifically target alltors toxin levels in wastewater at treatment facil- air quality category. Its average daily emissions forms of air pollution.ities, but São Paulo is one of the few cities in the of sulphur dioxide and suspended particulateIndex that fails to monitor on-site treatment matter are well below the 17-city averages. Environmental governance: São Paulofacilities, like septic tanks, in homes and com- Average daily nitrogen dioxide levels, however, ranks average in environmental governance.munal areas. are worse than average, at 47 micrograms per While the city has a designated environmental cubic metre compared to 38 micrograms, which department, the level of policy implementationGreen initiatives: The city is in the third and can be attributed primarily to the prevalence of is limited and the level of public participationfinal phase of its long-term, US$1 billion sanita- automobiles — the main source of air pollution has remained relatively poor. Furthermore,tion expansion and improvement programme. in São Paulo. The city has significant room to responsibilities for transportation, water andBy building 580 km of new effluent collectors improve its clean air policies relative to other sanitation are split between the city and state,and other infrastructure improvements, the city cities in the Index. In São Paulo, for example, air causing some fragmentation in policy. However,expects to be able to treat wastewater from an quality policies are coupled with wider initiatives the environmental department budget hasadditional three million people in the metropoli- to reduce traffic congestion, which is an impor- tripled between 2004 and 2009, to about US$tan area when the project finishes in 2015. This tant step given the impact cars have on the city’s 220 million, demonstrating the city’s renewedwould be a 41% improvement in capacity. air quality. However, top-performers in this cate- interest in environmental projects.Quantitative indicators: Sao Paulo Average Sao Paulo Year* Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions from electricity consumption 202.2 0.0 1, e 2009 EIU estimate; AES per person (kg/person ) Electricity consumption per US$ GDP 760.7 552.7 2 2007 AES; Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística; (megajoules per thousand US$ GDP) Economist Intelligence Unit Land use Population density (persons/km2) 4,503.0 7,314.5 3 2009 Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística and Buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 254.6 54.7 3 2009 Secretaría de Meio Ambiente; Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística Transport Length of mass transport network (km/km2) 5.0 7.5 3 2009 SPTrans Superior public transport networks (km/km2) 0.13 0.21 3 2010 SPTrans, Secretaria dos Transportes Metropolitanos Stock of cars and motorcycles (vehicles/person) 0.30 0.44 3 2010 Denatran Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 96.2 100.0 3 2009 Prefeitura de Sao Paulo Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 465.0 550.0 3 2009 Prefeitura de Sao Paulo – "Informacoes Gerais Portal da Prefeitura de Sao Paulo" Water Water consumption per person 264.3 220.5 3 2007 SABESP; Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (litres per person per day) Water system leakages (%) 34.6 30.8 3 2007 SABESP Share of population with access to potable water (%) 97.5 99.2 3 2007 SABESP; Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 93.7 99.1 4, e 2009 SABESP; Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística Share of wastewater treated (%) 51.5 75.0 3 2007 SABESP Air Quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 37.8 47.0 3 2009 Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 11.4 4.0 3 2009 Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 48.0 33.0 3 2009 Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo* Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU Estimate, 1) Based on São Paulo Metropolitan Region. All electricity for São Paulo comes from hydro, therefore no CO2 emissions, 2) Based on São Paulo MetropolitanRegion, 3) Based on City of São Paulo, 4) Based on City of São Paulo. Total population with access to sewerage. 99
  • 100. Publisher: Siemens AGCorporate Communications and Government AffairsWittelsbacherplatz 2, 80333 MünchenFor the publisher: Stefan Denigstefan.denig@siemens.comphone: +49 89 636 83110Project management: Karen Stelznerkaren.stelzner@siemens.comphone: +49 89 636 31321Editorial office: Jason Sumner, Vanessa Barchfield, Economist Intelligence Unit, LondonResearch: Jan Friederich, Harald Langer, Economist Intelligence Unit, Frankfurt, LondonPicture editing: Judith Egelhof, Stephanie Rahn, Doreen Thomas,Publicis Publishing, MünchenLayout: Rigobert Ratschke, Seufferle Mediendesign GmbH, StuttgartGraphics: Jochen Haller, Seufferle Mediendesign GmbH, StuttgartPhotography: Simon Brauer (Quito), Roberto Calvino (Montevideo), Paulo Fridman(Brasília), Nicola Frioli (Mexico City, Monterrey), Carlos Garcia Granthon (Lima), SergioLubezky (Mexico City), Nancy Mora (Bogotá, Medellín), Tomeu Ozonas (Buenos Aires),Jose Luis Stephens (Santiago), Luis Veiga (Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre), André Vieira(Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo), Tuca Vieira (Curitiba), Jürgen Winzeck (Sao Paulo),Adam Wiseman (Guadalajara, Puebla)Photo credits: : Whilst every effort has been taken to find the owners of copyrights, itcant be avoided that some copyright may be missing. In such a case and after checking ofthe necessary evidences to be brought, an appropriate fee will be paid.Any exploitation and usage which is not explicitly allowed by copyright law, in particular re-production, translation, storage in electronic database, on the internet and copying ontoCD-ROMs of this print work requires prior consent of the publisher.Whilst every effort has been taken to verify the accuracy of this information, neitherSiemens AG, The Economist Intelligence Unit Ltd. nor its affiliates can accept anyresponsibility or liability for reliance by any person on this information.Munich, Germany, 2010© 2010 by Siemens AG. All rights reserved.Order no.: A19100-F-P168-X-7600www.siemens.com/greencityindex