Innovation reinvented: A more open approach


Published on

This report incorporates case studies of the 47 companies selected as Technology Pioneers in biotechnology, energy/environmental technology, and information technology. It was prepared by BT Group with the help of the Economist Intelligence Unit. We would like to thank Tom Standage, Andrew Palmer, Gareth Lofthouse, Graham Richardson and Mike Kenny of the Economist Intelligence Unit. Thanks also goes to Soren Bested and Matthias Lüfkens at the World Economic Forum, Gary Shainberg and Simon Dux at BT.
The Technology Pioneers programme is run by the World Economic Forum with guidance from BT, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu and Accel Partners.

Published in: Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Innovation reinvented: A more open approach

  1. 1. Innovation reinvented:a more open approachThe World Economic Forum’sTechnology Pioneers 2007
  2. 2. Technology Pioneers are a constituencyof the World Economic Group, Accel and Deloitte Touche Tohmatsuare strategic partners of the Technology Pioneersprogramme.BT is one of the world’s leading providers ofcommunications solutions and services operatingin 170 countries. Its principal activities includenetworked IT services, local, national andinternational telecommunications services, andhigher value broadband, mobility and internetproducts and services. BT consists principallyof four lines of business: BT Global Services,Openreach, BT Retail and BT Wholesale.In the year ended 31 March 2006, BT Group’srevenue was £19,514 million with profit beforetaxation of £2,040 million.
  3. 3. Contents Preface 2 Foreword 3 Innovation reinvented 4 Technology Pioneers 2007 13 Technology Pioneers Contents 14 Acknowledgements 39 Contacts 40Innovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007
  4. 4. PrefaceThe world is facing unparalleled challenges. How will innovation taking place outside of traditional hubs.we deal with issues such as the increasing demand The wide geographic spread of this year’s Technologyfor energy, ageing populations and the socio- Pioneers is a testament to this trend.economic challenges and opportunities broughtabout by advances in information technology? The It is our pleasure to congratulate the Technologykey to addressing many of these challenges is and Pioneers 2007 on their truly remarkablewill increasingly become innovation. achievements and welcome them to the community of the World Economic Forum. We would also like toThe World Economic Forum’s Technology Pioneers express our thanks and appreciation to the membersrepresent the cutting-edge of technological progress of the selection committee whose enthusiasm andwithin the sectors of clean/renewable energy, expertise were critical in selecting the impressivebiotechnology/health and information technology. group of Technology Pioneers featured in thisThe companies have succeeded in combining a publication.truly innovative problem-solving spirit with soundbusiness acumen to create transformational Finally, the Forum would like to express thanks andtechnologies that hold the promise to change society gratitude to BT for the content and publication ofat large. this report and for their strong ongoing commitment to the Technology Pioneers programme.The theme of the World Economic Forum AnnualMeeting 2007 is The Shifting Power Equation.Driving this shift is the tremendous amount of The World Economic Forum Innovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007
  5. 5. ForewordThe innovation genie is out of the bottle globally.For companies to excel they must reach out beyondthe boundaries of their own payroll to find the bestbrains and the smartest ideas, wherever they are inthe world.This model of open innovation can capture theseideas, products and services, fusing them togetherwith the best ideas of the men and women in yourorganisation. Creating the fusion between global andin-house innovation is the catalyst that will unleashan innovation chain reaction, fuelling the promiseof an exciting future and bountiful success fororganisations globally. technology innovation which has the potential for long-term impact on business and society.Today, organisations must innovate at the speed of In addition, they must demonstrate visionarylife – the speed of life being your customers’ lives, leadership and be market leaders with provenwhether in their personal or professional lives, or technology. Previous Technology Pioneers havetheir businesses. True innovation moves beyond included Autonomy, Cambridge Silicon Radio, Encorethe notion of simple invention when it enhances Software, Google, Millennium Pharmaceuticalsthe quality of peoples’ lives and the success of and Napster. This year’s Technology Pioneers wereorganisations. In fact, organisations that harness the nominated by the world’s leading venture capitalinnovation genie globally can ensure there is never a and technology companies. The final selection,gap between what is possible and what they deliver, from 225 nominees, was made by a panel ofin the markets they serve. For BT, the amount of leading technology experts appointed by the Worldinnovation we’re capable of delivering is no longer Economic Forum.defined only by the size of our RD budget – it’s asbig as our global innovation network. The depth, breadth and diversity of the innovation represented by this year’s TechnologyBT became a strategic partner of the World Economic Pioneers illustrates the unprecedented effect ofForum’s Technology Pioneers programme because globalisation both in the markets to be addressedour open innovation model is transforming the and the collaboration established as a result of thisway BT harnesses internal and external innovation innovation.globally for the benefit of our customers,shareholders and employees. Technology Pioneers I have great optimism that these innovators canare at the heart of this emerging global innovation genuinely improve the state of the world by drivingmarketplace. innovation at the speed of life.To be a Technology Pioneer, a company must be Matt Brossinvolved in the development of life-changing BT Group Chief Technology OfficerInnovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007
  6. 6. Innovation reinventedA new, more open and flexible approach to innovation is emergingI T HAD a good run, and it changed the world. Inventors conduct fundamental research and But the old model of innovation that worked so development, and produce new intellectual well during the 20th century — pioneered in property. Examples include academic institutions, the late nineteenth century by Thomas Edison, research arms of large corporations, consultancies,whose New Jersey laboratory complex churned out research institutes, design shops and start-inventions, turned them into marketable products ups. These are the fundamental sources of newand manufactured them for sale — has run out of innovations, but they are not always in the beststeam. Global competition means that large firms position to exploit the intellectual property thatcan no longer assume that all the expertise they they create. Researchers at Xerox Parc, for example,need is available within their own walls, or even famously devised many of the key innovationswithin their own countries. They cannot always behind today’s personal computers, but theexploit new innovations effectively, or fast enough organisation was unable to benefit from their beat their competitors to market. And the blue-sky ideas generated in the laboratory do not always Transformers take the novel ideas produced bycorrespond to what customers actually need. Inventors and transform, package or combine them so that they become useful innovations. ExamplesSo how are innovators, companies, research of Transformers include consultancies and systemsorganisations and financiers responding? By integrators, start-ups founded to exploit specificinnovating, of course — but this time around the innovations, and large firms that concentrate onprocess of innovation itself. The emerging model production and marketing, rather than in cutting-for the 21st century turns the 20th-century model edge innovation. Dell, for example, does not innovateon its head. The old closed and vertically integrated in PC technology itself, but packages togetherapproach, in which intellectual property was innovations from various component-makers andgenerated in-house and was jealously guarded delivers them to customers as a working computer.before being turned into new products, is givingway to a more open and flexible approach. This Financiers provide funding, particularly for Inventorsnew model is based upon an ecosystem in which and startup Transformers; such funding can takeorganisations, each with different skills, collaborate the form of internal funding for corporate research,to co-develop new products and services. Such or external funding from venture-capital firmscollaborations are known as innovation networks, and other investors. Finally, Brokers connect theseand the new model is called “network innovation” or actors together. This can be done by specialist“open innovation”. firms that provide matchmaking services between Inventors and Transformers, or by specific unitsInnovation networks overcome the drawbacks of the within companies that match innovation needs withold vertically integrated approach by co-ordinating ideas from internal and external sources. Procterthe actions of different players, allowing them Gamble, for example, does this using an internalto focus on what they do best. Navi Radjou, an portal called InnovationNet, while BT has establishedanalyst at Forrester Research and one of the leading “innovation scouting teams” in the Far East, India,proponents of the idea of innovation networks, Israel and the US to act as innovation Brokers,divides the actors involved into four categories: sourcing promising ideas from local universitiesInventors, Transformers, Financiers and Brokers. and start-ups. Innovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007
  7. 7. The four players in an innovation network Inventor Transformer Broker Financier Source: ForresterWearing many hats partners, and license non-core intellectual propertyIn many cases an individual firm or institution may to others who can make better use of it. The newplay more than one of these roles, as the old “own model also encourages greater risk-taking, asand protect” mentality towards intellectual property companies mitigate the risk of speculative venturesgives way to a new “share and expand” model in through partnerships or spin-outs. Some firms arewhich the doors of the research laboratory are even integrating customers into their innovationthrown open, rather than being kept tightly locked. networks to ensure that the products they developThe traditional vertical-innovation model can in meet their needs. IBM’s “First of a Kind” programme,fact be regarded as a closed, internal innovation for example, allows forward-thinking customers tonetwork in which a single organisation does its best act as Inventors and Financiers alongside IBM in theto play all four roles, financing its own innovations, development of new software. Once it is completed,acting as a broker between blue-sky researchers and the software is then offered to other IBM customers.customer-facing product-development teams, andthen transforming innovations into new products Much of the enthusiasm for innovation networksand services. comes from large companies, which are interested in becoming more agile and responsive — moreEstablishing an open innovation network with links like start-ups, in other words. But that does notto external actors has several benefits over the old mean that the approach is only attractive to bigmodel. It allows companies to combine internal and firms. Start-ups can and do play a valuable role inexternal sources of new ideas: why reinvent the innovation networks, in two primary ways. First, bywheel if you can license an existing technology? plugging into a big company’s innovation network,Ford, for example, decided to license hybrid-engine start-ups can take advantage of the larger firm’stechnology from rival carmaker Honda, rather than production and marketing muscle to get products tospend years developing its own. Network innovation market more quickly and gain access to customersalso enables companies to convert innovations into more easily. Second, big companies that developuseful products more efficiently in conjunction with non-core intellectual property can exploit it byInnovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007
  8. 8. licensing it to a start-up, or by spinning off a start-up are increasingly looking beyond their own walls forof their own. new drug leads and new drug-discovery platforms, by linking up with biotech firms. For their part, smallSo how does all this work in practice? The following biotech firms may lack the infrastructure to conductexamples, drawn from this year’s list of Technology clinical trials, deal with regulators, or handle large-Pioneers, provide some real-world illustrations of scale manufacturing, marketing and distribution ofhow innovation networks function, how both start- new treatments. So the logic of collaborating with anups and established firms are taking advantage of established giant is clear. Both kinds of collaborationthem, and how different industries are applying the enable large firms, small start-ups and their associatedidea of network innovation in different ways. investors to mitigate risks and share rewards.Prescription for change 454 Life Sciences Corporation, for example, based inNowhere are the limits of the old vertically integrated Branford, Connecticut, has developed a new, highlyinnovation model more apparent than in the efficient method to sequence DNA. Fragments ofpharmaceuticals industry, where it takes 12 years single-stranded DNA are attached to tiny beads andand around $800m to take each new drug from the deposited into tiny wells on a chip. Nucleotides, thelaboratory to the marketplace. After a series of huge letters of the DNA alphabet, are then repeatedlymergers, pharmaceuticals firms have found that the washed across the chip to rebuild the missing secondprocess of developing new drugs does not scale up: a strand of each DNA fragment. When a nucleotidesmall number of large pharmaceutical companies turns sticks on to a fragment, a reaction produces a smallout to be less innovative when it comes to devising amount of light. It is thus possible to determine thenew drugs than a larger number of small ones. So they wells in which a particular letter has stuck during454 Life Sciences partners with other companies to develop and distribute newtechnology for DNA sequencing 454 CuraGen Roche Diagnostics Source: Forrester, Economist Innovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007
  9. 9. each step, and hence the sequence of the DNA But Nanomix’s expertise in nanotubes can bein each well. 454’s mission is to enable routine applied in many other fields beyond its initial targetsequencing of human DNA, in preparation for an era markets. So as well as selling its own range of sensors,of “personalised medicine” in which each patient’s respiratory monitors and detection systems, it hasgenome is analysed to determine susceptibility to licensed some of its technology to DuPont, which willdisease and the most suitable treatments. use nanotubes in a new type of flat-panel display. DuPont gains access to the technology withoutThe company was established in 2000 as a subsidiary having to develop it itself, and Nanomix gains accessof CuraGen, a biopharmaceutical firm. It has a five- to a new market without having to compromise itsyear sales distribution deal with Roche Diagnostics, focus on detection and analysis.which is funding further development of thetechnology and will market it to drugs companies for Innovation networks need not always be this complex.use in drug discovery. 454 is, in short, at the centre Aresa, a biotechnology firm based in Copenhagen,of an innovation network: it acts as a Transformer Denmark, has developed a genetically modified formfor CuraGen, the original Inventor and Financier, of a common weed, Thale cress, that can be used towhich has spun the company off in order to exploit detect landmines and other explosives. The weed’sthe technology, rather than keeping it in-house. leaves turn red in the presence of explosive chemicalsThe spin-off also enables CuraGen to concentrate in the soil, so that sowing a large area with the weedon its own core activity, namely drug development. reveals the location of buried mines. The idea was firstFor its part, Roche Diagnostics acts as a Financier developed by a researcher at Copenhagen University,and a Transformer as it helps 454 to commercialise who set up Aresa with funds from Seed Capital,and distribute the technology, which it has added to Denmark’s largest venture fund, and an angel investor.its product portfolio alongside other technologies The technology has since been tested in conjunctiondeveloped in-house. with the demining unit of the Danish Army.Nanomix, a firm based in Emeryville, California that Putting the pieces togetherwas set up by two researchers from the Lawrence A different approach to innovation networksBerkeley National Laboratory, also sits at the heart of is taken in the field of information technology,an innovation network. It is commercialising the use where start-ups typically provide building-blockof nanotubes, tiny carbon structures that resemble technologies that are snapped together by largerolled-up chicken wire, as chemical and biomedical firms to facilitate deployment of innovative productssensors. The nanotubes are wrapped in molecular and services. It is no longer possible for a singleblankets that make them sensitive to specific target firm to build everything in-house, whether a next-chemicals; when the target chemical is present, its generation telecoms network, a mobile handset orinteraction with the nanotube causes a change in a new type of computer. In telecoms, large firmsthe nanotube’s electrical resistance, which can then already source more than half of their new productbe detected. Nanomix is aiming its sensors at the and service ideas externally. Bharti Tele-Ventures,industrial-safety, process-control and biomedical an Indian telecoms operator, has gone further still:markets. It has licensed related technology from the it does no internal research and development at all,University of California Los Angeles, and has funding relying on a network of suppliers, including Ericsson,from several venture-capital firms and government Nokia and IBM, to source innovative products andagencies. services.Innovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007
  10. 10. As telecoms operators around the world rush to Transformers by combining building blocks fromdeploy new “converged” networks and services, they multiple vendors, large and small, to deploy neware finding that the standards are still immature and services. Operators also often invent their ownnot all of the technology can be bought off-the- technology to glue the pieces together, and act asshelf. This leaves them with two options: assemble Brokers as they source ideas from Inventors for use inall the pieces themselves and develop the necessary the development of new services. And they generallysoftware glue in-house, or ask a large equipment- source some technology from larger vendors, whichmaker to do so on their behalf. All of this has opened often combine their own technology with thatup new opportunities for specialist start-ups with of small firms. By making use of technology fromexpertise in emerging fields such as voice-over- start-ups, operators and equipment vendors caninternet telephony, fixed-mobile convergence and improve their time-to-market; in the process, theytelevision over broadband. The result is a global create new opportunities for fast-moving start-ups.innovation bazaar as large firms seek out small start- It is not hard to see why the idea of a single vendorups or other Inventors with the right technologies to developing everything in-house is now so their needs. Innovation in the network business depends, appropriately enough, on innovation networks.BridgePort Networks, based in Chicago, Illinois, is aspecialist in the field of fixed-mobile convergence, Like communications networks, computers alsoa new service that enables mobile phones to hop consist of a combination of many innovativeseamlessly between a mobile network when outdoors technologies from different firms. Transitive, a Britishand a fixed-line network when in the home or office. start-up spun out from the University of Manchester,The handover from one network to another involves played a crucial behind-the-scenes role in theswitching the phone from a cellular connection when development of Apple’s new range of Macintoshoutdoors to a short-range wireless connection, based computers, which are based on Intel microprocessors,on Wi-Fi, when indoors. The call is then carried over rather than the PowerPC chips used in previous Macs.a broadband internet connection using voice-over- Apple was attracted by the high performance andinternet technology. Co-ordinating the handset with efficiency of Intel’s new processors — but how couldthe fixed and mobile networks to ensure that all of it ensure compatibility with existing software, writtenthis happens smoothly and reliably requires a lot of to run on PowerPC chips? Transitive’s software,software behind the scenes, which is BridgePort’s developed with Intel’s assistance, provided thespeciality. Its software has been trialled by several answer. It converts software written for one chip sooperators including China Unicom and Bell Canada. that it can run on another chip, and does so on theAnother firm working in this area is Cicero Networks, fly, like a simultaneous translator. By licensing thebased in Ireland; its technology has been adopted by software, Apple was able to launch its new computersoperators in Ireland, Norway and Italy. HelloSoft, a quickly; for its part, Transitive gained access to a newfirm based in San Jose, California, provides technology market. And by collaborating with Transitive, Intelto enable handsets to support fixed-mobile operation. helped expand its market too.Handset-makers using its technology include RIM, themaker of the BlackBerry e-mail device. The field of open source software provides what is arguably the most extreme case of an innovationIn each case these start-ups are Inventors, network. Such software is made available free onsupplying their technology to operators who act as the internet, and anyone who downloads it can then Innovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007
  11. 11. An innovation network in the telecoms sector Operators VC firms Start-ups Network-equipment vendors Source: Forrester, Economistmodify it and improve it, provided they make such develop additional plug-ins and evangelical usersimprovements available to others. Users are also who have helped Firefox to establish a 15% marketinvited to help test the software, find bugs, translate share, Mozilla is a striking example of how newit into new languages and suggest new features, thus technology need not simply flow from the laboratorybringing them into the innovation network. One of to the customer; innovation is a two-way street.the best known examples of open source software isthe Firefox web browser, which is maintained by the Risky businessMozilla Foundation. It is the last vestige of Netscape, High oil prices, concern over global warming andthe pioneering browser firm that was defeated by the march of ever more sophisticated handheldMicrosoft and later purchased by AOL. Today Mozilla devices all mean that energy has become one of theis a non-profit organisation, spun out of AOL with a hottest new fields of technology. But it is still very$2m grant. With its vibrant ecosystem of in-house early days for many new energy technologies such asand volunteer programmers, enthusiasts who fuel cells, solar panels and energy-storage systems.Innovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007
  12. 12. Lilliputian Systems is at the centre of a complex innovation ecosystem LLNL Lilliputian Systems Handset-makers MIT VC firms DARPA Source: Forrester, EconomistHundreds of start-ups are competing in each field, agreements to gain access to promising technologiesand large companies are hedging their bets by once they have been validated. Such tie-ups help toforming alliances with them. As in biotech, in other keep small firms afloat; but many such firms also sellwords, start-ups provide a means for larger firms to their products directly as they validate their designsoutsource research and development and mitigate and establish market credibility.the risks associated with unproven new technologies.Indeed, 22% of RD is outsourced in energy, more Lilliputian Systems, a spin-out from thethan in any other industry. (The figures are 14% in Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is developingpharmaceuticals and 11% in information technology, a tiny solid-oxide fuel cell to power portableaccording to Forrester.) electronic devices. A fuel cell is a chemical battery that combines a fuel with oxygen from the air toGiven the relative immaturity of the field, the generate electricity. Lilliputian Systems’ fuel cellresulting innovation networks are less elaborate than is based on technology developed at MIT and thein biotech, where start-ups and large firms license Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, witheach other’s ideas and buy each other’s technologies. funding from DARPA and several venture-capitalInstead, innovation networks in the field of energy firms. It has agreements with leading handset-allow large firms to participate at arm’s length, by makers, who are looking for new ways to powerfunding particular start-ups or signing licensing high-end multimedia smartphones as they become10 Innovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007
  13. 13. ever more elaborate and energy-hungry. Handset have been conducted with the Swiss Army. Flisommanufacturers are unwilling to take on the risk plans to target the emergency-response marketof developing such technology themselves, so initially, before moving on to low-cost solar panelsthey are relying on start-ups to do it for them; in for buildings.return, they will provide access to a vast market ifand when the technology matures. Portable fuel ClimateWell, a Swedish firm, has developed acells have notoriously been two years away from solar-powered air-conditioning system. This makescommercialisation for the past five years, but many sense because the demand for air-conditioning isobservers believe they are now finally poised to make greatest on hot, sunny days. Thermal collectorsa breakthrough. gather sunlight and use it to dry an absorbent salt that strongly attracts water from its surroundings.Another technology that shows potential but has This salt can then be used for cooling, by placingyet to deliver on its promise is that of thin-film solar it in a vacuum with a vessel of water. The waterpanels. Traditionally, solar panels are based on silicon evaporates and is absorbed by the salt, but as itwafers, but the resulting panels are expensive and does so it cools. This cooling effect can then be usedfragile, and high demand has led to a shortage of to provide air-conditioning. The technology wassilicon which has pushed prices up even further in originally developed by ChemCool, a Finnish firm,recent years. Thin-film panels have higher efficiencies which spun it off into a separate subsidiary. It thenand use little or no silicon. But despite some promising merged with Solsam Sunergy, a Swedish firm, andprototypes, scaling thin-film technology up has money was raised from venture-capital investorsproved difficult, and low yields mean that thin-film and via a share offering. The technology has beensolar cells are still only marginally cheaper than silicon tested in conjunction with Spanish utility firms, andcells. What is needed is improved manufacturing ClimateWell is now building a factory in Spain. It willtechniques to increase yields and reduce costs. sell its products through utility firms and to property developers for inclusion in new homes.One company working to solve this problem isNanosolar, based in Palo Alto, California. It has Dedicated start-ups, in short, are a good waydeveloped a method to print thin-film solar-panel to mitigate the risks of developing potentiallytechnology in a continuous process, and is now revolutionary energy technologies: large firms canbuilding the world’s largest thin-film solar factory, strike deals with many start-ups following differentwhich it hopes will be able to produce 200m solar strategies, rather than having to back a particularpanels a year. Nanosolar is backed by venture- horse themselves. Those start-ups, in turn, may relycapital firms and an array of technology luminaries, on technology from many different fields of research.including the founders of Google. It is working with Innovation networks are a natural way to connect allConergy, a big alternative-energy systems integrator, these various actors bring its products to market. Flisom is a rival firm,spun out of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Network effectsthat is also developing a “roll-to-roll” process for Early adopters of innovation networks are benefittingprinting thin-film solar panels. It is commercialising as a result, says Forrester’s Mr Radjou. Procter technology originally developed at ETH Zurich, the Gamble, for example, increased its product hit rate fromSwiss Federal Institute of Technology. Funding has 70% in 2001 to over 90% by acting as a Transformercome from venture-capital firms, and initial trials and providing market access for innovations fromInnovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007 11
  14. 14. external Inventors, as well as those developed in-house. infrastructures support efficient collaborationIBM, once the very model of a vertically integrated and sharing of information throughout theinnovator, now generates $2 billion a year licensing organisation. Finally, innovation networks dependits innovations to other firms, a model many other on the recognition that innovation need not comecompanies are now striving to emulate. only from the research laboratory, but from other sources, both internal and external, too. ThatEmbracing the new model is not a simple process, does not just mean academics, other firms orparticularly for large companies that are used to consultancies: it also includes overlooked sources ofcontrolling every stage in the innovation cycle. To innovation within a company. Sales and marketingsucceed, they must first decide which roles to play: divisions, for example, are closer to the customerthis involves identifying the areas where a company than the research department and may have a betterhas a particular advantage as an Inventor, and being idea of what customers actually need. Whether itprepared to partner with other firms elsewhere. involves a suggestions box or an intranet portal,That in turn means ditching the “not invented here” innovation networks must also tap into thesementality to ensure that in-house researchers internal sources of ideas; and that in turn requiresare prepared to open up to external sources of a shift in corporate culture, so that every part ofinnovation, and encouraging in-house innovators the company is regarded as being involved in theto consider the possibility that another organisation innovation process.might be best-placed to exploit some of their ideas.In the new environment, the ability to select and None of this is easy. But already, thanks to a fewsuccessfully manage the right partner relationships pioneering firms, the outlines of a new model foris just as important as the ability to come up with 21st-century innovation are becoming apparent.bright ideas in the labs. Inevitably, open innovation It is a model designed for today’s world of globalgives rise to other new challenges – for example, how markets, accelerating product cycles and vigorousto protect intellectual property while sharing it with competition. Being connected to an innovationother players in the innovation network. network could soon prove to be just as important as being connected to the power grid or the internet.Companies must also make organisational changes To prosper in this new environment, companies bothif they are to exploit innovation networks to the large and small must get themselves plugged in asfull, in particular by ensuring that their computing quickly as possible.12 Innovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007
  15. 15. Technology Pioneers 2007Forty-seven companies have been chosen as Technology Pioneers in 2007. They come from three categories:biotechnology, energy/environmental technology and information technology. Candidates are nominatedby members, constituents and collaborators of the World Economic Forum. Candidates are reviewed byan external Selection Advisory Committee comprising technology experts in a variety of fields; the WorldEconomic Forum takes the final decision.The pioneers are chosen on the basis of six selection criteria:Innovation The company must be truly innovative. A new version or repackaging of an already well-acceptedtechnological solution does not qualify as an innovation. The innovation and commercialisation should berecent. The company should invest significantly in RD.Potential impact The company must have the potential to have a substantial long-term impact on businessand society.Growth and sustainability The company should have all the signs of a long-term market leader and shouldhave well-formulated plans for future development and growth.Proof of concept The company must have a product on the market or have proven practical applications of thetechnology. Companies in “stealth” mode and those with untested ideas or models do not qualify.Leadership The company must have visionary leadership that plays a critical role in driving it towards its goals.Status The company must not currently be a Member of the World Economic Forum.
  16. 16. Technology Pioneers Contentsbiotechnology454 Life Sciences 15 Pentadyne Power Corporation 27Ambit Biosciences 15 PowerGenix 27Amorfix Life Sciences Ltd 16 Seahorse Power 28Aresa 16 Ultra Motor Company 28Brainsgate 17CyGenics 17 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGYGiven Imaging Ltd 18 Alfresco 29HealthSTATS 18 BridgePort Networks 29Lentigen 19 Cicero Networks 30Nanomix 19 comScore Networks 30Oxford Medical Diagnostics 20 Drishtee 31Renovo 20 Dust Networks 31Strand Life Sciences 21 HelloSoft 32 IceMobile 32energy/environmental technology MobiTV 33Advanced Diamond Technologies 21 Mozilla 33Advent Solar 22 netomat 34ClimateWell 22 Omnibase Logic 34DeepStream Technologies 23 Ruckus Wireless 35EnerNOC 23 Sling Media 35Fiberforge 24 Technorati 36Enfucell 24 The MicroOptical Corp 36Flisom 25 ThingMagic 37Lilliputian Systems 25 Transitive 37Nanosolar 26 Truphone 38OTB Group 2614 Innovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007
  17. 17. biotechnology biotechnology454 Life Sciences Ambit BiosciencesDr Jonathan Rothberg, Founder/Chairman Scott Salka, CEOLOCATION Connecticut, USA LOCATION California, USANUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 151 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 80YEAR FOUNDED 2000 YEAR FOUNDED 2000ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-up ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-up454 Life Sciences has developed a technology which Ambit Biosciences is focused on the development ofdramatically reduces the time and cost of DNA small-molecule kinase inhibitors for the treatmentsequencing. Its technology allows one individual to of cancer. The company has developed a kinaseprepare and sequence a single genome, a process inhibitor, AC220, for the treatment of Acute Myeloidwhich has up to now been extremely labour-intensive Leukaemia (AML), the most common form of bloodand time-consuming. Its instrument uses the cancer in adults, and is expected to begin clinicalpatented 454 sequencing chemistry to produce over trials of AC220 in late 2006.100 million nucleotide bases per seven hour run. AC220 was identified using KinomeScan, theThe speed and ease of 454’s system means that it is company’s proprietary kinase profiling possible to get data for large genome organisms KinomeScan uses the company’s amplifiable fusion(human or animal) that were previously inaccessible, protein (AFP) system to make protein kinases—whichdue to cost or throughput considerations. are vital targets for the treatment of cancer—easier to produce and isolate. KinomeScan is both fastThe company has made its technology commercially and accurate, enabling profiling and kinase-bindingavailable via its Sequencing Center, which offers quantification to be completed in less than a week.sequencing services to clients worldwide. Its GenomeSequencer FLX System and related products are also Ambit Bioscience is also currently testing threesold worldwide by Roche Applied Science, and 454 other inhibitors independently and in collaborativehas also this year initiated a Neanderthal Genome programmes with Bristol-Myers Squibb andProject. Cephalon.Why the company is a pioneer Why the company is a pioneerThe company’s innovative technology is expected There are at least six kinase inhibitors that areto accelerate the push toward genome-specific currently approved and dozens more under FDAor “personalised” medical care. The company’s trials, and this protein class may prove a fertile areafive-year exclusive agreement with Roche for the for therapeutic drug development. The KinomeScanmarketing, sale, and distribution of its system technology, being both fast and reliable, is expectedbrought the first new sequencing technology to to make a major contribution to the identificationmarket since Sanger and Gilbert won the noble prize and optimisation of small molecule kinase inhibitors,for DNA sequencing in 1980 and has provided a with significant potential for improving clinicalstrong platform for commercialising its technology. treatment of cancer.454 Life Sciences Telephone: +1 203 871 2300 Ambit Biosciences Telephone: +1 858 334 210020 Commercial Street Facsimile: +1 203 481 2075 4215 Sorrento Valley Boulevard Facsimile: +1 858 334 2199Branford San Diego www.ambitbio.comConnecticut 06405 California 92121USA USAInnovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007 15
  18. 18. biotechnology biotechnologyAmorfix Life Sciences Ltd AresaDr. George Adams, CEO Jarne Elleholm, President/CEOLOCATION Ontario, Canada LOCATION Copenhagen, DenmarkNUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 25 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 14YEAR FOUNDED 2004 YEAR FOUNDED 2001ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-up and now ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-uppublicly traded (TSXV: AMF)Amorfix aims to become a world leader in the Aresa is a biotech company that has developed adiagnosis and treatment of Aggregated Misfolded biosensor to enable detection of landmines or otherProtein (AMP) brain diseases. These include unexploded ordinance. The biosensor, RedDetect,transmissible diseases, such as Transmissible is a genetically-modified plant which can detectSpongiform Encephalopathies (TSE), and nitrogen dioxide (which is released during thedegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, evaporation of explosive elements) when growingAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Parkinson’s. in soil, and changes colour from green to red when growing on or close to landmines.One major problem in detecting AMPs is that, whenpresent in peripheral blood, they are outnumbered Field testing was done in conjunction with theat least one million to one by normal proteins. To get Danish army in 2005, and a new test site has beenaround this, the company uses chemical modifying established in Croatia. The aim now is to see howagents that alter epitopes (that part of the molecule the chosen plant, derived from a common weed,recognised by the immune system) accessible responds in different climatic conditions.on normal proteins, but not those in AMPs. Theunaltered epitopes in AMPs can then be identified by Commercialisation of RedDetect is expected tohighly sensitive immunodetection procedures, using begin in 2008. The product may also be used to clearstandard reagents. This procedure has already been disused firing ranges, and could have other uses ifshown in samples with TSEs (human vCJD and sheep developed to detect different substances in soil.scrapie) and Alzheimer’s. Why the company is a pioneerWhy the company is a pioneer Unexploded landmines kill some 15-20,000 peopleThe company’s work could have major implications a year, and constitute a particularly significant threatfor protection of the food supply (by detecting TSE to health in developing countries. Conventionalin live animals) and protection of the blood supply mine detection systems are slow, expensive and(as it is now known human TSE can be transmitted often dangerous. The company’s technology has theby blood transfusions). There is also an urgent need potential to improve mine detection and help reducefor AMP screening to support early diagnosis and many deaths of innocent civilians every year. Thetreatment of Alzheimer’s, Amyotrophic Lateral company’s chosen plant—thale cress—is prevalentSclerosis and Parkinson’s diseases. around the world and has a short growth cycle, making it a robust platform for Aresa’s technology.Amorfix Life Sciences Ltd Telephone: +1 416 482 3813 Aresa A/S Telephone: +45 7022 77473080 Yonge Street, Suite 6020 Facsimile: +1 416 482 3811 Symbion Science Park Facsimile: +45 7022 7757Toronto, Fruebjergvej 3 www.aresa.dkOntario M4N 3N1 DK-2100 CopenhagenCanada Denmark16 Innovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007
  19. 19. biotechnology biotechnologyBrainsGate CyGenicsAvinoam Dayan, CEO Steven Fang, Group CEOLOCATION Ra’anana, Israel LOCATION Melbourne, AustraliaNUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 20 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 94YEAR FOUNDED 2000 YEAR FOUNDED 2001ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-up ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-upStroke can result in heavy damage to brain tissue. Stem cells are unspecialised cell types, which canSome of this damage is reversible, if blood flow to renew themselves and give rise to specialised cellthe brain can be restored, but existing therapies for types. They can already be used to treat 72 diseases,treating acute ischemic strokes (those which occur and could be useful in many more. But such adultwhen the blood supply to the brain is interrupted stem cells are in short supply, and are difficult toor diminished, usually by a blood clot) are available collect directly from a human body in sufficientonly to a few patients, and need to be administered amounts.quickly. CyGenic’s Cytomatrix subsidiary is focused on gettingBrainsGate has developed a system whereby a stem cells to grow outside the body, while retainingminiature electrode is implanted in the roof of the their regenerative characteristics. Importantly,mouth which stimulates a parasympathetic centre Cytomatrix’s technologies do not use cytokines,controlling blood supply to the central nervous which can reduce the quality of stem cells and limitsystem, to encourage the flow of blood to the brain. their use in areas such as recovery from radiotherapyThe system can be administered up to 24 hours or chemotherapy. Cygenics is also involved in theafter the stroke and greatly increases the chances of production of human T-cells, a critical component ofrecovery. the human immune system.Apart from treating stroke, the company hopes its The company has also become a leading player in thetechnology will have much wider uses in transmitting blood banking business in Asia.drugs to the central nervous system—which is at CordLife is one of only eight blood banks outsidepresent difficult, because of the so-called “blood the US to have been accredited by AABB, anbrain barrier” (BBB) by which the body prevents international association of blood banks.most substances from reaching the brain via thebloodstream. Why the company is a pioneer Experts predict a surge in cell-based treatments andWhy the company is a pioneer CyGenic’s technology will help resolve one of theBrainsGate’s innovative but simple technology major obstacles to growth in this area. This will widenrepresents a breakthrough in the treatment of the range of treatments for which stem cells canstroke. It also means less need for invasive operations be used. The company’s T-cell work is expected toon the brain, and could open the door to many other reduce significantly the cost and time it takes to getcentral nervous system treatments. vaccines to market.BrainsGate, Telephone: +972 9 7456252 CyGenics Ltd Telephone: +61 3 9642 558017 HaTidhar St Facsimile: +972 9 7456196 Level 2 Facsimile: +61 3 9642 5581Ra’anana 405 Little Bourke Street, www.cygenics.comIsrael 43654 Melbourne 3000, Victoria, AustraliaInnovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007 17
  20. 20. biotechnology biotechnologyGiven Imaging Ltd HealthSTATSNachum (Homi) Shamir, President/CEO Ting Choon Meng, Chairman/CEOLOCATION Yoqneam, Israel LOCATION SingaporeNUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 400 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 30YEAR FOUNDED 1998 YEAR FOUNDED 2000ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-up ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-upGiven Imaging pioneered the field of capsule A person’s blood pressure varies considerably over aendoscopy and is redefining the way physicians 24-hour period. This is something that conventionalvisualize and detect diseases of the gastrointestinal clinic-based devices cannot monitor. On the othertract. The PillCam platform includes the PillCam hand, current ambulatory blood pressure monitoringvideo capsule, a disposable, miniature video camera (ABPM) devices (that require an inflatable cuff to becontained in a capsule which is ingested by the worn over the arm) are inconvenient and expensive.patient, a sensor array, a data recorder worn aroundthe patient’s waist which captures the images and HealthSTATS’ BPro is a watch-like device that profilesRAPID software which allows a physician to review blood pressure fluctuations and pulse variationsthe images on a PC-based workstation. over a 24-hour period for clinical analysis and characterisation. Based on the company’s evidence-Over 400,000 people worldwide have already based blood pressure (EVPB) technology, it harvestsundergone PillCam capsule endoscopy. Capsules are signals from the radial artery, which are converted tocommercially available for the entire small intestine blood pressure readings and for waveform analysis.and for the oesophagus, and the company is focused The company works with authorised BPro ABPMon expanding its use to other parts of the digestive clinics to make this device easily accessible to thetract. A colon capsule is undergoing multi-centre end-users. The EVBP technology is used in otherclinical trials in Europe and the U.S. applications as well, such as the Avidenz System, which monitors a patient’s blood pressure non-Why the company is a pioneer invasively during surgery or while under intensivePillCam capsule endoscopy provides a simple, care.patient-friendly and highly cost-effective wayof diagnosing a wide range of gastrointestinal Why the company is a pioneerdisorders. The great advantage of PillCam capsule The incidence of hypertension and related illnessesendoscopy is that it is non-invasive, unlike traditional continues to rise worldwide, despite improvedendoscopy—the patient simply swallows a pill. The treatment guidelines and new drugs. HealthSTATS’system helps detect a range of conditions, such as ABPM device, the BPro, provides cliniciansCrohn’s and coeliac diseases, unexplained bleeding, with a more complete assessment of a patient’ssmall bowel tumours, gastroesophageal reflux hypertensive condition. This makes it easier todisease, oesophageal varices, and colon polyps. prescribe individualised treatment, with the promise of arresting the progression of the hypertensive condition and subsequent reductions in its related illnesses.Given Imaging Ltd Telephone: +972 4 909 7777 HealthSTATS International Pte Ltd Telephone: +65 6858 32482 Hacarmel Street Facsimile: +972 4 959 2466 6 New Industrial Road Facsimile: +65 6858 0148New Industrial Park #04-01/02 258 Hoe Huat Industrial BuildingYoqneam 20692 Israel Singapore 53619918 Innovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007
  21. 21. biotechnology biotechnologyLentigen NanomixBoro Dropulic, Founder/CEO Dr Marvin L Cohen, Co-founder/CEOLOCATION Maryland, USA LOCATION California, USANUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 22 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 40YEAR FOUNDED 2004 YEAR FOUNDED 2000ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-up ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-upRising concerns about the potential spread of avian Nanomix develops point-of-care handheld detectionflu and other pandemics have put enormous pressure devices, which use its Sensation technology—aon the vaccine development industry to come up combination of a random network of onewith ways of averting potential world health crises. nanometre-wide carbon nanotubes and proprietary chemistries—to detect a range of microscopicLentigen, established in December 2004 by former substances. This allows for multiple detection devicesJohns Hopkins University researcher Boro Dropulic, on a 2x2mm chip and uses little power, meaning thathas developed a technology called Lentimax, a testing and detection of viruses, dangerous gases,lentiviral vector, which provides stable and efficient and even explosives and biological warfare agents,gene delivery. LentiMax allows for the rapid can be moved out of the laboratory and done on-siteproduction of virus-like particles (VLPs), greatly via the company’s small, automated devices.speeding the vaccine production process (whichcurrently relies primarily on eggs as incubators for The technology has several advantages. Electronicvaccine stocks). Lentigen’s technology is well-suited detection avoids the need for labelling chemistriesto deal rapidly with a potential influenza pandemic. or optical equipment and can be undertaken at room temperatures. Wireless integration also allowsIn addition LentiMax technology can be used to easy deployment and transmission of information ingenerate other therapeutic proteins, potentially real-time – particularly important for medical andpaving the way for rapid generation of counter- military uses. The company’s technologies also allowmeasures against other agents that could be used in manufacturing scalability—over a million detectionbioterrorism. devices have been manufactured to date.Why the company is a pioneer The company foresees three basic uses for itsLentimax provides a safe, efficient and stable technology—industrial applications, medical breath-gene delivery technology. The technology holds testing and biomolecule detection. A hydrogen (H2)particular promise for accelerating the development sensor was brought to market in late 2005, and aand production of vaccines, potentially obviating respiratory monitoring (CO2 sensor) device will begovernments’ need to develop and hold massive unveiled in 2007.stocks, and other therapeutic proteins. It also has awide range of potential applications in biodefence, Why the company is a pioneerbiotechnology, and medicine. Nanomix’s technology will increase the use of nanotechnology in detecting biowarfare agents. It also has a range of commercial applications and promises to enable point-of-care medical information for diagnosing and treating disease.Lentigen Corporation Telephone: +1 443 543 5300 Nanomix Telephone: +1 510 428 53001450 South Rolling Road Facsimile: +1 443 543 5301 5980 Horton Street Facsimile: +1 510 658 0425Baltimore Suite 600 www.nano.comMaryland 21227 EmeryvilleUSA California 94608 USAInnovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007 19
  22. 22. biotechnology biotechnologyOxford Medical Diagnostics RenovoRoy Johnson, Executive Chairman Professor Mark Ferguson, Co-founder/CEOLOCATION Oxford, UK LOCATION: Manchester, UKNUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 6 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 140YEAR FOUNDED 2004 YEAR FOUNDED 2000ORIGINS Spin-off from the University of Oxford ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-upHuman and animal breath contains hundreds of Renovo is a biopharmaceutical company that isgases and volatile organic compounds, some of developing drugs to prevent and reduce scarringwhich are characteristic markers for disease. For at multiple body sites and to accelerate healing.example, doctors already identify stomach ulcers by The company has now reported four statisticallymonitoring the amount of carbon dioxide produced and clinically significant Phase II trial results forby bacteria in the breath. its lead drug candidate, Juvista, in the UK. Three other drugs, Juvidex, Prevascar and Zesteem areOxford Medical Diagnostics is developing laser-based also undergoing Phase II trials; a further four ofanalytical techniques to allow the better detection its products are currently in advanced pre-clinicalof trace quantities of gases and volatile organic stages; and nine more are pre-clinical candidates.compounds. The company is currently focusing itstechnology on the immediate market opportunities Juvista is a therapeutic application of humanin industrial process monitoring and clinical recombinant TGF_3, which is present at high levels indiagnostics and hopes, ultimately, to integrate its developing embryonic skin and in embryonic woundsbreath-analysis technology into a cost-effective that heal with no scar, but by contrast, is present atdesktop module for the point-of-care setting. The low levels in adult wounds that scar.aim is to produce equipment that is highly portable,unlike existing bulky or lab-based systems. Whilst the company’s approach is to investigate the effect of its drug candidates in the skin first, itThe overriding benefit of Oxford Medical also investigating their potential for preventing andDiagnostics’ technology is that it can be “tuned” to reducing scarring at other body sites and treatinga range of molecules, the detection of which has fibrotic disorders.application across a wide range of different markets. Why the company is a pioneerWhy the company is a pioneer Renovo aims to be the first company to marketThe speed and sensitivity of the company’s a pharmaceutical drug to prevent and reducetechnology could have a major impact on doctors’ scarring—none are currently available in the USability to diagnose diseases at the point of care, or Europe. In the longer term its products are alsoas well as having a range of applications in both expected to have wider application in neurosurgery,medical and industrial process monitoring, once the sports medicine, treatment of burns, and treatmenttechnology is effectively integrated into a cost- of fibrotic disorders such as liver cirrhosis.effective desktop or mobile device.Oxford Medical Diagnostics Ltd Telephone.: +44 (0)1865 854888 Renovo plc Telephone: +44 161 606 7222Begbroke Centre for Facsimile: +44 (0)1865 854889 The Manchester Facsimile: +44 161 606 7333Innovation Enterprise Incubator Building www.renovo.comOxford University Begbroke 48 Grafton StreetScience Park, Sandy Lane ManchesterYarnton OX5 1PF UK M13 9XX UK20 Innovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007
  23. 23. biotechnology energy/environment technologyStrand Life Sciences Advanced Diamond TechnologiesVijay Chandru, Co-founder/CEO Neil Kane, PresidentLOCATION Bangalore, India LOCATION Illinois, USANUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 83 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 8YEAR FOUNDED 2000 YEAR FOUNDED 2003ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start up ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-upStrand Life Sciences is a technology company that Diamond is the hardest known substance on Earth.applies algorithms and other computer-based It has a low coefficient of friction, is inert, repelstechnologies to aid the discovery and development water and is an outstanding electrical insulator. But,of new drugs. because of the difficulty of integrating diamond with other materials, its industrial use has been generallyIts capabilities fall into three main categories. limited to cutting applications or abrasives.First, it provides informatics tools and solutions forresearch biologists for gene expression data analysis, Advanced Diamond Technologies has developedvisualisation, image analysis and information a method of converting natural gas intomanagement systems. Second, the company builds ultrananocystalline diamond (UNCD). This can thenmodels to assist in the development of new drugs, be deposited on other materials, such as silicon,for example predicting the drug-relevant properties thereby transferring the exceptional properties ofof molecules using computer software. Finally, diamond to the other material.Strand partners with other research companies,which enables it to offer services from compound ADT’s UNCD Aqua Series products, the first family oflibrary design to lead generation. such thin diamond films to be marketed, are mirror- smooth but vary in terms of thermal and electricalThe company’s data mining platform—avadis—can conductivity. UNCD Aqua can be used in a rangebe applied to the analysis of gene expression (the of industrial and medical applications, includingprocess by which a DNA sequence is converted into micro-electrical mechanical systems (MEMS),the structures and functions of a cell), proteomics, resonators used in mobile phones, biosensors,preclinical and clinical data analysis and many other non-stick surfaces and wear-resistant coatings (e.g.,applications. The platform offers powerful data in orthopaedic devices). Another application is avisualisation tools and several probe summarisation protective coating for an artificial retina implant, toand machine-learning algorithms. treat macular degeneration.Why the company is a pioneer Why the company is a pioneerStrand offers a range of products allowing the ADT’s innovative process for synthesising diamondeffective application of bioinformatics to drugs in the form of a mirror-smooth thin film, whichdevelopment. The technology can be used to help can take place at low temperatures, has a widescientists predict pharmacokinetics (the way in which range of applications, from the manufacture ofa body responds to drugs) and cardiotoxicity (the semiconductors to the strengthening of medicaleffect of drugs on the heart). devices.Strand Life Sciences Telephone: +91 80 2361 8992, Advanced Diamond Technologies, Telephone: +1 815 293 0900237 Sir C V Raman Avenue +91 80 2361 8993 Inc. Facsimile: +1 815 293 3970Rajmahal Vilas Facsimile: +91 80 2361 8996 429 B Weber Rd #286 www.thindiamond.comSadashivnagar RomeovilleBangalore 560080 Illinois 60446India USAInnovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007 21
  24. 24. energy/environment technology energy/environment technologyAdvent Solar ClimateWellRussell R. Schmit, President/CEO Göran Bolin, Chief Technical OfficerLOCATION New Mexico, USA LOCATION Hägersten, SwedenNUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 150 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 20YEAR FOUNDED 2002 YEAR FOUNDED 2001ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-up ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-upSolar cells are currently made to a basic design Heating and cooling of buildings accounts for one-that is almost 20 years old and still offers no or third of global energy consumption and is often doneonly marginal economic gains to many consumers. using old and inefficient technology. ClimateWellAdvent Solar has developed a new technology, supplies high-efficiency solar air conditioningcalled Emitter-Wrap-Through, which it hopes will equipment, which can efficiently store extractedreduce the cost of solar cells by means of simplified energy.assembly, higher energy output and the use of ultra-thin silicon wafers. The company’s products are based around a unique technology called triple state absorption. The sun’sUnlike traditional panels, Emitter-Wrap-Through energy is first used to dry a salt. That energy cancells do not have electrical contacts on the front of then be extracted, either as heating or cooling, bythe cell, which block sunlight. Instead, laser-drilled mixing water with the salt. While it has long beenholes enable electric power to flow to the back of the possible to store energy in a solid salt, salt’s poorcell. By eliminating a front-to-back connection step, heat conductivity means that it has few practicalEmitter-Wrap-Through cells are cheaper to assemble applications. ClimateWell’s system gets aroundand offer higher output, because they do not have these problems by a proprietary method of heatthe front grid that usually obscures cells. Collecting exchanging using highly saturated salt solutions,current on the front emitter also allows much which in turn enables it to run an absorption processthinner silicon to be used, which makes Advent Solar with a fluctuating energy source like the sun. Theless vulnerable to swings in prices and availability technology surmounts two major solar thermalof silicon. The company plans to make modules energy problems: efficient energy storage, and theavailable through distributors in early 2007. need to convert heat into cooling in summer.Why the company is a pioneer Why the company is a pioneerTo date, the take-up of solar power has been limited, Unlike a conventional heat pump, ClimateWell’slargely because cells are both expensive to produce innovation allows building systems to run on anand relatively inefficient. Advent Solar’s innovation abundant, free energy source like the sun, withoutaddresses both these problems by reducing the using electrical compressors or refrigerants, andquantity of silicon used in cells, thereby reducing without producing any carbon dioxide emissions.production costs, and increasing the amount of The system could also be applied in the automotivesunlight that can be converted into electricity. sector to use waste heat energy from combustion engines for air-conditioning.Advent Solar Inc Telephone: +1 505 243 1800 ClimateWell AB Telephone: +46 8 794 03 705600 University Blvd SE Facsimile: +1 505 243 9200 Instrumentvägen 20 Facsimile: +46 8 744 30 70Albuquerque SE – 126 53 Hägersten www.climatewell.comNew Mexico 87106 SwedenUSA22 Innovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007
  25. 25. energy/environment technology energy/environment technologyDeepStream Technologies EnerNOCMark Crosier, Founder/CEO Tim Healy, Chairman/CEOLOCATION Gwynedd, UK LOCATION Massachusetts, USANUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 45 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 90YEAR FOUNDED 2003 YEAR FOUNDED 2001ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-up ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-upDeepStream designs and manufactures intelligent EnerNOC is a US-based energy managementsensors that can be embedded in a wide range company that works on behalf of utilities to helpof products. One immediate application could manage periods of peak demand. EnerNOC’sbe to replace conventional single function Capacity on Demand programme addresses thecircuit-breakers, with new DeepStream-enabled problem of peak demand for electrical powerdigital multi-function circuit breakers – offering primarily by encouraging customers to reduceunparalleled levels of electrical network information consumption, rather than building new capacity.and protection. Other applications include the useof embedded metering, enabling households or Energy utilities have previously tried to do thiscompanies to get very detailed energy bills that with their largest customers, but EnerNOC hasitemise consumption by individual electrical circuits taken the idea a stage further, involving smalleror sockets. The technology can identify where businesses through what it terms a “negawattenergy is being consumed and help homeowners or network” – a network of customers that offersbusinesses to take steps to increase efficiency. to reduce consumption during periods of peak demand to ensure overall grid stability. So, when anBy embedding sensors in household appliances, electrical grid approaches capacity, EnerNOC getsthe company hopes to improve performance and customers to scale back on consumption, or switchefficiency while also sending valuable feedback to to emergency generation, thus avoiding blackouts.manufacturers, enabling prognosis of problems and Customers who can reduce consumption in this wayproviding feedback on performance and usage for receive payments from EnerNOC, as well as advancefuture product development. For example, washing notice of power supply issues. Detailed energy usemachines could be fitted with communicative motor data also allows them to identify areas where long-and load sensors, while further uses could include term economies can be made.intelligent lighting systems, and lower-cost medicalmonitoring devices, such as those used in cardiac Why the company is a pioneercare or ‘in-home’ care monitoring solutions. Sensors It can be increasingly difficult to meet increasingcould also help to ensure secure power by monitoring energy needs by developing new local supply,batteries and motors. due to economic, political and environmental considerations. This puts additional pressures onWhy the company is a pioneer existing energy grids, threatening reliability andDeepStream can enable significant reductions increasing price volatility. EnerNOC’s technologyin household and industrial energy usage. The allows a highly collaborative approach to powercompany’s technology can also be used to monitor supply management that reduces the need for extradevices and send back information to manufacturers capacity construction, saves customers money andfor new remote service offerings. can ultimately benefit the environment.DeepStream Technologies Ltd Telephone: + 44 1248 365 600 EnerNOC Telephone: +1 617 224 99006 Llys Helyg Facsimile: + 44 1248 365 601 75 Federal Street Facsimile: +1 617 224 9910Fford y Llyn Suite 300 www.enernoc.comParc Menai BostonBangor Massachusetts 02110Gwynedd LL57 4EZ UK USAInnovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007 23
  26. 26. energy/environment technology energy/environment technologyFiberforge EnfucellDr Jon Fox-Rubin, President/CEO Jaakko Happonen, CEOLOCATION Colorado, USA LOCATION Espoo, FinlandNUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 20 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 9YEAR FOUNDED 1998 YEAR FOUNDED 2002ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-up ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-upFiberforge is developing a new, more cost- Founded after a decade of research on powereffective process for the production of advanced sources for low-power applications at the Helsinkicomposite structures. At present, advanced University of Technology, Enfucell has developedcomposite structures—those that are made a thin, flexible battery based on traditional paperusing high-strength fibres such as glass, aramid printing and lamination technology. The resultingand carbon and then held together in a matrix SoftBatteries, which are between 0.3mm and 0.7mmof either thermoplastic or thermoset resin—are in thickness, can be used in a range of applicationscostly to make and therefore rarely used in volume such as cosmetic and drug delivery patches, smartapplications. The process employed by Fiberforge cards, RFID tags and electronic greeting cards.enables advanced composites to be manufacturedmore economically. This means that they can become SoftBatteries use paper containing the electrolytean alternative to steel and light metals for high- as the separator between anode and cathode.volume, manufactured structures as well as offering Zinc powder is printed on one side of the paper;improvements in stiffness, corrosion resistance, manganese oxide on the other. These “printable”weight and recyclability. batteries have a number of advantages over traditional batteries: they are flexible, low-The Fiberforge process is centred around proprietary cost, environmentally friendly and disposable inconversion software and an automatic assembly household waste. The battery output is stable over asystem, which allows products to be designed and wide range of temperature and humidity conditions,produced to a customer’s specification with little and different voltages can be realised by applyinglabour input and minimum waste. Applications for more layers within the batteries, or applying theFiberforge’s production process are in aerospace, batteries in series. In future, the technology shouldand the technology has already been licensed to be easily adaptable to different materials, or to fuela manufacturer of aircraft seat components. The cell technology.process could also be used to manufacture lightercars, which could enable large energy savings. Why the company is a pioneer There is increasing demand for batteries for small-Why the company is a pioneer scale, lower-power and disposable applications,Fiberforge’s new process, which combines an such as for use in RFID tags. SoftBatteries offer aninnovative approach to both design and production, economical and environmentally-friendly alternativewill dramatically lower the cost of manufacturing in to traditional batteries used for this purpose. Inindustries that use advanced composites. Because future, the company also hopes to use its technologythey combine low weight and high strength into a to develop enzymatic fuel cells.single material, advanced composites offer greaterdurability and reduced energy usage.Fiberforge Telephone: +1 970 945 9377 Enfucell Ltd Telephone: +358 50 537 50653768 Highway 82 Facsimile: +1 877 232 0292 Tekniikantie 12 Facsimile: +358 9 2517 3600Suite #204 02150 Espoo www.enfucell.comGlenwood Springs FinlandColoradoUSA24 Innovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007
  27. 27. energy/environment technology energy/environment technologyFlisom Lilliputian Systems IncAnil Sethi, Founder/CEO Kenneth Lazarus, CEOLOCATION Zurich, Switzerland LOCATION USANUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 6 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 50YEAR FOUNDED 2005 YEAR FOUNDED 2002ORIGINS Spin-off from ETH Zurich ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-upFlisom was founded to commercialise renewable Solid oxide fuel cell technology has long been knownenergy research. Its main product is a flexible and to have a high fuel to electrical energy conversionextremely lightweight solar cell, which is based on ratio. It can use any hydrocarbon-based fuela semiconductor compound, called Copper Indium source and is effective in a range of environmentalGallium Diselenide (CIGS), which is extremely conditions. An important drawback, however, is thatefficient at absorbing light. Instead of using glass as the cells operate at very high temperatures (800-a substrate to support the assembly, Flisom uses a 1000 °C) and this has so far limited their use to a fewplastic foil which enables it to be manufactured using high power applications, such as powering buildings.low-cost, roll-to-roll technology. Lilliputian Systems miniaturises solid oxide fuelFlisom’s polymer-based cells use only small amounts cells so that they can fit on and are integratedof energy and materials in their construction. They into a chip, thus opening up the enormous powerare thinner than a sheet of paper and are extremely market for portable devices. These miniaturisedlightweight. In addition, they are highly flexible cells offer volumetric energy density much higherand can be applied to bent surfaces or rolled up. The than competing fuel cells and are the only fuel cellscell absorbers are intrinsically stable, and degrade that can outperform rechargeable batteries in low-very little during use. The low cost of production power, small form-factor applications. (They have anof these flexible cells could help make solar power energy density 10 times greater than a lithium-iondirectly competitive with conventionally-generated rechargeable battery.) Problems associated with theelectricity. cells’ high operating temperature are resolved by a leak-free, high-temperature silicon, silicon-basedThe cells’ characteristics may prove particularly seals, innovative chip-based thermal insulation andimportant for portable applications, such as mobile other advances.phones. The homogenous, dark appearance of thecells – and their light weight – could also make them Why the company is a pioneersuitable for use on buildings. The company believes that Lilliputian Systems’ fuel cell on a chip technology could both meet the energyWhy the company is a pioneer needs of today’s portable electronic devices andFlisom’s plastic-based cells offer the prospect facilitate the wireless world of tomorrow. Prototypeof flexible, extremely lightweight solar cells. cells have been demonstrated, and the plan is toManufactured using tiny amounts of material and have systems available for consumer evaluation inenergy, the cells are not only highly economical to mid-2007.produce, they also provide extremely high light-to-electricity conversion rates.FLISOM AG Telephone: +41 44 633 7966 Lilliputian Systems Inc Telephone: +1 978 203 1735Technopark (Einstein H27) Facsimile: +41 44 633 1861 36 Jonspin Road Facsimile: +1 978 203 1753Technoparkstrasse 1 Wilmington, MA 018878005 Zurich USASwitzerlandInnovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007 25
  28. 28. energy/environment technology energy/environment technologyNanosolar OTB GroupMartin Roscheisen, CEO Ron Kok, Founder and PresidentLOCATION California, USA LOCATION Eindhoven, the NetherlandsNUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 60 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 200+YEAR FOUNDED 2001 YEAR FOUNDED 1994ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-up ORIGINS Entrepreneurial start-upAlthough thin-film solar cells have now been around OTB designs, engineers, develops and manufacturesfor a decade or so, they remain relatively expensive in-line production equipment. The companyto produce. Nanosolar has developed a range of has patented technologies in the areas of ultra-technologies that promise to improve dramatically fast deposition of thin film, injection moulding,the cost-efficiency, yield and production throughput inkjet printing and in-line automation. Theseof such cells. technologies can then be integrated into tailor-made manufacturing solutions.Nanosolar has developed technology that makesit possible to roll print (or solution coat) such cells, OTB has three main divisions. OTB Display offersrather than use vacuum coating. This is made integrated equipment for the manufacture ofpossible by a Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide full colour organic light-emitting diode (Oled)(CIGS) absorber layer that is one-hundredth the displays which, through the integration of thin filmthickness of a conventional absorber. The company’s encapsulation and the elimination of the need forrapid thermal processing uses only a short burst of a clean room, reduce labour input and other costs.heat to make the cell, reducing the cell’s energy “pay OTB Solar offers solar cell manufacturing equipment,back” period from several years to one month. The which includes a breakthrough process fornew printing technology then allows much lower- depositing a silicon nitrate anti-reflective coating oncost substrates than the stainless steel necessary for the emitter side of the cell. Finally, OTB Engineeringconventional cell manufacturing techniques. looks at possible new businesses: one such area is ophthalmics, where the company’s high-precisionWhy the company is a pioneer injection moulding processes may make it possibleIn March 2006, Nanosolar announced that its to mass produce lens-adjustable spectacles at a lowresearch and development team had produced cells price—with particular benefits for children in poorerwith world-record efficiency—a finding that was countries.later certified by the National Renewable EnergyLaboratory. The company’s potential for low-cost, Why the company is a pioneerhigh-throughput production of solar cells make it a OTB applies a range of technologies to offerleader in its field. customers much more efficient manufacturing processes across a number of different sectors. These allow higher volume, lower cost, and more consistent output, thereby opening up new markets and applications.Nanosolar, Inc Telephone: +1 650 565 8891 OTB Group BV Telephone: +31 (0) 40 2581 5812240 Embarcadero Way Facsimile: +1 650 565 8894 Luchthavenweg 10 Facsimile: +31 (0) 40 2541 985Palo Alto 5657 EB Eindhoven www.otb-group.nlCalifornia 94303 The NetherlandsUSA26 Innovation reinvented | The World Economics Forum’s Technology Pioneers 2007