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Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
 

Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities

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The Asian Green City Index seeks to measure and assess the environmental performance of 22 major Asian cities across a range of criteria. This report presents the key findings and highlights from the ...

The Asian Green City Index seeks to measure and assess the environmental performance of 22 major Asian cities across a range of criteria. This report presents the key findings and highlights from the Index and is intended to provide stakeholders with a unique tool to help Asian cities learn from each other, in order to better address the common environmental challenges they face.

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    Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities Document Transcript

    • Asian Green City IndexAssessing the environmental performance of Asia’s major citiesA research project conducted by the Economist Intelligence Unit, sponsored by Siemens
    • Asian Green City Index | Contents Contents004 The Cities00 018 Key findings from the 024 Exemplar projects 028 Waste 036 City portraits categories 024 Energy and CO2 Hanoi: Making waste pay 036 Bangkok 080 Manila006 Expert advisory panel 018 Energy and CO2 Tokyo: The first cap and trade Bangkok: Follow that trash 040 Beijing 084 Mumbai 018 Land use and buildings system in Asia 029 Water 044 Bengaluru 088 Nanjing008 Introduction 019 Transport Shanghai: The largest offshore Singapore: Water as good as new 048 Delhi 092 Osaka 019 Waste wind farm in China 030 Environmental governance 052 Guangzhou 096 Seoul010 Results 020 Water 025 Land use and buildings Eco-clubs: Educating future 056 Hanoi 100 Shanghai 020 Sanitation New technology: The world’s environmentalists in Delhi 060 Hong Kong 104 Singapore012 Overall key findings 020 Air quality greenest skyscraper in 0 064 Jakarta 108 Taipei 021 Environmental governance Guangzhou 032 Methodology 068 Karachi 112 Tokyo Old technology: Planting trees 072 Kolkata 116 Wuhan 022 Managing the city as a in Beijing 076 Kuala Lumpur 120 Yokohama ‘living organism’ 027 Transport An interview with Nicholas You, Shanghai: Doubling the size of urban environmental expert the world’s longest metro Green transport: A holistic approach in Singapore2 3
    • Asian Green City Index | The Cities The Cities Beijing, China Seoul, South Korea Tokyo, Japan Yokohama, Japan Osaka, Japan Nanjing, China Shanghai, China Wuhan, China Delhi, India The Asian Green City Index measures and Taipei, Taiwan Karachi, Pakistan Guangzhou, China rates the environmental performance of Kolkata, India Hanoi, Vietnam Hong Kong, China 22 Asian cities. They are capital cities as well Mumbai, India as certain leading business centres selected for their size and importance. The cities were picked independently rather than relying Manila, Philippines Bangkok, Thailand on requests from city governments to be Bengaluru, India included, in order to enhance the Index’s credibility and comparability. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Singapore, Singapore Jakarta, Indonesia4 5
    • Asian Green City Index | Expert advisory panel A panel of global experts in urban environmental sustainability advised the Economist Expert advisory panel Intelligence Unit (EIU) in developing the methodology for the Green City Index, including the Latin American Green City Index and forthcoming Indexes in other regions. The EIU would like to thank the panel for their time and valuable insight.Brunella Boselli Gordon McGranahan Mary Jane C. Ortega Hiroaki Suzuki Pablo Vaggione Sebastian Veit David Wilk Nicholas YouStatistician, Regional Develop- Head of Human Settlements Secretary General Lead Urban Specialist and Eco2 Founder, Design Convergence Senior Climate Economist Climate Change Lead Specia- Chairman, Steering Committeement Policy Division, Organisa- Group, International Institute CITYNET Team Leader, Corporate Urbanism African Development Bank list, Sustainable Energy and of the World Urban Campaign,tion for Economic Cooperation for Environment and Develop- Finance Economics and Urban Climate Change Unit, Inter- UN-Habitatand Development (OECD) ment Department, World Bank American Development BankBrunella Boselli has been with the Gordon McGranahan currently Mary Jane C. Ortega is the former Hiroaki Suzuki has more than 20 Pablo Vaggione is an urban Sebastian Veit is senior climate David Wilk joined the Inter- Nicholas You is chairman of,regional development policy directs the Human Settlements mayor of the city of San Fernando, years of operational experience in specialist with over 15 years of economist at the African American Development Bank in amongst others, the Cities anddivision of the OECD since 2003. Group at the International Institute Philippines, and served the city the infrastructure sector and public experience. His cross-sector and Development Bank in Tunis. While early 2001 as an urban environ- Climate Change Commission of theShe is responsible for regional for Environment and Develop- from 1998 to 2007. She is now the sector at the World Bank. Having multidisciplinary approach at the organisation he has focused mental senior specialist. His World Future Council, and thestatistics, and is one of the authors ment. Trained as an economist, he secretary general of CITYNET, a worked in the East Asia and Pacific provides cities and actors in urban on green growth strategies in professional experience in Latin Assurance Group of the Urbanof the flagship publication “OECD spent the 1990s at the Stockholm network of 119 member cities and Region, as East Asia urban sector development with integrated, Africa and renewable energy America and the Caribbean during Infrastructure Initiative of theRegions at a Glance”. She has Environment Institute, in charge of NGOs that works to improve living leader and China urban sector strategic and practical plans to issues. In 2007 he was a consultant the 1990s included a range of World Business Council for Sus-recently developed the OECD their Urban Environment conditions in human settlements coordinator for the last five years, respond to the challenges of to the United Nations Framework management and consulting tainable Development. AfterMetropolitan Database, which Programme. He works on a range in Asia-Pacific. She was the charter he joined the Bank’s Corporate sustainable urbanisation. He has Convention on Climate Change, activities with the World Bank, running UN-Habitat’s Bestcontains socio-economic data for of urban environmental issues, president of the Solid Waste Finance Economics and Urban worked in East and South-East and from 2004 to 2007 he was a international organisations and Practices and Local Leadership82 metropolitan areas, and is with an emphasis on addressing Management Association of the Department in 2009 as lead urban Asia, Western Europe, and Latin consultant with the World Bank in consulting firms. His work with Programme for over a decade, hecurrently working on a new OECD poverty and environmental Philippines, and was recently specialist and Eco2 team leader. He and North America, in the Washington DC. At the World Bank these organisations was in the area was appointed as the seniorterritorial definition for metropoli- problems in and around the home, elected back to the position of is the main author of “Eco2 cities: preparation of city development he specialised in energy and water. of land use and environmental policy and strategic planningtan regions. and how the critical scale of urban president. She was a member of Ecological Cities as Economic Cities” strategies, plans for the planning, watershed manage- adviser of the agency. From 2007 environmental burdens changes as the executive committee of the (www.worldbank.org/eco2). regeneration of historic urban ment, sustainable urban transport to 2009 he led the development cities become wealthier. Key United Nations Advisory Council areas, and sustainable develop- and environmental assessment of and roll out of UN-Habitat’s publications include: “The Citizens on Local Authorities (UNACLA) ment blueprints for new districts. development and infrastructure strategic and institutional at Risk: From Urban Sanitation to from 2000 to 2007. She received He provides advice on urban issues projects. management plan. As part of that Sustainable Cities” and “The rising the UN-Habitat Scroll of Honour to a number of multilateral plan, he was asked in January tide: Assessing the risks of climate Award in 2000. organisations, local governments 2009 to spearhead UN-Habitat’s change and human settlements in and companies. His work for World Urban Campaign. Upon his low-elevation coastal zones”. He Madrid received in 2007 the World retirement from the UN in July was the convening lead author of Leadership Award. Between 2007 2010, some 50 partners repre- the urban systems chapter of the and 2010 he served as the senting public, private and civil Millennium Ecosystem Assess- Secretary General of the society institutions worldwide ment. International Society of City and elected him as chairman of the Regional Planners (ISOCARP), a Campaign’s Steering Committee. professional organization of planners from 70 countries.6 7
    • Asian Green City Index | Introduction IntroductionUnprecedented shift from the countryside to citiesT he future of Asia is in its cities. Although still one of the less urbanised continents, theshare of the Asian population living in urban currently need to build a total of 20,000 new dwellings, 250 km of new roads, and the infra- structure to deliver an additional 6 million litres and wellbeing of billions of people in the region and worldwide. sponsored by Siemens, seeks to measure and assess the environmental performance of 22 major Asian cities across a range of criteria. This A unique Indexareas has grown from 32% in 1990 to 42% in of potable water. How Asian governments man- The Asian Green City Index, a research project report presents the key findings and highlights The 22 cities selected for the Asian Green City Index include most2010, according to the United Nations Popula- age urbanisation will be crucial to the health conducted by the Economist Intelligence Unit, from the Index, and is intended to provide major Asian urban areas. They are capital cities as well as certaintion Division. By 2026, the United Nations fore- stakeholders with a unique tool to help Asian leading business centres selected for their size and importance. Thecasts that half of Asians will be city dwellers. cities learn from each other, in order to better cities were picked independently rather than relying on requestsThe sheer size of the continent’s population Urban population in Asia from 1990 - 2025 address the common environmental challenges from city governments to be included, in order to enhance the In-makes the task of managing this urbanisation they face. dex’s credibility and comparability. Another decisive factor in the se- % of population living in citiesespecially daunting. For the last five years, Asia lection was the availability of data. One city, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet- 60has added 37 million urban residents each year, The report is divided into five parts. First, it nam, had to be excluded from the original shortlist due to amore than 100,000 per day, to its growing total. examines the overall key findings. Second, it significant lack of available information.Asia currently has seven of the world’s 10 most 50 examines the key findings from the eight individ- The methodology, described in detail in a separate section in this re-populous urban areas, and McKinsey and Co, a ual categories in the Index: energy and CO2, land port, has been developed by the EIU in cooperation with Siemens. Itconsultancy, predicts that by 2025, China alone 40 use and buildings, transport, waste, water, sani- relies on the expertise of both organisations, a panel of outside ex-will have 221 cities with more than a million tation, air quality and environmental gover- perts, and the experience from producing the European Green Cityinhabitants. In contrast, Europe currently has 30 nance. Third, the report presents a variety of Index in 2009 and the Latin American Green City Index in 2010. Onejust 25. leading best-practice ideas from across the of the great strengths of the Asian Green City Index is the breadth of The Asian Development Bank says the ongo- 20 region. Fourth, it gives a detailed description of information it uses. There are 29 individual indicators for each city,ing migration from the countryside to cities in the methodology used to create the Index. Final- and these indicators are often based on multiple data points. ValueAsia is “unprecedented in human history”, and ly, an in-depth profile for each city outlines its also comes from how the Index is presented. Each city is assessed in 10the scale of the change has enormous environ- particular strengths, weaknesses, and ongoing eight categories and placed within a performance band to indicatemental consequences. In order to cope with this Year environmental initiatives. These profiles rightly its relative results. The process is transparent, consistent, replicable, 0migration, the Asian Development Bank calcu- 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 constitute the bulk of the report because the aim and reveals sources of best practice.lates that each day, across the continent, cities of the study is to share valuable experience. Source: United Nations Population Division8 9
    • Asian Green City Index | Results ResultsH ere are the complete results for the 22 cities in the Asian Green City Index, including the overall results and placements within the eightindividual categories. The cities were placed in one of five performancebands, from well below average to well above average.Overall results well below average above well below average average above average average Karachi Bengaluru Bangkok Hong Kong Singapore Hanoi Beijing Osaka Kolkata Delhi Seoul Manila Guangzhou Taipei Mumbai Jakarta Tokyo Kuala Lumpur Yokohama Nanjing Shanghai WuhanCategory resultsEnergy and CO2 Transport Water Air quality well below average above well well below average above well well below average above well well below average above well below average average above below average average above below average average above below average average above average average average average average average average average Shanghai Beijing Bangkok Delhi Tokyo Karachi Bangkok Beijing Hong Kong Osaka Kuala Lumpur Bangkok Bengaluru Beijing Singapore Karachi Beijing Bengaluru Bangkok Guangzhou Bengaluru Hong Kong Kolkata Bengaluru Delhi Kuala Lumpur Delhi Hong Kong Nanjing Tokyo Mumbai Kolkata Delhi Hong Kong Karachi Hanoi Jakarta Hanoi Guangzhou Seoul Guangzhou Karachi Osaka Yokohama Wuhan Guangzhou Kuala Lumpur Kolkata Manila Osaka Manila Jakarta Singapore Hanoi Kolkata Seoul Hanoi Manila Kuala Lumpur Mumbai Seoul Mumbai Nanjing Taipei Jakarta Mumbai Wuhan Jakarta Osaka Nanjing Singapore Shanghai Tokyo Manila Shanghai Nanjing Singapore Wuhan Taipei Wuhan Yokohama Taipei Seoul Taipei Yokohama Shanghai Tokyo YokohamaLand use and buildings Waste Sanitation Environmental governance well below average above well well below average above well well below average above well well below average above well below average average above below average average above below average average above below average average above average average average average average average average average Hanoi Bangkok Beijing Osaka Hong Kong Jakarta Bangkok Beijing Delhi Singapore Hanoi Bangkok Beijing Guangzhou Hanoi Karachi Beijing Bangkok Karachi Bengaluru Seoul Kuala Lumpur Karachi Bengaluru Hong Kong Jakarta Bengaluru Hong Kong Kolkata Mumbai Bengaluru Hong Kong Kolkata Delhi Singapore Kolkata Guangzhou Osaka Karachi Delhi Osaka Delhi Osaka Manila Guangzhou Taipei Manila Hanoi Taipei Kolkata Nanjing Seoul Guangzhou Seoul Shanghai Jakarta Yokohama Mumbai Nanjing Tokyo Kuala Lumpur Shanghai Singapore Jakarta Singapore Wuhan Kuala Lumpur Seoul Shanghai Yokohama Manila Wuhan Taipei Kuala Lumpur Taipei Mumbai Wuhan Mumbai Tokyo Manila Tokyo Nanjing Yokohama Nanjing Yokohama Tokyo Shanghai Wuhan10 11
    • Asian Green City Index | Overall key findings Overall key findingsEnvironmental reau provides training and technical assistance to Richer cities perform better kg per person per year. This is just 7 kg above the Tipping point in water consumption city officials in developing countries. In Asia, the overall Index average of 375 kg and well belowawareness and income: correlation between GDP per capita and environ- Average annual GDP per person in US$ the average of 598 kg of the five cities in theA tipping point in Asia mental performance is as strong as it was in 45,000 mid-income range (between US$10,000 and Water consumption in litres per person per day 2009’s European Green City Index. US$25,000).A lthough money is not everything when it comes to environmental performance, wealthhelps in some obvious ways. Richer cities are able At a certain level, resource consumption does not continue to rise with income 40,000 35,000 There is a similar picture regarding water consumption. The six richest cities consume 343 litres per person per day on average. Although 600 Guangzhou 500 Kuala Lumpurto make necessary investments in urban infra- As cities become more prosperous, in addition this is higher than the average water consump- 30,000structure, and can afford to maintain a profession- to investing in infrastructure, one might also tion of all cities (278 litres), the mid-income 400 Shanghai Osakaal, experienced civil service to drive environmental expect residents to consume more resources cities have higher consumption levels (393 Nanjing Hong Kong 25,000 Bangkokinitiatives. This holds true in the Asian Green City and thereby experience environmental conse- litres). For an illustration of this phenomenon, Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo 300Index, where wealthier cities consistently perform quences such as higher carbon emissions, or 20,000 see chart on the right. Wuhan Yokohama Mumbaibetter. Singapore, for example, is the Index leader excessive water consumption and waste. Up to a For carbon emissions, this pattern holds true Beijing 200 Delhiwith a well above average ranking overall, and is certain level of income, the Asian Green City 15,000 as well. The six richest cities emit an average of Karachialso the fourth richest city, with a GDP per person Index does indeed show a steady rise in resource 5.8 tonnes per person per year, compared to an Manila Kolkataof US$36,500. It can afford cutting-edge water consumption along with per capita GDP. But 10,000 overall average of 4.6 tonnes. However, the five 100 Jakartarecycling plants, waste-to-energy facilities and when income rises above a certain point, at cities in the mid-income range produce on aver- Bengaluru 5,000 Hanoimajor investments in its transport system. Yoko- around US$20,000 per person, average con- age 7.6 tonnes of CO2 per person per year. 0 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000hama, with an above average per-formance over- sumption declines. All of this demonstrates that wealthier cities inall and a GDP per person of US$30,200, offers For example, the average waste generation the Index do not necessarily consume resources Annual GDP per person in US$ Cities … well below … average … well abovegenerous subsidies for electric vehicles, among of the six cities in the high income range (each ranking average or average or at a level that their high incomes might suggest. below average above averageother investments, and its innovative Water Bu- with a GDP per capita above US$29,000) is 382 This shift was not present in the Latin American12 13
    • Asian Green City Index | Overall key findingsIndex and was less clear in the European Index. beyond their immediate neighbourhoods and sur- example, has one of the lowest levels of GDP than taking a long-term holistic approach. With Similarly, Hong Kong, with a large degree ofThere are several potential factors at work. The roundings remains to be seen.” per capita in the Index, at an estimated Policy execution policies so common in Asia, one differentiator in self-government, resources, and a capable civiltransition to more service-based industries plays a Evidence from the city portraits in this report US$2,000. Yet the city still achieves an average differentiates the best- the Asian Green City Index is the ability to exe- service, scores well in the Index, not because itspart in reducing carbon emissions among the rich- suggests that the wealthier cities have also overall rating, with a particularly strong result in performing cities cute and enforce those regulations and stan- policies are inherently more advanced, butest cities. And the quality of infrastructure con- made solid efforts to reduce consumption. the waste category, where it ranks above aver- dards. Professor Yue-Man Yeung, emeritus pro- because it has the capacity to carry them out.tributes to lower water consumption levels. Five ofthe seven wealthiest cities, for example, havewater leakage rates at or below 7%. Policy execu- Taipei City has a longstanding, world-renowned pay-as-you-throw waste charge. In 2003, Yoko- hama set a goal of reducing waste by 30% in ten age. This is in part because of residents’ atti- tudes towards consumption and recycling. As the city portrait in this report notes, Delhi’s “tra- G overnments in the 22 cities in the Index, despite varying performances on quantita- tive indicators, appear to be convinced of the fessor of geography at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, notes that “the most important thing that you must have for a city to clean up is Furthermore, the governments of Singapore and Hong Kong have the capacity to approach their cities as single entities, which enhancestion also plays a role in richer cities (see below). In years but exceeded the target in five years. By ditional culture of careful consumption”, which need to improve the urban environment. Most political will.” their ability to address environmental chal-Japan, Taiwan and South Korea, the rise of envi- 2030 Seoul aims to cut carbon emissions by 40% economic growth has not yet eroded, helps cities have comprehensive policies in place for Singapore, the only city to achieve a well lenges (see also interview with Nicholas You in aronmentalism coincided with public outcries over compared to 1990. Osaka holds 150 workshops explain why Delhi leads the Index with an extra- almost every environmental area evaluated in above average overall score, illustrates this point. separate section of this report).industrial pollution, which led governments to each year to educate primary school children ordinarily low per capita waste generation fig- the Index. Uniformity at the policy level also If Singapore were scored only on quantitativebegin addressing environmental issues as a about the water system. There are many more ure of 147 kg per year. The city’s advanced poli- helps to explain why cities in the Asian Green measures, it would have ranked one band below,whole. And governments in those countries have examples of cities pursuing practical steps to cies, including one of the more robust City Index perform so much more consistently at above average. But it is comprehensive and City governments needremained responsive to citizens’ concerns ever encourage sustainable resource use, and the strategies in the Index to reduce, re-use and overall. Fourteen of the 22 cities in Asia, for effective policies that elevate the city to rank well more power to makesince. Dr Hyun Bang Shin of the London School of consumption figures in the Index show that they recycle waste, also demonstrate just how much example, appear in the same performance band above average overall. A rich city-state, SingaporeEconomics has noted the link between income are having a positive effect. can be achieved with limited resources. Delhi for at least five of the eight categories. In Latin has access to resources, but unlike other cities in their own environmen-and rising environmental awareness in China. As shows that less well off cities do not need to America, by contrast, the cities showed much the Index, the government is not split between tal decisionswealth grows, he says, “many of the new middle Delhi’s approach to waste and recycling: wait to get rich before adopting policies and more varied results, even though income levels competing levels of administration. And it has aclass are becoming much more aware of environ-mental issues. They seem to be exerting pressureon local governments.” He adds, “Whether or not when resources are limited, attitudes make a difference Such programmes do not necessarily need to shaping attitudes towards sustainability. are more homogeneous than in Asia. Results from the Latin American Green City Index showed that cities there are hindered by focus- highly trained civil service, along with a reputa- tion for transparency, which is underlined by Sin- gapore’s fourth place in Transparency Interna- T here is a growing consensus among environ- mental experts that decentralising authority from national to local governments is a key waythe interest in environmental protection expands wait until cites grow rich, however. Delhi, for ing on immediate, pressing problems rather tional’s Corruption Perception Index. to achieve more relevant and responsive envi-14 15
    • Asian Green City Index | Overall key findingsronmental oversight. The Asian Development Nations, adds that although in countries such as nese government, in its latest report on the state sumption per $US of GDP. And three of the five the way the cities draw their official boundaries other areas, some cities are doing very well.”Bank states, “although central-local relations are India, which has a history of a federal structure, of the environment, spoke of “very serious” cities have the highest CO2 emissions per capita. plays some role in their results for green spaces. However, the rapid growth of automobile trafficbeing reconfigured in many different ways, it is cities might have some power, the trend across water pollution, “grave” results from acid rain, Similarly, all the cities finish in the bottom half of Second, the Index rewards policy as well as sta- has held cities back. Prof Yeung notes that aboutquite clear that local, sub-national areas are now Asia is that local governments are “incredibly and “serious” air pollution problems in some the Index for their levels of airborne particulate tistical performance, and here Chinese cities are 30 big cities in China are building subway sys-overwhelmingly regarded as the site for effec- weak”. He says that too often, instead of real urban areas. Of the country’s 113 key cities for matter, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide. strong. All are in the average band when only tems, which is a positive development, but con-tive governance.” In addition, Dr Xuemei Bai, power being transferred to localities, there is a environmental protection, 43% are at or below These statistics are only part of the story, policies are taken into account, and all but struction is not keeping pace with the growth ofsenior science leader for sustainable ecosystems “decentralisation of corruption.” He and others the lowest national air quality rating, Grade III. It however. Even with below and well below aver- Wuhan are above average in transport policy. automobiles. The number of cars in Wuhan, forat CSIRO, Australia’s national science agency, believe that more decentralisation is required to should also be noted that China’s Grade III stan- age results in the quantitative indicators for Even on air quality, Shanghai scores above aver- example, has tripled to 1 million in the lastpoints out: “Urban government is the crucial make further environmental progress in cities, dards for nitrogen dioxide are twice the World energy and air quality in the Index, the five age in policy terms, with an established air qual- decade. Prof Yeung says, “Things are going bothlevel in addressing the urban environment.” but with the accompanying fiscal clout to Health Organisation’s recommended healthy mainland Chinese cities fall into the average ity code and regular monitoring. ways in Chinese big cities.”There have been fears, according to the World enforce regulations and invest in initiatives. levels, and for particulate matter over seven band in the Index overall. The Chinese performance regarding policies China’s economic development is bringingBank, that decentralisation of authority could times more. The Grade III sulphur dioxide stan- Two factors help explain this. First, in some suggests that the authorities take the environ- huge environmental challenges, but a closerlead to deterioration in key public services, but dard is more than 12 times higher. China’s poor environmental areas, Chinese cities are doing ment seriously. A major step forward for Beijing, look at its cities reveals a nuanced picture, withat the same time it notes that in East Asia espe- China’s environmental environmental record can be attributed to reasonably well. Beijing, for example, collects an for example, was hosting the 2008 Olympics. In some areas of success and seriousness aboutcially, the effects “appear to have been largely performance: Looking explosive economic development, as a result of estimated 95% of its waste, the eighth best fig- the run-up to the event, with the world’s atten- policy that should yield improvements in thebenign so far.” However, Dr Bai says that being the “factory to the world”. The environ- ure in the Index. And Shanghai has the sixth low- tion on the city, the national and city govern- long run. “With increasing levels of income,although national governments in Asia have beyond air quality and mental challenges include an energy supply est water leakage rate in the Index, at 10%, ver- ments invested heavily in improving air quality, infrastructure investment will increase, basicgiven formal authority to cities in recent years, carbon emissions heavily reliant on coal, factory emissions, dust sus the Index average of 22%. Meanwhile, landscaping and transport. Prof Yeung of the issues like sanitation will improve, but morethey have not always handed over adequate from construction and an increase in automo- Nanjing generates the third lowest amount of Chinese University of Hong Kong also notes a urban dwellers are joining cities daily,” says Drfunding to meet new responsibilities, and sogovernments have faltered. Brian Roberts, pro-fessor emeritus at the University of Canberra I n 2009 China overtook the US as the world’s largest energy user, and for several years pre- viously it already held the dubious distinction of bile traffic. So it is no surprise that the five mainland Chinese cities in the Index, Beijing, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Shanghai, and Wuhan are waste per capita, at an estimated 218 kg annual- ly. And Guangzhou, Nanjing and Beijing come first, second and fourth, respectively, for the perceptible change across the country. “Not too long ago,” he says, “the motto was ‘develop first, clean up later.’ This is no longer considered Bai of Australia’s national science agency. “There is a huge need to provide housing and other ser- vices. Most cities will continue to struggle withand former chief technical adviser for the United producing the most greenhouse gases. The Chi- also the five cities with the highest energy con- amount of green spaces per person, although acceptable. On green policy, garbage collection, competing interests.”16 17
    • Asian Green City Index | Key findings from the categories Key findings from the ca tegoriesEnergy and CO2   Governments are trying to improve their is even greater, from 2 square metres per per- nologically difficult. The city portraits show, for reduce emissions from mass transport. All but wealthier cities have helped keep waste genera- renewables performance. All 22 cities in the son in Kolkata, to 166 square metres per person example, that tree planting is becoming a com- two cities promote greener forms of transport. tion in check.E nergy consumption and carbon emissions are rising as emerging economies develop,especially in China. However, most cities in the Index have invested in energy efficiency and clean energy sources. Twenty cities have formal energy strategies, and have also invested in in Guangzhou. But the Index shows a consen- sus is forming on the required elements for suc- cessful sustainable land use and building poli- mon environmental activity, especially for cities with lower incomes. Transport pricing systems are integrated in most cities, with the exception of poorer ones.   All but a few cities have traffic management   The 22 Asian cities generate an average of 380 kg of waste per person per year, compared with 465 kg in Latin America and 511 kg inIndex are responding with proactive policies to waste-to-energy projects. cies. systems, with traffic light sequencing, traffic Europe.limit greenhouse gases and use energy more   There is more to be done, however. While 18   Different regulatory systems and develop- Transport information systems, and multiple access points   Every city in the Asian Green City Index has aefficiently. cities have a climate change strategy, only 12 ment histories explain most of the divergence in for entry. Congestion reduction is common as strategy to reduce, recycle or re-use waste. The  Average carbon emissions in the Asian GreenCity Index are 4.6 tonnes per person, whichcompares well with the European Green City have conducted a baseline review of green- house gas emissions in the last five years and just ten engage in regular greenhouse gas moni- population density and green spaces. China, for example, places more outlying, undeveloped land within official city boundaries. T raffic management and congestion reduc- tion policies are widespread and compre- hensive in all but the poorest cities. On the well: 16 cities have road charges, pedestrian areas and park and ride systems.   Although wealthier cities have longer superi- vast majority have environmental standards governing waste disposal sites and for industrial hazardous waste. Most cities also monitor illegalIndex average of 5.2 tonnes per person. toring.   Income is less of an issue with regard to land other hand, with only a few exceptions, the or public transport networks, such as metros or waste dumping.  Cities using the least energy tend to have the use. For example, Tokyo, with a GDP per person richest cities have the best superior public trams, Jakarta was an exception, employing   Every city has recycling programmes cover-lowest incomes, but when income rises above of US$70,800, and Hanoi, with a GDP per person transport infrastructure (defined in the Index as “bus rapid transit” as its main superior network, ing a comprehensive range of materials includ-about US$20,000 in GDP per person, average Land use and of US$1,700, have roughly the same amount of transport that moves large numbers of passen- a lower cost alternative to rail, and an idea which ing organic waste, electrical items, glass, plas-emissions decline. green spaces per capita. gers quickly in dedicated lanes, such as metro, originated in Latin America and is widespread tics and paper.  The share of renewables in electricity pro- buildings   Despite the variety of conditions, every city bus rapid transit or trams). However, an assess- there.   Waste collection is weaker. Only seven citiesduction for Index cities is 11%, much lower than has policies to promote energy efficiency, incen- ment beyond policy indicators was difficult collect and adequately dispose of more thanthe figure for Latin America, at 64%, wherehydropower is much more common. In addi-tion, only about 3% of the energy these cities L iving conditions in Asian cities vary enor- mously. Mumbai, the densest city in the Index with 27,000 people per square kilometre, tives for homes and businesses to save energy, and policies to protect green spaces and contain urban sprawl. All but a few also have full or par- since many cities lacked reliable data on the overall length of bus networks or the percent- age of journeys taken by car, train, cycle or on Waste 99% of waste, and on average the figure is 81%, compared with 96% in Latin America.   Waste picking is the biggest policy chal-use on average is from renewable sources,which is less than half of Europe’s average shareof 7%. is more than 27 times more tightly packed than Wuhan, which has fewer than 1,000 people per square kilometre. The variation in green spaces tial eco-building standards for private and gov- ernment buildings.   Policies do not need to be expensive or tech- foot.   Every city in the Index has an urban mass transport policy and makes investments to A sian cities produce less waste per capita than Europe and Latin America, but waste collection is less effective. Proactive policies in lenge. Only six cities have comprehensive regu- lations.18 19
    • Asian Green City Index | Key findings from the categoriesWater water collection are nearly universal, although 99% or more, and five of the seven wealthiest (WHO). However, most cities are addressing the line for sulphur dioxide is in the form of a 24- departments with broad responsibilities, and the water stress is an issue in only about half of cities treat nearly all of their wastewater. Cities problem with government policies. Cities with hour average rather than an annual average, legal capacity to implement regulations.W ater consumption rates in the Asian Green City Index are similar to Latin America andEurope. In addition, water quality and sustain- cities.   Every city has water quality codes and stan- dards, and policies to publicly promote water with lower income fare much worse. In nine of the 11 cities with the lowest incomes in the Index (below US$10,000 in GDP per capita), an higher incomes perform better for sulphur diox- ide emissions and particulate matter, but nitro- gen dioxide levels — a primary source of which which would be even lower. Even so, the Index annual average still exceeds the WHO’s 24-hour average of 20 micrograms.   Environmental monitoring and providing public access to environmental information is nearly universal, except among a few lowerability policies are widespread in Asian cities. efficiency. average of 49% of residents have access to sani- is automobiles — show no correlation with   Clean air policies are widespread though. All income cities.Basic infrastructure is a problem for poorer tation and an average of just 36% of wastewater income. cities have a code to improve air quality, and all   The involvement of citizens, non-govern-cities. is treated.   Particulate matter is the biggest air quality cities conduct air quality monitoring. mental organisations and other stakeholders in  The 22 Asian cities use an average of 277 Sanitation   Most cities in the Index have environmental challenge identified in the Index. The average   Policies can make a difference if executed decisions about projects with environmentallitres of water per person per day, which is slight- codes covering sanitation, as well as minimum annual daily concentration of particulate mat- correctly. Yokohama and Tokyo used to have impacts is widespread and growing, even inly higher than the figure for Latin America, 264litres, but lower than the figure for Europe, at288 litres. A mong the eight individual categories, the sanitation category sees the widest perfor- mance gap between top-performing and bot- standards for wastewater treatment. Most also monitor on-site sanitation systems in homes or communal areas. However, only nine cities fully ter among the 22 cities is 108 micrograms per cubic metre, which is more than five times the WHO’s recommended safe level of 20 micro- much more polluted air until city authorities tightened regulations. China, where there is traditionally less scope for such input.   Split jurisdictions can create difficulties: the  The average water leakage rate in Asian tom-performing cities. The divide reflects differ- promote public awareness about the proper use grams. No cities in the Index are below the municipal structure of Metro Manila, for exam-cities, at 22%, is slightly lower than Europe’s, ences in infrastructure, which are closely related of sanitation systems, and eight of these cities guideline. Environmental ple, causes notable variation in environmental23%, but significantly better than Latin Ame- to wealth. have the highest incomes in the Index.   The annual average daily concentration of governance governance among municipalities within therica’s, at 35%. Wealthier cities have very good   The overall average rate of access to sanita- nitrogen dioxide among cities in the Index is 47 metropolitan area.leakage rates. For example, Tokyo’s figure of 3%is lower than any city in Latin America or Europe.Poorer cities have difficulties. Four of the cities tion is 70%, less than in the Latin American Green City Index, at 93%. However, the percent- age of wastewater treated is higher in the 22 Air quality micrograms per cubic metre, also well above the WHO’s recommended safe level of 40. Only six cities are below that benchmark. M ost municipal governments across the region have established institutions for environmental governance. Divided authority   The annual average daily level of sulphurwith low incomes (under US$10,000 in GDP percapita) lose over a third of water in the system toleakage. Asian cities than in Latin America, at 60% for Asia compared to 52% in Latin America.   Six of the seven wealthiest cities in the Asian A ir pollution is a serious problem across Asia, with average levels of the three pollutants evaluated in the Index exceeding the safe levels dioxide — a primary source of which is fossil fuels burned to generate power — is 23 micro- between jurisdictions and a lack of administra- tive expertise to implement policies are ongoing challenges to effective oversight.  Water meters, grey water recycling, and rain- Green City Index have sanitation access rates of set down by the World Health Organisation grams per cubic metre. The WHO’s safe guide-   Index cities generally have environmental20 21
    • Asian Green City Index | Managing the city as a ‘living organism’ Managing the city as a ‘living organism’ An interview with Nicholas You, urban environmental expert include data about informal settlements in been doing for some time, we begin to see In general, how can city planning be the Asian Green City Index in a way that another picture of reality. A common syndrome, improved? was methodologically sound. How might for example, is that we often confound prox- For many years I headed a best-practice initia- this affect the overall environmental imity with access. People living in informal tive at UN-Habitat, and we found literally The path to greener cities, says Nicholas You, requires rethinking how picture of cities in Asia, and how exactly do settlements may literally be living next door to hundreds of examples of innovations, new informal settlements affect the environ- water supply, sewerage and garbage collection models, new technologies. The single biggest we manage them. Holistic planning too often suffers from a sector- mental performance of a city? services, or for that matter to schools and hos- question I had to ask myself all the time was, by-sector approach across competing jurisdictions, and policymakers Informal settlements are, by definition, pitals, yet not have access to these services. ‘Why aren’t these best practices becoming the unsustainable. They represent a high degree of norm?’ The only answer I came up with is that fail to see the city as a single entity. Mr You is chairman of the Stee- social and economic exclusion. Milton Santos, Can we identify any common approaches the lessons from best practices are not being one of the most advanced thinkers of his time, in the way cities are addressing the fed into policymaking at the highest level. ring Committee of UN-Habitat’s World Urban Campaign, a platform said that poverty is the worst form of pollution. challenge of informal settlements? They remain isolated initiatives that might for private and public organisations to share sustainable urban Informal settlements are living proof that we I believe that we are beginning to see an inspire a few other cities, but they don’t are not planning our cities well. emerging pattern which favours upgrading necessarily have an impact on public policy,policies and tools. He also leads several other global sustainable development initiatives, and served on informal settlements, as opposed to removal and therefore don’t get replicated at scale. Wethe expert panel that advised the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) on the methodology for the Asian Often cities report high levels of access to and demolition. Slums are communities with need to realise there is a lot of innovation out basic services, such as potable water, their own social, cultural and economic there. How can we systematically documentGreen City Index. He spoke to the EIU about the results of the Index, the difficulty of measuring the waste collection and sanitation, when the networks. A lot of the reason why people don’t these stories and record the lessons learned,environmental impact of informal settlements and the necessity to administer cities as “living organisms”. situation on the ground may be very move from the informal settlement is because, and provide a feedback mechanism directly different because of the presence of in terms of location, they are ideal, with access into policy? informal settlements. What are the to jobs, or services they would otherwise have implications for trying to get an accurate to pay considerably more for. Most slums started The World Urban Campaign is working on an picture through data? their life located on the margins of the city. Over initiative to get cities to tell their stories under aThe Index results suggest that there is a and practices. Such initiatives can substantially ing carbon emissions therefore depends to a If you are looking at indicators, such as water time, with rapid growth, the slum actually finds new perspective of “living practices”. What arevery strong correlation between income reduce waste, improve efficiency and create large extent on reducing energy demand and consumption per capita or waste generation per itself located in the middle of the city. Removal you doing today to tackle tomorrow’s chal-and environmental performance in Asia, jobs and income generating opportunities. A changing consumption patterns. In Chinese capita, and leave out informal settlements, or relocation is also asking people to move from lenges? What innovations are being tested,with higher income cities performing typical example is waste recycling and reuse. In cities, more than two thirds of energy con- you’re leaving out part of the picture. The water a neighbourhood where they have lived a good what new tools are being developed?better. However, the results also show that many cities in developing countries, this is sumption is used for industrial production. The company has a remit, and the sewage company part of their life, if not their whole life.once cities reach about US$20,000 in GDP carried out by scavengers working and living in average urban consumer is actually quite frugal, has a remit, and their remits do not typically What are the most important steps thatper capita, their levels of carbon emis- deplorable conditions. The right mix of policies, and a sizeable portion of the rural population include informal settlements. They rightly say What kinds of upgrades are cities under- cities in Asia and the rest of the world havesions, water consumption and waste participation and empowerment could result in remains off grid. The focus for carbon emis- “100% coverage”, while the city as a whole may taking? to take to become more environmentallygeneration do not keep rising with income. win-win situations whereby waste is recycled sions, for the foreseeable future, is on reducing drop down to 70% access. Since the Green City Upgrading takes place on several fronts — sustainable?Have you seen evidence for this phenome- into usable products; methane is captured to energy intensity in industrial production, while Index is comparative within a region, that is, hooking the settlement into the infrastructure We have to take planning seriously. I don’t meannon more widely in Asia? produce green energy; and the scavengers no at the same time accepting an increase in comparing Asian cities with each other, the grid, and providing waste collection, water and ‘sectoral’ planning, where each sector — water,I think there is a certain amount of veracity in longer have to work in life-threatening household energy consumption. While this distortion won’t be that serious. If we compare sanitation. There is also an issue of tenure. Most energy, waste, sanitation — plans independent-this correlation. How much is due to environ- conditions. may appear contradictory, it is perfectly justi- across regions, we have to be a little more of the time an informal settlement remains ly. We must look at the city or the metro regionmental awareness and how much is due to fied, since access to energy is critical to improv- careful. informal because it is not clear who owns or has as a whole. Competing jurisdictions are one oftechnological progress is subject to debate. But Chinese cities perform poorly as expected ing quality of life and economic productivity. the right to the land. The service provider, the the biggest enemies to sustainable urbanisa-generally speaking as cities reach a certain level for carbon emissions and air quality. But What is missing, however, is a comprehensive What are the objectives of UN-Habitat with water or sewerage company, for example, is tion. You have metropolitan areas cutting acrossof wealth, their inhabitants will demand value they perform perhaps better than expect- framework for urban sustainability. Such a respect to improving statistics on informal very reluctant to put in infrastructure if tenure is many jurisdictions, with several planningfor money and that includes clean air, clean ed in other environmental areas, and are framework, which is equally valid for all cities settlements? not clear. commissions and independent servicewater and a liveable urban environment. particularly strong on environmental worldwide, must look at how we can help foster UN-Habitat has been trying to show that the providers. You could be busy trying to green policies measured in the Index. How would compact and complete communities that avoid methods being used do not provide an accurate What incentives do cities have to upgrade your city, but half of the population thatAlthough wealth is important for environ- you evaluate China’s current approach to urban sprawl and reduce reliance on individual picture of what is happening when it comes to rather than remove the settlements? depends on your city may live in the suburbsmental performance, what kinds of initia- balancing growth with sustainability? motorized transport. informal settlements. It will take years to The cities that are trying to play a proactive role and fall under a different governmentaltives or activities can lower-income cities The context of carbon emissions in Chinese change the way statistical offices work and realise that globalisation is affecting everyone, structure; and these governments are busyundertake to improve their environmental cities is different to the situation in Europe or Informal settlements clearly affect a city’s census data is taken. The statistical issue is, how everywhere. They can become victims of building the next shopping mall, the next golfperformance? North America. Cities in the west typically environmental footprint. Yet by their do you gradually refine techniques so these globalisation, or get some of the benefits. The course, the next exburb. The city is a livingIn economic terms, cities in lower-income account for 70% of energy consumption, of nature, informal settlements are not well problems are not overlooked. When data is proactive cities realise you can’t have high organism that needs to be managed as a singlecountries have the most to gain from adopting which 70% is used for heating, ventilation, air covered by statistics. For that reason the disaggregated, for example, at the household or percentages of your population socially entity, and just like any living organism, it needsenvironmentally sound and sustainable policies conditioning and lighting of buildings. Reduc- Economist Intelligence Unit could not neighbourhood level, which UN-Habitat has excluded and expect to be a global city. to develop holistically.22 23
    • Asian Green City Index | Exemplar projects Exemplar ProjectsEnergy and CO2 tem is unique because it is the first to cover all sions, which are estimated to be roughly the Tokyo publicly contrasts its own mandatory One of the largest of these is the Donghai which is expected in 2011, it will be the largest major buildings, including offices, hospitals, same size as Denmark’s or Norway’s. Just as efforts with the voluntary ones of the Japanese Bridge Wind Farm, located about 5 miles off- zero-emission building in the world. universities and government buildings. important, however, is that the city is trying to government. shore in the East China Sea, which began feed- The tower’s environmental performanceTokyo: The first cap and trade system in Asia One reason for the system is the local gov- encourage the adoption of such schemes on the ing electricity into the grid in July 2010. The will come from a range of features. The mostTokyo performs reasonably well in the Index ernment’s desire to address the city’s own emis- national and international stage. For example, Shanghai: The largest offshore wind farm US$340 million project has 34 turbines, each striking is its curved design, which funnelsregarding carbon emissions: it finishes 11th for in China with 3 megawatts of capacity, and is the first wind towards turbines that provide 4% of theemissions per capita and first for energy con- Shanghai, which currently produces only about offshore wind farm in China, and the world’s building’s energy. Equally important are fea-sumed per unit of GDP. The city’s ambitious poli- Ideas from other cities 2% of its electricity from renewable sources — first major offshore wind farm located outside tures which reduce energy consumption. Solarcies, however, are what really sets it apart. and almost all of that from hydropower — is of Europe. It is capable of providing about 1% of panels on the roof supply power to automated Rather than wait for a national programme, making massive investments in wind power. The the city’s total power production; and is expect- window blinds that reduce the sun’s impactthe city created its own mandatory cap and Osaka is making concerted efforts to use solar energy to reduce its carbon emissions. In 2009 the municipal city built its first wind power station in 2003 and ed to cut coal use by 100,000 tonnes per year inside the building. Meanwhile, the skin of thetrade system, the first in Asia, as part of its own government began offering subsidies for the installation of solar power systems, with homes eligible for up to by 2007, it had three sites with a total of 24 and thereby reduce carbon emissions by building includes an air gap that traps heat; thewider climate change strategy. The system came US$3,400 and offices US$17,000. The city is also deploying floating, solar-powered water purifiers on the megawatts of capacity, producing enough elec- 246,000 tonnes annually. warm air then rises and is harvested in heatinto effect in April 2010, and aims to cut emis- Dontonbori canal that can each clean 2,400 litres per day. Osaka’s biggest solar venture is Japan’s first com- tricity to power an estimated 24,000 house- exchangers. The cooling features mean thatsions by 25% from 2000 levels. All organisations mercial solar electric plant, with a 10-megawatt capacity, to be built on the artificial island of Yumeshima in holds. In 2008, one of the three plants, located the air conditioning system is 80% smaller thanthat use the energy equivalent of 1,500 litres of in a wetland reserve, was expanded from 4.5 for a conventional building of its size. Thatoil annually for fuel, heat and electricity are the city’s harbour. Bangkok is promoting the use of biofuels. The authorities aim to increase the proportion of gasohol — a mixture of gasoline and ethanol — in the fuel mix (the total of all fuels consumed) from less than megawatts of capacity to 19.5 megawatts, which Land use and buildings goes a long way towards making the wholerequired to participate. In the first five years to 20% in 2007 to 50% by 2012. They are also funding the purchase of used cooking oil for refinement into bio- could provide power for an additional 15,000 structure 58% more efficient than a traditional2015, those in the scheme will need to reduce diesel. Mumbai has a fragmented energy delivery market which makes overarching conservation projects dif- households from that single site. New technology: The world’s greenest sky- skyscraper. Looking beyond energy, a rainwa-emissions by 6% (from their average level of ficult. In September 2009, the Mumbai Energy Alliance was formed. It is a partnership between the Mumbai The city’s future plans are even more ambi- scraper in Guangzhou ter collection system, combined with the solaremissions between 2007 and 2010). In the fol- government, the International Institute for Energy Conservation, and others, including energy companies, to tious. By 2020, officials expect to have a total of Skyscrapers spring up almost overnight in panels, will provide warm water to the build-lowing five years they must cut an additional implement energy efficiency programmes in the region. A pipeline of proposed projects is expected to reduce 13 wind farms producing a total of 2.1 China, and the results are not always environ- ing. Overall, the Pearl River Tower is so rich in17%. Those who make bigger reductions are carbon dioxide emissions by 13 million tonnes. gigawatts of total installed capacity, providing mentally unsustainable. When the 71-storey ideas that it is well worth studying by otherallowed to sell credits. The city says that the sys- electricity for more than 4 million households. Pearl River Tower in Guangzhou is completed, Asian cities.24 25
    • Asian Green City Index | Exemplar projectsOld technology: Planting trees in Beijing this problem, the local government has encour- that involves creating green belts of trees and Transport building 140 km of new track to be opened in Green transport: A holistic approach in Sin-Beijing has serious air quality challenges, with aged green spaces as one part of the solution. flowers bordering several of the main ring 2012, and expects by 2020 to have 22 lines gaporelevels of nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and The most high profile element of these roads, green separation belts between sections Shanghai: Doubling the size of the world’s totalling 877 km. In effect, Shanghai is adding the Singapore already has a strong foundation insuspended particulate matter that are all above efforts is the “Voluntary Tree Planting Day”. The of the city, specific gardens and green spaces longest metro equivalent of the longest system of any city in the sustainable transport, and achieves an abovethe Index averages. In addition, it has had an 26th annual event in 2010 saw some 2 million where people gather, and the greening of 1 mil- Shanghai’s metro has grown at a stunning rate. world to its already record-breaking network. average ranking for the category in the Index.increasing number of sandstorms in recent residents, including the president and most lion square metres of rooftop. The goal is that a The city opened its first line, which covered only 20decades, especially in the spring, as the north- senior officials, out planting trees. This event is resident will never be more than 500 metres km, in 1995. For most of the last decade, it hasern desert has crept steadily closer. To address only the most visible part of a broader policy from a green space. invested US$4.5 billion per year and now has a sys- Ideas from other cities Progress has been steady, and accelerated in tem with 12 lines, 268 stations, and 420 km of preparation for the 2008 Olympics. The city’s track, making it the world’s longest in absoluteIdeas from other cities green area — that which is covered by lawns, terms. By comparison, London has 408 km and Hong Kong’s Mass Transit Railway (MTR) became the world’s first heavy rail train line to use automated, driverless and the shadow of trees and bushes — rose New York has 368 km. In August 2010, Shanghai technology when it introduced it on a 3.8 km route from Sunny Bay Station on the main airport line to the Disneyland from 36% in 2000 to 43% in 2007, and has since set its one-day record of 6.7 million travellers.The Resort. Automation is more energy efficient because trains on the line achieve one of the highest average speeds on Hanoi has adopted a long-term strategy to turn itself into a “green, civilised and modern city” by 2050, which then reached just over 50%. In comparison, the main problem is that the metro is still too small for the MTR, at 55 km per hour, even though other lines on the system are allowed to reach much higher peak speeds will involve setting aside up to 70% of the city’s natural territory for “tree and water space.” In 2010, Osaka figure for London is 63%. Although this may the city’s almost 20 million inhabitants. Shanghai when possible. Other efficiency measures on the line include: automatic adjustment of train service frequency based planned to more than quadruple the number of its so called green “curtains” for the walls of public buildings not prevent sandstorms, it makes for a much has extensive traffic jams at rush hour, and some on the number of passengers actually waiting; and use of natural light and open ventilation in stations to reduce en- and “carpets” for the roofs to 485. It creates these by planting vegetables, such as bitter melons and sweet more liveable city in such close proximity to a metro lines can become so crowded that people ergy consumption. Wuhan took a step towards integrating its public transport services by introducing a card that potatoes, on the roofs and walls of city hall headquarters, primary and middle schools, ward offices, and other desert. have been hired to push passengers into train car- provides discounted fares on ferries, buses and its metro system. Jakarta is planning to add seven more lines to the public facilities in the city. This eases the city’s “heat island phenomenon,” which occurs when a metropolis is riages in order to reduce delays in stations. For the eight which already make up the city’s TransJakarta Busway, a tram-like “bus rapid transit” service which first opened much warmer than surrounding areas. Residents of Nanjing so rarely have central heating that they frequent- moment, buses are taking some of the overflow. in 2004. The service carries passengers in modern air-conditioned buses in dedicated bus lanes which currently cover ly reverse their air conditioning units in the winter to heat their accommodation — a highly wasteful ap- The city has aimed to more than triple the 86 km of 124 km. Not only is the service the fastest way to get through the city’s traffic-clogged streets, but the buses also use proach. The city is therefore setting up community heating systems for new residential blocks that use excess exclusive bus lanes set aside between 2002 and biodiesel, which emits less CO2 than conventional diesel or compressed natural gas. The Osaka city government is heat from electricity generating facilities. 2008. Looking ahead, however, the metro system installing rapid chargers for electric vehicles at 10 locations, including the main city office’s car park. will see even faster growth than before. The city is26 27
    • Asian Green City Index | Exemplar projectsHowever, improving the city’s performance even the vehicle stock, from 3% to 1.5%. A number of estimates constitutes 40% to 50% of Hanoi’s In order to address this issue, the Industrial The system is about more than compliance: ing garbage trucks in order to understandfurther remains a strong priority on an island other initiatives are also in the pipeline, includ- garbage, will undergo anaerobic composting in Works Department paid two local firms it allows insight into the waste itself. Compa- waste flow in an area on the northern outskirtswhere roads take up 12% of the island’s total ing piloting diesel-electric hybrid buses, revising order to create fertiliser. According to the com- US$151,000 to develop jointly a GPS system to nies equipped with the system, for example, of the city.land area, and the transport sector accounts for fuel duties, improving emissions testing and pany, this method is much cheaper than burn- track garbage shipments. It cost just over gain a better understanding of the waste theyabout 13% of total energy consumption, as well investing US$43 million to create new cycling ing waste, and Malaysian plantations have al- US$650 to equip each truck, but once they produce, and in particular, what portions theyas 50% of fine particulate matter in the air. paths. ready expressed an interest in the output. have the system on board, both the depart- could sell rather than throw away. GPS has also Water In response, the city has devised a compre- Second, recycled waste, such as rubber, plastic ment and the companies that created the waste allowed interesting academic investigations ofhensive, integrated strategy for the next two and metals, will be packaged and sold to com- can confirm whether it is transported and dis- Bangkok’s waste collection system, with three Singapore: Water as good as newdecades that aims to both lower the city’s Waste panies in Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Fi- posed of properly. Japanese scientists and a Thai colleague track- Water has long been a concern for Singapore, aenvironmental footprint and improve the travel nally, some of the other waste can be processed city-state with few fresh sources. Moreover,experience for residents. The city’s plan calls Hanoi: Making waste pay for use as construction material. The company occasional political tension with neighbouringfor increasing the share of morning commuting Much of the waste central Hanoi produces goes expects that only 15% of the waste going Ideas from other cities Malaysia, the one possible foreign source,journeys on public transport to 70% by 2020, to landfill with little or no sorting. In some dis- through the plant will need to be sent to land- convinced Singapore’s leaders to pursueup from 59% in 2008. Officials will invest tricts the trash is simply thrown into lakes. This fill, and this will be processed to do the least greater self-sufficiency. The most innovative ofUS$40 billion to double the rail network, from will soon change. The Advanced International harm to the environment. With little room for new landfill sites, Hong Kong is concentrating on waste reduction. It imposed a US$0.06 tax on several strategies which the city has pursued142 km to 278 km by 2020, and plan to develop Company, under a 50-year “build-operate-trans- plastic shopping bags in July 2009 to help decrease the estimated 8 billion such bags that end up in landfill annually. concurrently has been the purification ofmore connections between bus and rail ser- fer” arrangement with Hanoi, is scheduled to Bangkok: Follow that trash Wuhan is shifting its waste policy from landfill to incineration. Its Sanitation Master Plan calls for the building of five wastewater, which Singapore has brandedvices. Bus operations will be further centralised, open a US$31 million, 15-hectare waste-process- Bangkok has seen numerous instances of waste waste-to-energy incinerators with a total capacity of 6,500 tonnes per day and an output of around 150 megawatts. “NEWater”.with more feeder buses connecting to main ing plant this year that can handle 2,000 tonnes dumped in landfill sites without proper treat- Osaka’s municipal government holds a recycling contest for companies in the city, rewarding small and medium- Much of the technology has long existed,routes, more exclusive priority lanes for buses, of solid waste per day. After the time period ex- ment or disposed of illegally in some other way. sized enterprises for their efforts to reduce waste. Taipei City’s government runs a “Repaired Furniture Display although Singapore uses advanced forms. Theand real-time public transport information pires, the operation becomes city property. Many industrial waste plants also report false Area,” where officials accept discarded large items of furniture from residents which the city refurbishes and sells. wastewater first goes through two types of fil-online and through mobile phones. The city has The plan is to separate waste into three figures and get rid of at least some of the Since 2009, when the scheme began, the city has sold more than 100,000 items for US$300,000. tration — micro-filtration and reverse osmosisalready halved its limit on the annual growth of types. First, organic waste, which the company garbage they receive improperly to save money. — which between them take out suspended28 29
    • Asian Green City Index | Exemplar projectsparticles, metals, salts and most pathogens. Most of the NEWater goes to non-domestic feeds the drinking supply. By 2011, it will make ture trails and minimising waste. The clubs also ties, including air monitoring, water harvesting, harness existing interest in the environment inThen ultraviolet light treatment kills off any re- users, such as wafer-production plants that up about 3% of what people consume. The provide a convenient way to spread information recycling paper, awareness-raising campaigns, a way that greatly encourages sustainabilitymaining microbes that may have unexpectedly need a very pure supply. Nevertheless, the gov- strategy has worked: familiarity has led to rapid widely on environmental campaigns, such as eco-tours, and even adventure sports. Thus, for now and will shape attitudes among residentsremained. The resulting water is more than ernment made a conscious decision to pump a acceptance. Although the first water recycling the city’s efforts to reduce the use of firecrack- a very small investment, Delhi has been able to for years to come.pure enough to drink. small amount into the reservoir system that facility only came online in 1999, by 2007 there ers during Diwali celebrations. were four, providing all together up to 15% of The environment department provides the the city’s water needs. This figure has increased framework for the clubs, along with a small Ideas from other citiesIdeas from other cities to 30% with the full completion of the fifth and subsidy of about US$200 to each, but the en- largest NEWater plant at Changi in 2010. thusiasm of the students and teachers is what really drives the idea. There are clubs in about Singapore’s Centre for Liveable Cities is a think tank established by the Singapore government in 2008. It Nanjing and Beijing both face very low water supplies and are encouraging conservation in various ways. Nan- 1,000 schools, and among these are 100 lead combines expertise from the public and private sectors and produces events, research and reports on sustain- jing is increasing water prices by 12% while Beijing is planning extensive work to reduce leakage in the distribu- Environmental schools, each of which has a teacher who has able urban development and environmental management. The Orangi Pilot project in Karachi, which has tion system, and is encouraging households and businesses to install water meters. Hong Kong is spending governance received instruction to train others. The lead been hailed as a success story across Asia, gives residents of poor communities the resources and engineering US$2.5 billion to repair or replace 3,000 km of its 7,700 km water-main network by 2015. The government is schools also coordinate the activities of up to expertise to help solve their own environmental challenges. The project began in the 1980s in Orangi Town, considering extending the program to cover the entire network after that year. To help address its high water Eco-clubs: Educating future environmen- 30 more schools. The clubs cover every age, an area within Karachi, and initially focused on sewer improvements. Within 10 years, the programme had ex- leakage rate, the Delhi city government has set up a leak detection and investigation unit. It began work with talists in Delhi from primary schools all the way up to universi- panded to cover not only environmental challenges, but had also led to the establishment of schools, health sounding rods and pipe locators but is now equipped with more modern sonic and electronic equipment. In Urban environmental sustainability is a result of ties. Some are particularly active. At Salwan clinics, women’s work centres, stores and a credit organisation to finance further projects. Today the Orangi 1987, the Yokohama Waterworks Bureau, recognising that it had benefited extensively from a British engineer’s attitudes as much as anything else, and Delhi’s Public School, for example, a primary school, project model is being replicated in other cities in Pakistan, as well as Sri Lanka, India, Nepal and South Africa. technical assistance a century earlier, began inviting experts from developing-world cities to attend training pro- environment department has been using the club is an institutional member of eight The Seoul city government runs the “Green Seoul Citizen Committee” which encourages citizen participation grammes. Over more than two decades, nearly 2,000 people have participated from 35 countries. The city, school “eco-clubs” to try to shape students’ non-governmental organisations, and divides in environmental policy. Established in 1995, the green committee is chaired by Seoul’s mayor and has 100 which has one of the lowest water leakage rates in the Index, also sends out experts to other countries, and has views. The clubs have broad aims, and engage students by interest into those interested in members from non-governmental organisations and businesses. Meetings take place about 120 times per entered into technical assistance arrangements with water departments of several developing Asian cities. students in a wide variety of projects, including land, air, water, energy, or waste management. year to review new policy proposals on conservation and climate change. planting trees, conserving water, creating na- Students can engage in a vast range of activi-30 31
    • Asian Green City Index | Methodology MethodologyT he Asian Green City Index measures the cur- rent environmental performance of 22major Asian cities, as well as their commitment detailed ranking of Index results, the Asian Green City Index results are presented in five bands defined relative to the average score. ties companies, municipal and regional environ- mental bureaux, and environmental ministries. The data are generally for the year 2008-2009, ed where uncertainties arose regarding individ- ual data points. With regard to the indicator on CO2 emis- indicators use a min-max calculation, where the best city receives ten points and the worst city zero. In some cases, reasonable benchmarks indicators were also scored on a scale of zero to ten, with ten points assigned to cities that meet the criteria on the checklist. For the “greenhouseto reducing their future environmental impact. The Index scores cities across eight cate- but when these were not available they were sions, the Economist Intelligence Unit used were inserted to prevent outliers from skewing gas (GHG) monitoring” indicator, for example,The selection sought to include the capital cities gories — energy and CO2, land use and build- taken from earlier years. international CO2 coefficients provided by the the distribution of scores. In such cases, cities cities were assessed according to whether theyor leading business capitals of all major Asian ings, transport, waste, water, sanitation, air UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change were scored against either an upper or a lower regularly monitor GHG emissions and publishcountries, selected by size and importance. quality, and environmental governance — and Data quality: The availability and comparabili- to estimate the CO2 emissions produced by the benchmark, or both. For example, a lower their findings every one to three years. SelectedWhere city-specific data were significantly lack- 29 individual indicators. Fourteen are quantita- ty of data across cities is far more limited in Asia city’s energy mix. Only in very exceptional cases benchmark of 10% was used in scoring “waste- qualitative indicators which seek to measure theing, cities had to be omitted and this was tive and measure how a city currently performs than in Europe or North America. The Index has did the Economist Intelligence Unit produce water treated” and all cities with less than that existence of policies in certain areas — for exam-notably the case for Ho Chi Minh City. — for example, a city’s water leakage or waste sought to include the most recent data available estimates for CO2 and energy consumption on figure received a score of zero for that indicator. ple, the containment of urban sprawl — have The methodology, developed by the EIU in production. The remaining 15 qualitative indica- for each city, even though this may mean that in the basis of regression analysis, referencing data Cities use varying definitions for certain indi- been multiplied using a rating on the citys effi-cooperation with Siemens, builds on the work of tors assess policies and plans — for example, a some cases, because of differences in the capac- of peer cities if this data was not available for the cators, notably definitions of green spaces, ciency to implement environmental policiesearlier regional Green City Indices. To be most city’s commitment to reducing the environmen- ity of cities to gather and publish information specific city. This was the case for Kuala Lumpur, municipal waste generated, length of superior (Policy Implementation Effectiveness Rating).applicable to Asia, the structure has been adapt- tal impact of energy consumption, green stan- quickly, the comparison points are several years Karachi and Hanoi. transport networks, and administrative areas. In These ratings were produced by EIU analystsed to accommodate variations in data quality dards for public building projects, reducing con- apart. Where gaps in the data existed, the Econ- such cases, the EIU has sought to standardise with thorough knowledge of the relevant city onand availability, and environmental challenges gestion or recycling waste. omist Intelligence Unit has produced estimates Indicators: In order to compare data points the definition used. However, some differences a scale of one to five, with five being highlyspecific to the region. An independent panel of from national averages or other available, rele- across cities, and to calculate aggregate scores still exist and where significant these are identi- effective.international experts in the field of urban sus- Data collection: An EIU team collected data vant data. for each city, the data gathered from various fied in the footnotes.tainability also provided important insights and between April and June 2010. Wherever possi- The EIU made every effort to obtain the most sources had to be made comparable. For this Qualitative indicators were scored by ana- Index construction: The Index is composed offeedback in the construction of the Asian Green ble, the data were taken from publicly available recent data, including checking quantitative purpose, the quantitative indicators were “nor- lysts with expertise in the relevant city, based on aggregate scores of all of the underlying indica-City Index. Owing to concerns that the data was official sources, such as national or regional sta- data points with the cities’ environmental malised” on a scale of zero to ten, with the best objective criteria that consider cities’ targets, tors. These are first aggregated by category, cre-insufficiently reliable or comparable to justify a tistical offices, local city authorities, local utili- departments. Data providers were also contact- city scoring ten points and the worst zero. Most strategies, and concrete actions. The qualitative ating a score for each. These are in turn com-32 33
    • Asian Green City Index | Methodology List of categories, indicators and their weightings Category Indicator Type Weight Description Normalisation technique* Energy CO2 emissions per capita Quantitative 25% Total annual carbon dioxide emissions generated by the city from Min-max approximation. and CO2 total energy consumption, in tonnes per capita. Energy consumption Quantitative 25% Total annual energy consumed by the city, in megajoules Min-max. per unit of GDP per unit of GDP (in thousands of US$, at current prices). Clean energy policy Qualitative 25% Measure of a city’s efforts to reduce carbon emissions associated Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. with energy consumption. Climate change action plan Qualitative 25% Measure of a city’s strategy to combat its contribution to climate change. Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. Land use Green spaces per capita Quantitative 25% Sum of all public parks, recreation areas, greenways, waterways, and Zero-max; upper benchmark of 100m2 per and other protected areas accessible to the public, in m2 per inhabitant. person inserted to prevent outliers. buildings Population density Quantitative 25% Population density, in persons per km2. Min-max; upper benchmark of 10,000 persons per km2 inserted to account for differences in territorial definitions. Eco buildings policy Qualitative 25% Measure of a city’s efforts to minimise the environmental impact Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. of buildings. Land use policy Qualitative 25% Measure of a city’s efforts to minimise the environmental Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. and ecological impact of urban development. Trans- Superior public transport Quantitative 33% Total length of all superior modes of public transport, ie BRT, tram, light Zero-max; upper benchmark of 0.3km/km2 port network rail and subway, measured in terms of the area of the city (in km/km2). inserted to prevent outliers. Urban mass transport policy Qualitative 33% Measure of a city’s efforts to create a viable mass transport system Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. as an alternative to private vehicles. Congestion reduction policy Qualitative 33% Measure of a city’s efforts to reduce traffic congestion. Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. Waste Share of waste collected and Quantitative 25% Share of waste collected by the city and adequately disposed either Min-max. adequately disposed in sanitary landfills, incineration sites or in regulated recycling facilities. Expressed in terms of the total volume of waste generated by the city. Waste generated per capita Quantitative 25% Total annual volume of waste generated by the city, including waste Zero-max. not officially collected and disposed, in kg per capita. Waste collection and Qualitative 25% Measure of a city’s efforts to improve or sustain its waste collection Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. disposal policy and disposal system to minimise the environmental impact of waste. Waste recycling and re-use policy Qualitative 25% Measure of a city’s efforts to reduce, recycle and re-use waste. Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. Water Water consumption per capita Quantitative 25% Total water consumed by the city, on a daily basis, Scored against a lower benchmark of 500 expressed in litres per person. litres per person per day and an upper bench- mark of 100 litres per person per day. Water system leakages Quantitative 25% Share of water lost in transmission between supplier and end user, Zero-max; lower benchmark of 45% excluding illegally sourced water or on-site leakages, inserted to prevent outliers. expressed in terms of total water supplied. Water quality policy Qualitative 25% Measure of a city’s policy towards improving the quality of surface Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. and drinking water. Water sustainability policy Qualitative 25% Measure of a city’s efforts to manage water sources efficiently. Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. Sani- Population with access to Quantitative 33% Share of the total population either with direct connections to sewerage, Zero-max; lower benchmarkbined into an overall score. To create the catego-   Above average: Scores between 0.5 and 1.5 area”, with an administrative area between tation improved sanitation or access to improved on-site sources such as septic tanks and improved of 20% inserted to prevent outliers.ry scores, within each category all the underly- times the standard deviation above the mean 1,000 square kilometres and 5,000 square kilo- latrines that are not accessible to the public. This figure excludes opening indicators received the same weight during   Average: Scores between 0.5 times the stan- metres; and “large area”, with an administrative public latrines or sewers and other shared facilities.aggregation. The scores were then rebased onto dard deviation below and 0.5 times the standard area larger than 5,000 square kilometres. Share of wastewater treated Quantitative 33% Share of wastewater produced by the city that is collected and Zero-max; lower benchmark of 10%a scale of zero to 100. To build the overall Index deviation above the mean   Income: “low income”, with GDP per capita of treated to at least a basic/primary level. inserted to prevent outliers.scores, the EIU assigned even weightings to   Below average: Scores between 0.5 and 1.5 less than US$10,000; “middle income”, with Sanitation policy Qualitative 33% Measure of a city’s efforts to reduce pollution associated with Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10.each category score so that no category was times the standard deviation below the mean GDP per capita of US$10,000 to US$25,000; and inadequate sanitation.given greater importance than any other. The   Well below average: Scores more than 1.5 “high income”, with GDP per capita of more than Air Nitrogen dioxide concentration Quantitative 25% Annual daily mean of NO2 concentrations. Scored against an upper benchmarkIndex is essentially the sum of all category times the standard deviation below the mean. US$25,000. quality levels of 40ug/m3 (EIU calculation based on WHOscores, rebased to 100. The equal weighting of   Density: “low density”, with a population of target) and lower benchmark of 80ug/m3each category reflects feedback from the expert to prevent outliers. Clusters: In order to conduct a deeper analysis less than 5,000 people per square kilometre;panel. of city trends, the 22 cities in the Index were “mid density”, with a population between 5,000 Sulphur dioxide concentration Quantitative 25% Annual daily mean of SO2 concentrations. Scored against an upper benchmark of Finally, the cities were placed in one of five clustered into a series of groups, defined by the levels 10ug/m3 (WHO target) and a lower people per square kilometre and 10,000 peoplebands, both within categories and overall, size of the population, area, income, density and benchmark of 50ug/m3 to prevent outliers. per square kilometre; and “high density”, with areflecting the relevant scores. These bands are temperature. These included: Suspended particulate matter Quantitative 25% Annual daily mean of PM10 concentrations. Scored against an upper benchmark of population of more than 10,000 people perbuilt around the average (mean) score and are   Population: “small population”, with a popu- concentration levels 20ug/m3 (WHO target) and a lower square kilometre.defined using the standard deviation — a statis- lation below 5 million; “mid population”, with a   Temperature: “low temperature”, with an aver- benchmark of 200ug/m3 to prevent outliers.tical term which is the area around the mean population between 5 and 10 million; and “high age temperature of below 16 degrees Celsius; Clean air policy Qualitative 25% Measure of a city’s efforts to reduce air pollution. Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10.that covers two-thirds of the values. The bands population” with a population exceeding 10 mil- Environ- Environmental management Qualitative 33% Measure of the extent of the city’s environmental oversight. Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. “mid temperature”, with an average temperatureare defined as follows: lion inhabitants. mental Environmental monitoring Qualitative 33% Measure of the city’s efforts to monitor its environmental performance. Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. of between 16 degrees Celsius and 25 degrees  Well above average: Scores more than 1.5   Area: “small area”, with an administrative gover- Public participation Qualitative 33% Measure of the city’s efforts to involve the public in environmental Scored by EIU analysts on a scale of 0 to 10. Celsius; and “high temperature”, with an averagetimes the standard deviation above the mean area smaller than 1,000 square kilometres; “mid nance decision-making. temperature above 25 degrees Celsius. *Cities score full points if they reach or exceed upper benchmarks, and zero points if they reach or exceed lower benchmarks.34 35
    • Asian Green City Index | Bangkok_Thailand sector accounts for almost 40% of the city’s CO2 buys municipal waste and converts it into gas Bangkok_Thailand emissions. There are now more than 6 million through decomposition and fermentation. It vehicles registered in the city, up from around then produces electricity from the gas. The city 4.2 million in 1999. Electricity generation, used also funds the purchase of used cooking oil for mainly for lighting and air conditioning, refinement into bio-diesel. accounts for a further third of the city’s CO2 emissions. Only about 5% of electricity is gener- Land use and buildings: Bangkok ranks ated through renewable sources, with most below average in the land use and buildings cat- electricity coming from natural gas. However, egory, mainly for a relative lack of green spaces. the city is relatively energy efficient, with energy At 3 square metres per person across the metro- consumption of an estimated 6 megajoules per politan area, Bangkok is well below the Index US$ of GDP, which is equal to the Index average. average of 39 square metres. Green spaces have The city performs relatively well in terms of suffered at the expense of rapid urbanisation clean energy policies, in particular for a strong and a general tendency to favour economic devel- energy strategy and waste-to-energy invest- opment over environmental priorities. Bangkok ments. It has also signed up to international is attempting to improve this situation (see covenants to reduce greenhouse gases, includ- “green initiatives” below), and has implemented ing the C40 group of global cities that have policies to protect its existing green spaces and pledged to make CO2 reductions. other environmentally sensitive areas. The city has the opportunity to bolster its eco-buildings Green initiatives: The city has backed a num- policies, since it currently only has a partial code ber of energy conservation measures as part of for eco-efficiency standards in new private its global warming action plan, which runs from buildings and has no green standards for its pub- 2007 to 2012. Few specific details are included lic buildings. However, Bangkok does score well in the report, but according to the document, for publicly promoting ways to improve energy the city is encouraging residents to use air condi- efficiency in buildings. The city’s climate change tioning on an “as-needed basis”, which officials action plan also contains a pledge to make its believe could reduce electricity consumption by buildings more energy efficient. nearly 800 gigawatt hours per year. Other mea- sures mentioned in the plan include promoting Green initiatives: The city is focusing on tree the use of energy-efficient light bulbs and appli- planting to improve and expand green spaces. ances, but these initiatives are not mandatory. Its climate change action plan calls for planting 3 The city is also considering a waste-to-energy million new trees by the end of 2012 along road- facility that would be capable of processing sides, canals and estuaries. In April 2010, 3,000 tonnes of waste per day, but the city con- Bangkok’s deputy governor announced plans to cedes that further research is needed before the redevelop an approximately 740-square-kilome- plan can move forward. This would be in addi- tre informal settlement within the city. This will tion to ongoing waste-to-energy activities con- involve building new residential complexes with ducted by the Thai Oil Public Company, which a focus on increasing park space. Adapting suc-Background indicatorsTotal population (million) 5.7 B angkok, situated along the banks of the Chao Phraya River, is Thailand’s capital and a regional commercial and transportation hub. It water consumption take into account the metro- politan region, which has a population of about 12 million, while indicators for waste, transport The city’s performance is below average in the categories of land use and buildings, transport, waste, water and sanitation. Particular weak- Performance well Bangkok below Other cities average above well below average average aboveAdministrative area (km2) 1,568.7 is one of the world’s most popular tourist des- and air are taken from the city centre, which has nesses in these categories include a relative lack average averageGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 9,095.41e tinations, and its services-dominated economy a population of about 5.7 million. of green spaces, higher-than-average levels of Energy and CO2Population density (persons/km2) 3,607.4e accounts for nearly 30% of Thailand’s GDP, with Bangkok ranks average overall in the Index. waste generation and water consumption, and aTemperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 28.0 most heavy industry located outside the capital. Its best performances are in the air quality and low amount of treated wastewater. Land use and buildingsData applies to Bangkok City, 1) Based on population for BangkokMetropolitan Region, e) EIU estimate Bangkok is home to all of the country’s major environmental governance categories, where it Transport financial institutions and the regional head- ranks above average. In the air quality category, Energy and CO2: Bangkok ranks average in Waste quarters of numerous international companies. Bangkok has below-average daily concentra- energy and CO2. Annual CO2 emissions are an Bangkok faces many environmental challenges tions of the three pollutants measured in the estimated 6.7 tonnes per person, above the 22- Water such as urban sprawl and insufficient infrastruc- Index, and the city has also made particular city average of 4.6 tonnes per person. Much of Sanitation ture to deal with a growing population. Due to progress on vehicle emissions standards recent- Thailand’s industrial activity takes place in zones Air quality data availability, information in the Index for ly. Regarding environmental governance, the outside the capital city, and the city’s emissions Bangkok comes from a mix of figures from the city scores well for having a dedicated environ- levels are mainly due to high rates of car owner- Environmental governance metropolitan region and the smaller city centre. mental department with a wide remit, and for ship and electricity generation. According to the Overall results For example, indicators for green spaces and involving residents in environmental decisions. national Ministry of Energy, the transportation The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results.36 37
    • Asian Green City Index | Bangkok_Thailandcessful sustainable informal settlement redevel- km rail link to the main international airport to resources, with about 90% of the city’s supply city scores well on sanitation policies, and is quality code and it receives full marks for inform- tion, the city has jurisdiction to change sectionsopment projects from China, Japan and Singa- improve its public transport network. The city also coming from treated water from the Chao marked up for its sanitation code, wastewater ing the public about the dangers of air pollution. of national law according to local requirements.pore, the plan will be completed in stages until has plans to develop more park and ride facili- Phraya and the Mae Klong rivers. The quality of treatment standards, and regular monitoring of Officials also involve residents in decisions about2022, and will cost a total of US$1.3 billion. ties, although it has given few further details. river water is deteriorating from pollution, how- on-site treatment facilities in homes or commu- Green initiatives: Taxes are 5% lower for projects with environmental impacts, and pro-Following implementation, total park area will ever, and intense groundwater pumping for the nal areas. cleaner, alternative-fuel vehicles, and the policy vide the public with access to online information.be increased by 320 square kilometres. Final Waste: In the waste category Bangkok ranks rest of the water supply has resulted in land sub- is having a positive effect, with sales of cars that The city receives full marks in the Index for regu-approval for the plan is currently in negotiations below average, due mainly to the large of sidence and salinity contamination. Leakages in Green initiatives: The city has outlined plans run on “E20 fuel” — a mixture of 20% ethanol larly monitoring its environmental performancewith the Port Authority of Thailand and other amount of waste the city produces and the rela- the water system are also a problem, with to build additional wastewater facilities to and 80% petrol — outperforming sales of other and publishing information on progress.potential financial backers. tively low percentage it collects and disposes of Bangkok losing around 35% of its water supply, almost double treatment capacity from 1 cubic vehicles. Bangkok authorities also aim to adequately. The city generates 535 kg per per- compared to the 22-city average of 22%. metre to 1.8 cubic metres, although further increase gasohol’s proportion of the total fuel Green initiatives: The city’s cross-departmen-Transport: Bangkok ranks below average in son, versus the Index average of 375 kg per per- Bangkok’s water quality policies are strong, sug- details, such as timetables, are unclear. mix from less than 20% in 2007 to 50% by 2012 tal climate change action plan features fivethe transport category. In recent years the city son, and only collects 63% of it, versus the Index gesting the city is addressing the issues. It is in order to improve air quality. major initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emis-has expanded its mass transit network, which average of 83%. Much of Bangkok’s waste is dis- marked up for its water quality code, and it mon- Air quality: Bangkok ranks above average in sions: expanding mass transit systems; promot-now incorporates a 23-km elevated rail network posed of in landfills after being transported to itors surface water quality, although its stan- the air quality category. Average daily levels of Environmental governance: Bangkok ing the use of renewable energy; improvingand a 20-km underground train network. Over one of three sorting yards, but officials are con- dards on industry are weaker. the three pollutants measured in the Index — ranks above average in the environmental gover- electricity consumption efficiency in buildings;the next two decades plans are in place to build cerned that landfill space is running out. There nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and particu- nance category. The city performs well for hav- improving solid waste and wastewater treat-several new lines and extensions of existing are plans in place to build an incinerator within Green initiatives: In September 2010, city offi- late matter — are below the Index averages. ing a dedicated environmental department and ment efficiency; and expanding park areas.lines, raising the length by some 350 km. In the next decade. Although the city’s approach to cials announced a plan to charge fees on water However, air pollution from traffic congestion in the capacity to implement its own environmen- Also, the Bangkok governor has taken a lead rolespite of recent expansions, the length of waste has suffered in the past because of a lack consumption in 20 districts in the city, which the built-up parts of the city remains a chal- tal legislation. In the Bangkok Metropolitan Area, in an initiative by the Association of South-EastBangkok’s superior public transport network of initiatives to encourage residents to reduce house a total of about 500,000 residents, to lenge, and the city has made some strides to the Department of the Environment for the Asian Nations (ASEAN) to tackle climate change(defined in the Index as transport that moves waste and recycle, the city is marked up in the begin by early in 2011. The city believes the fees introduce incentives for cleaner vehicles (see Bangkok Metropolitan Administration oversees — the “Cool ASEAN, Green Capitals” project —large numbers of passengers quickly in dedicat- Index for having a waste strategy in place. It also will encourage conservation. The fee will start at “green initiatives” below). It has a robust air and implements environmental policies. In addi- which has been backed by the World Bank.ed lanes, such as metro, bus rapid transit or performs well for enforcing hazardous waste about US$0.03 per cubic metre in the first year, Quantitative indicators: Bangkoktrams) remains well below the Index average, at standards, and for its recycling services, which and in the third year rise to US$0.06 per cubic0.04 km per square kilometre compared to the include on-site collection and central collection Average Bangkok* Year** Source metre, the maximum to be charged under theaverage of 0.17 km per square kilometre. In points throughout the city. Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions per person (tonnes/person) 4.6 6.7 1e 2008 Metropolitan Electricity Authority; Department of Alternative Energy plan. Households that use less than 10 cubicaddition, the city does not have an integrated Development and Efficiency Annual Report 2008; IPCC; EIU estimates metres of tap water per month will not bepricing system for its public transport system. Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$) 6.0 6.1 2e 2008 Metropolitan Electricity Authority; Department of Alternative Energy Green initiatives: The city’s Industrial Works charged. A wastewater fee already applies toTraffic congestion also remains a serious prob- Department paid two local firms US$150,000 to Development and Efficiency Annual Report 2008; EIU estimates hospitals, hotels and businesses, at betweenlem throughout the city, since many residents jointly develop a GPS system to track garbage Land use Population density (persons/km2) 8,228.8 3,607.4 e 2008 Department of Provincial Administration US$0.13 to US$0.16 per cubic metre. and buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 38.6 3.3 3 2007 Action Plan on Global Warming Mitigation 2007 - 2012choose to drive rather than take public trans- shipments in its trucks. Once trucks are fitted Transport Superior public transport network , covering trams, 0.17 0.04 2010 Bangkok Metro Public Company Ltd; Bangkok Mass Transit Systemport. However, the city is trying to address the with the system, which costs about US$660 per Sanitation: Bangkok ranks below average inissue through the presence of some congestion vehicle, the department and the companies that the sanitation category. Only an estimated 51% light rail, subway and BRT (km/km2) Public Company Ltd; Bangkok BRTreduction policies including “no-car days”, road own the trucks know whether waste is trans- of Bangkok’s residents have access to sanitation, Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 82.8 62.9 2002 National Statistical Office of Thailandpricing, and park and ride systems. It also has ported and disposed of properly. versus the index average of 70%. Bangkok also Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 375.2 534.8 2005 National Statistical Office of Thailandtraffic management systems, including traffic lacks adequate wastewater treatment facilities, Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 277.6 340.2 3 2008 Metropolitan Waterworks Authority Water system leakages (%) 22.2 35.0 4 2003 Asian Development Banklight sequencing and traffic information sys- Water: Bangkok ranks below average in the and treats only an estimated 12% of wastewater,tems. Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 70.1 51.0 5e 2003 United Nations Environment Programme water category. Its performance reflects the compared to the Index average of 60%. Indeed, Share of wastewater treated (%) 59.9 12.2 6e 2003 United Nations Environment Programme city’s relatively high level of water consumption, most wastewater is discharged directly into the Air quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 46.7 42.7 2007 National Statistical Office of ThailandGreen initiatives: In May 2010 the city opened at 340 litres per person per day, compared to the city’s main river and canals, although there areits first bus rapid transit system, with 16 km of new Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 22.5 12.6 2007 National Statistical Office of Thailand Index average of 278 litres. The high consump- plans in place to improve its treatment capacitybus routes, and in August it opened a new 28- Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 107.8 48.1 2007 National Statistical Office of Thailand tion rate is due in part to abundant water (see “green initiatives” below). Otherwise, the * All data applies to Bangkok City unless stated otherwise below, ** Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU estimate, 1) Electricity data only available for Bangkok Metropolitan Region, 2) Based on 2005 GDP estimate; electricity data only available for Bangkok Metropolitan Region, 3) Bangkok Metropolitan Region, 4) Non-revenue water, 5) Based on population covered by wastewater control plants, 6) Based on treatment area38 39
    • Asian Green City Index | Beijing_China lower their energy use, as well as promoting the stantial investments to improve in this area (see Beijing_China need for energy efficiency in buildings. “green initiatives” below). The city receives good marks for its policies on reducing mass transport Green initiatives: Ahead of the Olympics, the emissions, and encouraging citizens to use mass city conducted an extensive tree planting and transit services. Beijing also has several traffic landscaping programme to improve green cover, congestion measures in place including “no-car defined by the city as the area covered by lawns, days” and park and ride systems, but the rapid and the shadows of trees and bushes. As a result, growth in private car ownership in Beijing isB eijing, China’s capital, has long been the country’s cultural and political centre. Asprawling commercial hub with a population of green cover was set to increase from 42% in 2000 to 52% by 2007. The government also enforces mandatory standards for new buildings, includ- undermining the city’s efforts to improve traffic flows and encourage the use of public transport. The number of car owners in the city has dou-some 17.6 million and a per capita GDP of ing insulation for outer walls to conserve heat, bled to 4 million since 2003, and is set to riseUS$10,100, Beijing is trying to balance its and energy-efficient doors and windows. even more over the next few years as incomesgrowth ambitions with a stated desire to protect rise and people aspire to the social status thatthe environment. With the world’s attention on Transport: Beijing ranks average in the trans- car ownership brings. The national governmentBeijing for the 2008 Olympic Games, the nation- port category. The city has a relatively short has also heavily invested in developing the auto-al and city governments invested heavily in superior transport network (defined in the Index mobile industry, and while it does its part to pro-improving air quality, landscaping and trans- as transport that moves large numbers of pas- mote green policies, it also promotes the auto-port. Also, in recent years, the city government sengers quickly in dedicated lanes, such as motive sector as a key to overall prosperity.has made substantial investments in the high- metro, bus rapid transit or trams), at 0.02 kmtech and financial sectors, as well as relocating per square kilometre, compared to the Index Green initiatives: The city had expanded itsolder, highly polluting factories outside city lim- average of 0.17 km. But the city is making sub- underground metro system to a total of nineits. Beijing still faces significant environmentalBackground indicatorsTotal population (million) 17.6Administrative area (km2) 16,410.5GDP per person (current prices) (US$) 10,136.7Population density (persons/km2) 1,069.4Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 12.0Data applies to Beijing Municipalitychallenges, especially in the areas of green- ing greenhouse gases, becoming more energy ing and storing greenhouse gases at coal plants. Land use and buildings: Beijing rankshouse gases and air quality, but the city per- efficient and reducing its reliance on private As yet though, renewable energy sources play a average in land use and buildings. The city hasforms well for the environmental policies cov- vehicles. Beijing’s relative strength in sustain- negligible role in Beijing’s energy consumption. the second lowest population density in theered by the Asian Green City Index, and has ability policies and environmental governance In addition, the relatively large amounts of ener- Index, with just 1,100 inhabitants per squaretherefore established a foundation to improve does suggest that officials take green issues seri- gy Beijing uses in relation to its economic output kilometre. At the same time, Bejing has a rela-its sustainability performance in the longer ously, even if policy intentions have not had means the city scores poorly for energy efficien- tively large amount of green spaces, at 88term. their full impact yet. cy. At 12.3 megajoules per US$ of GDP, Beijing square metres per inhabitant, which is well Beijing ranks average in the Index. The city uses more than double the Index average of 6 above the Index average of 39 square metres perperforms best in the water category, with an Energy and CO2: Beijing ranks below aver- megajoules. Again, Beijing suffers from the inhabitant. Beijing’s results for green spaces andabove average ranking, reflecting the city’s vigi- age in the energy and CO2 category. Despite two large amount of heavy industry remaining in the population density partly reflects the way the Performance Beijing Other citieslance in combating water shortages due to a major waves of industrial relocation since the city, but also because utility prices in the country government draws it boundaries — the city has well below average above welllack of surrounding rainfall. The city ranks aver- 1990s, many carbon-intensive businesses remain. have been held at artificially low levels, which the largest administrative area in the Index. And below average average aboveage in the categories of land use and buildings, And along with the rest of China, Beijing is high- gives residents little incentive to conserve ener- the city’s green spaces performance may very average averagetransport, waste, sanitation and environmental ly dependent on carbon-intensive coal to meet gy. The government has tried to raise prices well be even stronger than the Index suggests, Energy and CO2governance. Compared with its mid-income its energy needs. Coal accounts for 39% of the slowly but has not made as much progress as it since, due to data availability, the figure in the Land use and buildingspeers (between US$10,000 and US$25,000), city’s total energy consumption — the third would have liked because the measures have Index was calculated from 2005 data, and cov-Beijing has the lowest level of per capita water highest share of the 22 Asian cities. And the city proved so unpopular. ers only nature reserves. Since 2005, Beijing has Transportconsumption, the second most green spaces per uses coal to power almost 100% of its electricity, made concerted efforts to boost green spaces, Wasteperson, and collects and disposes of the second compared with about 80% for the rest of the Green initiatives: In response to a central gov- particularly in preparation for the Olympics,highest share of waste. However, like other Chi- country as a whole. As a result the city emits an ernment directive to boost energy efficiency although the city is marked down in the Index Waternese cities in the Index, Beijing has substantial estimated 8.2 tonnes of CO2 per capita, com- nationally, the city is promoting gas-fueled boil- for only partially protecting its green spaces Sanitationenergy and air quality challenges, and this is pared with the index average of 4.6 tonnes. Bei- ers. Ahead of the 2008 Olympics, the city modi- once they are established. In terms of buildings, Air qualityreflected by below average rankings for the jing and the national government are investing fied 15,200 coal-burning boilers to burn natural Beijing performs well for its eco-buildings poli-energy and CO2, and air quality categories. It is in alternative sources of electricity for the future, gas. This was to fulfill a pledge by the Olympic cies, driven by the presence of energy efficient Environmental governancealso clear from the Index that China as a whole, including solar, biomass, wind, natural gas, committee to reduce greenhouse gas emissions codes for new private and public buildings, Overall resultsnot just Beijing, has much more to do in reduc- nuclear and “clean coal”, which involves captur- by 1.2 to 1.5 million tonnes ahead of the event. incentives for households and businesses to The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results.40 41
    • Asian Green City Index | Beijing_China Green initiatives: The government has plans cubic metre. Particulate matter levels measure IV” emissions regulations for passenger cars. tal Protection Bureau has become increasingly to improve tap water quality and replace outdat- 121 micrograms per cubic metre, compared to Euro IV emissions standards are in force in powerful as a result of the Olympics, and its ed pipes, and continually invests in leakage con- the Index average of 108 micrograms. Some of Europe and set limits on various pollutants emit- overall powers and responsibilities are expected tainment efforts. City authorities are putting the factors highlighted throughout this portrait ted by vehicles. The city has also banned trucks to rise. However, the city is marked down in the plans in place to require houses and businesses contribute to Beijing’s polluted air — the preva- and buses that do not meet “Euro I” emissions Index for relative weakness compared to other to install water meters. The national govern- lence of cars, the relative lack of rainfall, the standards — an earlier, less strict version of the cities for involving citizens in decisions about ment has also directed industries to recycle and presence of heavy industry and high depen- standards — from entering the city centre projects with environmental impacts. reduce reliance on surface and groundwater. dence on coal. The government is aware of the between 6 am and 9 pm. The government has negative public health consequences caused by introduced a “cash for clunkers” programme to Green initiatives: The city government was Sanitation: Beijing ranks average in the sani- the city’s air pollution, and has stepped up buy back older, dirtier cars, and gives tax rebates initially slow to enlist the help of non-govern- tation category. An estimated 70% of people efforts in recent years to monitor pollution lev- to consumers who buy cars with smaller, less- mental organizations to combat Beijing’s envi- have access to sanitation in the city, which is els. Gradually, as the city continues to improve polluting engines. In preparation for the 2008 ronmental and pollution problems. But starting equal to the Index average. Officials have made emissions standards, air quality is also likely to Olympics, the government scrapped older, more in 2006, officials began to allow NGOs to play a substantial investments in recent years, includ- get better. Beijing is also among the top-per- polluting buses and taxis. By 2006, more than greater role in sustainability issues, particularly ing the construction of four new sewage treat- forming cities on air quality policies, including 47,000 taxis were scrapped or replaced, out of a in combating air pollution and improving traffic ment plants between 2001 and 2007. The city its air quality code, attention to monitoring, and total fleet of 60,000; and 7,000 older buses management. This participation has been main- does better than average on the percentage of efforts to warn residents about the potential were scrapped or replaced, out of a total fleet of ly in promoting awareness and providing policylines by 2009, and is expected to open 10 more increasing the waste recycling rate in the city wastewater treated, with 80%, compared to the dangers of air pollution. 19,000. advice to the government. For example, NGOslines by 2015. Officials have plans to double the through a combination of new regulations and average of 60%. However, the city has relatively promoted the “26-degrees Celsius” movementlength of the city’s subway system to 600 km by public awareness campaigns. The city also has strong sanitation policies in place, including pro- Green initiatives: The national government Environmental governance: Beijing aimed to make hotels and restaurants maintain2020. plans to build several landfills, incineration facil- moting environmentally sustainable sanitation, has tightened emissions standards for passen- ranks average in the environmental governance a temperature higher than 26 degrees Celsius ities and composting facilities during the next setting minimum standards for wastewater ger cars and commercial vehicles, but Beijing category. The city gets full marks for having a during the summer, which helps reduce energyWaste: Beijing ranks average in the waste cat- several years. Unfortunately, the government treatment, and regular monitoring of on-site has gone farther than most other cities in the dedicated environmental department, and for use from air conditioning, although participa-egory. The city has a good record when it comes provides few specific details on many of these treatment facilities in homes or communal Index. In January 2008 Beijing became the first monitoring its environmental performance and tion was voluntary and the programme’s resultsto the share of waste collected and adequately initiatives. areas. city in China to introduce the equivalent of “Euro publishing the results. The Beijing Environmen- were unclear.disposed of, at an estimated 95% comparedwith the Index average of 83%. By the end of Water: Beijing is above average in the water Green initiatives: A major new wastewater re-2006, Beijing had 23 domestic waste disposal category. The strong performance is a direct use plant has been built in North Beijing. With a Quantitative indicators: Beijingfacilities with a capacity for processing 16,200 result of the government’s investment to com- current capacity of treating 40,000 cubic metrestons of waste a day. In that same year 270,000 Average Beijing* Year** Source bat severe water shortages due to a lack of rain- of wastewater per day, the plant will eventuallytonnes of waste were composted and 1.4 mil- Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions per person (tonnes/person) 4.6 8.2 e 2009 Beijing Statistics Yearbook; IPCC; EIU estimates fall, and promoting awareness that these short- increase to 100,000 cubic metres per day,lion tonnes were recycled in Beijing’s six recy- Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$) 6.0 12.3 2009 China Statistics Yearbook 2010 ages will only get more severe as the population although a timetable for the capacity increasecling plants. Beijing generates more waste than Land use Population density (persons/km2) 8,228.8 1,069.4 2009 Beijing Statistics Yearbook grows. The government promotes conservation has yet to be announced. During the 2008 and buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 38.6 88.4 1 2005 Beijing Statistics Yearbookthe Index average, at an estimated 395 kg per and also ensures that water system leaks are Olympic Games, the plant was responsible forperson per year, compared to the average of 375 Transport Superior public transport network , covering trams, 0.17 0.02 2010 news.cn; Beijing Subway; chinabrt.org kept to a minimum, which is reflected in the supplying water to the Olympic Park.kg. The city scores better for its waste and recy- light rail, subway and BRT (km/km2) city’s above average performances in thesecling policies, including environmental stan- Air quality: Beijing ranks below average in Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 82.8 95.4 2e 2008 China Urban Statistics Yearbook areas. Water consumption in Beijing is 218 litresdards on waste disposal sites, a strategy for Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 375.2 394.7 2e 2009 Beijing Statistics Yearbook per person per day, the lowest among cities with the air quality category, with above-averagereducing, re-using and recycling, and for having Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 277.6 218.1 2009 Beijing Statistics Yearbook a similar income in the Index, and lower than the emission concentrations for the three air qualityon-site and central collection points for recy- Water system leakages (%) 22.2 12.5 2008 China Urban Statistics Yearbook Index average of 278 litres. Thirteen percent of metrics in the Index. Average daily levels ofcling. Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 70.1 70.4 3e 2009 EIU estimate the water supply is lost through system leaks, nitrogen dioxide are 53 micrograms per cubic metre, compared to the Index average of 47 Share of wastewater treated (%) 59.9 80.3 2009 Beijing Statistics Yearbook against an Index average of 22%. A water-con- Air quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 46.7 53.0 2009 Beijing Statistics YearbookGreen initiatives: The city has a general goal scious city, Beijing has also implemented com- micrograms. For sulphur dioxide, the city regis-to improve waste disposal and recycling rates. It ters 34 micrograms per cubic metre, much high- Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 22.5 34.0 2009 Beijing Statistics Yearbook prehensive policies on water quality and pro-has set several targets to this end, which include er than the Index average of 23 micrograms per Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 107.8 121.0 2009 Beijing Statistics Yearbook motes efficient consumption. * All data applies to Beijing Municipality unless stated otherwise below, ** Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU estimate, 1) Nature reserves coverage, 2) Based on household waste, 3) Based on regression analysis42 43
    • Asian Green City Index | Bengaluru_India action plan, and has not signed up to interna- it also lacks policies to protect environmentally Bengaluru_India tional covenants to lower greenhouse gas emis- sensitive areas. sions. Green initiatives: Bengaluru’s plan for eco- Green initiatives: The state electricity regula- friendly buildings is set down in a 2009 plan tor is currently considering a tax on industrial sponsored by the Renewable Energy & Energy and commercial power consumption in order to Efficiency Partnership, a global non-profit fund renewable energy and energy conserva- organisation that funds energy research. The tion programmes. Several IT companies head- proposed energy-efficiency regulations include quartered in Bengaluru have undertaken their integrating solar energy sources in new build- own energy-efficiency measures. The harness- ings, a specific window design to enhance day ing of wind power, as well as the deployment of lighting, energy-efficient artificial lighting and various other conservation measures to meet air-conditioning, and mandatory energy audits self-imposed carbon- and water-neutral targets, for existing commercial buildings. Government are among some of the environmental steps buildings already undergo mandatory energy announced by IT companies located in the city. audits that include measuring energy conserva- tion and efficiency, as well as the monitoring of Land use and buildings: Bengaluru is greenhouse gas emissions. The state govern- average in land use and buildings. Widely known ment also requires energy audits and energy as the “garden city”, its particular strength in the efficiency standards for all industrial and com- Index is plentiful green spaces — at 41 square mercial buildings that consume 480 kilowatts metres per person, which is higher than the 22- and above. city average of 39 square metres and the aver- age for Indian cities in the Index, at 17 square Transport: Bengaluru is below average in the metres. The city also scores well for having the transport category. In particular, it lacks any seventh highest population density in the Index, form of superior public transport (defined in the at an estimated 10,000 people per square kilo- Index as transport that moves large numbers of metre. In spite of Bengaluru’s result for green passengers quickly in dedicated lanes, such as spaces and population density, the city has a metro, bus rapid transit or trams). The city has mixed performance on land use and building only just recently begun work on its first metro policies. On one hand, it receives full marks for system (see “green initiatives” below). Partial having green standards for public buildings and policies also play a big part in Bengaluru’s trans- incentives for households and businesses to port performance. Investment in green trans- lower their energy use. On the other hand, its port is negligible, mainly because the city is allo- eco-standards for private buildings are only par- cating its limited resources towards traffic tial, although the city is addressing this (see congestion reduction, although currently, theBackground indicatorsTotal population (million) 7.1e B engaluru (formerly known as Bangalore) has developed rapidly in the past three decades, shedding its reputation as a pensioners’ par- Bengaluru ranks below average overall in the Index. Its performance is consistent across most categories, ranking average for all but the trans- Index average of 6 megajoules. The low levels of CO2 emissions partially reflect Bengaluru’s use of renewable energy, which, at nearly 30% of “green initiatives” below). Bengaluru has room for improvement for its policies on green spaces protection and urban sprawl containment, and congestion-reduction policies measured in the Index remain relatively weak, as do the city’s urban mass transport policies.Administrative area (km2) 709.5 adise to emerge as a symbol of India’s high-tech- port category, where it falls to below average. In the city’s total energy consumption, are theGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 2,066.3 nology prowess. The city’s shift from a reliance transport, it is marked down for lacking superior highest in the Index. This is a figure based on anPopulation density (persons/km2) 10,034.0e on publicly owned heavy manufacturing to IT- transport, such as metro, bus rapid transit or estimate from data covering the use of renew-Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 23.0 based industry has had positive effects on the trams, although construction is under way on ables across Kanartaka State in 2007. In addi-Data applies to Bengaluru City, e) EIU estimate environment — not only because IT is inherently the city’s first metro. Bengaluru faces several tion, 61% of the electricity is generated from Performance Bengaluru Other cities cleaner, but also because the industry has environmental challenges, including one of the renewable sources, mainly hydropower — again well below average above well spurred the development of newer, energy-effi- highest levels of particulate matter in the Index. the highest share in the Index. The city’s relative- below average average above cient buildings. A favourable climate, plentiful But the city stands out for some other individual ly low income, resulting in a less energy-inten- average average gardens, and access to education and jobs, have indicators: For example, it has the lowest CO2 sive lifestyle, also plays a part in reducing CO2 Energy and CO2 all done their part to support the city’s energetic emissions per person of all cities in the Index. emissions, as does the shift from heavy indus- growth. However, Bengaluru remains one of the Bengaluru also has the highest share of energy try to IT-related businesses. Additionally, the Land use and buildings poorer cities in the Asian Green City Index. The consumption from renewables, and the highest national government’s policies to promote ener- Transport estimated 7.1 million residents produce a GDP share of electricity generated from renewables. gy efficiency and renewable energy have been Waste per capita of just under US$2,100, compared important contributory factors. However, on a with the Index average of US$18,600, which Energy and CO2: Bengaluru ranks average city level, Bengaluru’s policies are relatively Water places limitations on how much the city can do in the energy and CO2 category. It leads the weak when compared with other cities in the Sanitation to balance environmental needs with the pres- entire Index for CO2 emissions per person, at an Index. The city, for example, is only making par- Air quality sure for economic expansion. Due to data avail- estimated 0.5 tonnes, compared with the Index tial efforts to consume energy more efficiently. ability, information in the Index for Bengaluru average of 4.6 tonnes. Energy consumption per It also fails to regularly monitor greenhouse gas Environmental governance comes from a mix of figures from the central city US$ of GDP is also lower than the Index average, emissions or to publish its findings. The city does Overall results and wider, officially recognised boundaries. at an estimated 4.6 megajoules, versus the not have a comprehensive climate change The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results.44 45
    • Asian Green City Index | Bengaluru_IndiaGreen initiatives: The city’s new US$1.7 Green initiatives: India’s first recycling plant Sanitation: Bengaluru ranks average in the city fares badly on daily levels of suspended par- available in the city’s outer ring road, which is mental department’s wide remit. Bengaluru isbillion metro system will run east-west and for e-waste, E-Parisaraa, became operational in sanitation category. Only an estimated half of ticulate matter — at 343 micrograms per cubic favoured by heavy vehicles. Since 2004, the also marked up for having conducted a baselinenorth-south, for a total length of 42 km. It is 2005. Located about 50 km from Bengaluru, E- Bengaluru’s residents have access to adequate metre versus the Index average of 108 micro- city’s auto-rickshaws, heavily polluting vehicles, environmental review in the last five yearsexpected to open early in 2011 and to be fully Parisaraa processes one tonne of e-waste per sanitation, a shortcoming it shares with other grams. The causes of high levels of particulate have been required to run on “bi-fuel”, a combi- across all the major environmental areas cov-completed by the end of the year. The city day, although it has a daily capacity of 3 tonnes. Indian cities in the Index where growing popula- matter are domestic fuel usage, construction nation of liquid petroleum gas and petrol, which ered by the Index. By the standards of the Index,police have also devised the so-called B-Trac The e-waste comprises such things as comput- tions have put further pressure on already inade- activities, road dust and, particularly, vehicular is considered less harmful than petrol or diesel however, the city has limited scope to imple-programme, which aims to cut traffic conges- ers, circuit boards, floppy disks and videos. Simi- quate infrastructure. In addition, only an esti- emissions. However, the city has an air quality alone. ment its own environmental legislation.tion by 30%. It offers citizens real-time traffic lar recycling plants are planned, as Bengaluru mated 42% of Bengaluru’s wastewater is treat- code in place, regularly monitors air quality inupdates that estimate travel time between des- alone produces between 8,000 and 10,000 ed, against a much higher Index average of 60%, various locations around the city, and informs Environmental governance: Bengalu- Green initiatives: The city’s master plan chart-tinations. In 2007, nearly 60% of the B-Trac sys- tonnes of e-waste per year, but no firm details although about equal to the Indian city average citizens about the dangers of air pollution. ru is average in environmental governance. The ing development to 2015 actively sought inputtem was completed, and the focus now is on have yet been announced. of 46%. However, Bengaluru performs well for city receives full marks for offering citizens a from all relevant stakeholders. These includedpedestrian safety and traffic signal coordina- its sanitation policies. These include a code to Green initiatives: In April 2010, stricter vehi- central contact point for information about envi- officials from different city departments, mem-tion. Total investment in the five-year pro- Water: Bengaluru ranks average in water. promote environmentally sustainable sanitation cle-emission standards were introduced in Ben- ronmental projects. Bengaluru’s government is bers of parliament, representatives from citizengramme is US$750,000. While the city consumes an estimated 73 litres services, the setting of minimum standards for galuru and 12 other Indian cities. Since 2003, known for its e-friendliness and openness to groups, trade and industry associations, and the per day on a per capita basis, which is much wastewater treatment, and regular monitoring low-sulphur-content diesel and petrol have been public enquiries, and scores well for its environ- public.Waste: Bengaluru is average in the waste cat- lower than the Index average of 278 litres and of on-site treatment facilities in both homes andegory. Like other Indian cities, it generates com- the Indian city average of 167 litres, the appar- communal areas. However, the city has room forparatively small amounts of waste per person ently low demand owes more to poor supply improvement in promoting awareness of sani-— 267 kg versus the Index average of 375 kg, than success at water conservation. Bengaluru tary habits. Quantitative indicators: Bengaluruand the Indian city average of 226 kg. It also col- loses 39% of its water to system leakages, thelects and disposes of an estimated 80% of its fourth highest leakage rate in the Index, and Average Bengaluru* Year** Source Green initiatives: The Japan Bank for Interna-waste, which is just under the Index average of much higher than the Index average of 22%. Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions per person (tonnes/person) 4.6 0.5 e 2007 Bengaluru Development Authority; Karnataka Government; Indian Oil tional Cooperation is financing more than 80%83%, but above the Indian city average of 72%. Water policy development is also uneven in Ben- Corporation; World Institute of Sustainable Energy; IPCC; EIU estimates of a comprehensive, US$720,000 sewage pipeBengaluru and its Indian counterparts in the galuru. While the city has set pollution-level Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$) 6.0 4.6 e 2007 Bengaluru Development Authority; Karnataka Government; Indian Oil upgrade in Bengaluru. The project is due to beIndex still espouse the less-wasteful lifestyles of standards for surface water that it monitors reg- Corporation; World Institute of Sustainable Energy; EIU estimates finished in 2013.poorer economies, even as they grow richer. ularly, water-efficiency policies and promotion Land use Population density (persons/km2) 8,228.8 10,034.0 e 2008 EIU estimate and buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 38.6 41.0 1 2007 Indian State Forest Cover - Karnataka GovernmentHowever, the pressure of a growing population could still be improved. For example, it has Air quality: Bengaluru ranks average in airis likely to increase waste, along with the neces- water metres, greywater recycling and rainwa- Transport Superior public transport network , covering trams, 0.17 0.00 quality. The city has a mixed performance onsity for better waste management and recy- ter collection, but lacks other policies, such as light rail, subway and BRT (km/km2) levels of emissions. It has below Index averagecling. Bengaluru is marked down for not yet hose-pipe bans. In addition, its code to reduce Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 82.8 80.0 2e 2005 Bengaluru Master Plan - 2015 - Bangalore Development Authority levels for both nitrogen dioxide and sulphur diox-having a comprehensive strategy for reducing, water stress and consume water more efficient- Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 375.2 266.5 3 2007 Carbon Emission Report in Asian Cities 2008 ide, registering 41 micrograms and 15 micro-recycling and re-using of waste, and for not ly is only partial, as are its efforts to publicly pro- Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 277.6 73.0 4e 2005 Bengaluru Master Plan - 2015 - Bangalore Development Authority grams per cubic metre, respectively. Bengalurufully monitoring industrial and hazardous mote conservation. Water system leakages (%) 22.2 39.0 3 2005 Bengaluru Master Plan - 2015 - Bangalore Development Authority is supported by the national government in airwaste. In many cases, economic growth has Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 70.1 53.0 5e 2003 Evaluation of Bengaluru Water Supply and Sewerage Project - Japan quality efforts, and India has a long history ofoutpaced the government’s ability to set and Green initiatives: In March 2010 the Bengalu- Bank for International Cooperation emission standards. They are set down in a pro-enforce standards. And like many other Indian Share of wastewater treated (%) 59.9 42.4 6e 2006 Report on City Development Plan for Bengaluru (2006) by JNNURM ru water board installed flow meters at more gressive series of laws — the Air Act of 1981 andcities, Bengaluru only partly regulates waste than 218 strategic spots at a cost of US$1.5 mil- Air quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 46.7 41.0 2009 Karnataka State Pollution Control Board the Environment Act of 1986. National air quali-picking, and illegal dumping of waste is not lion. The meters continuously measure how Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 22.5 15.1 2009 Karnataka State Pollution Control Board ty standards adopted in 1982 underwent anoth-uncommon. much water is used and how much is lost. Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 107.8 343.0 2009 Karnataka State Pollution Control Board er revision in November 2009. Despite this, the * All data applies to Bengaluru City unless stated otherwise below, ** Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU estimate, 1) Based on forest cover in Bengaluru Rural and Urban Areas, 2) Share of municipal waste collected; BMP (Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike), 3) BMP (Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike), 4) Based on per capita water supply; BMP (Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike), 5) Based on access to sewerage; BBMP (Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike), 6) Based on daily capacity of wastewater treatment plant; BMP (Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike)46 47
    • Asian Green City Index | Delhi_India Energy and CO2: Delhi ranks above aver- tres, which represents around 20% of the city’s lighting and air conditioning. For example, the Delhi_India age in energy and CO2. Each inhabitant in Delhi land space. The city also plans to add more city’s new Thyagaraj Stadium has large solar generates, on average, an estimated 1.1 tonnes green cover (see “green initiatives” below). panels on the roof, which provide energy to light of CO2 per year, the third best level in the Index, Regarding energy efficiency in buildings, Delhi the venue. The government has also mandated and well below the Index average of 4.6 tonnes. only has partial standards for new private build- the use of solar water-heaters in buildings larger This partially reflects the city’s relatively low ings, but receives full marks for its energy effi- than 500 square metres, and is subsidising one income, which means residents have less ener- ciency regulations for public buildings. third of the cost. gy-intensive lifestyles, as well as the fact that 12% of Delhi’s electricity generation comes from Green initiatives: Delhi aims to increase green Transport: Delhi is average in the transport renewables, mainly hydropower. Delhi’s result in space from 20% to 33% by 2012, through the category. The city’s superior public transport energy consumption per US$ of GDP is higher addition of forests and biodiversity parks, which network, consisting mainly of a metro system, than the average, at an estimated 7.7 mega- are dedicated conservation zones that re-intro- measures 0.08 km per square kilometre. This is joules, versus the Index average of 6 mega- duce threatened and extinct plant and animal below the Index average of 0.17 km per square joules. However, the city has proactive policies species. The city’s green spaces policy also aims kilometre, but is second best among cities with a to limit greenhouse gases. It also scores particu- to prevent urban encroachment of “the Ridge”, a similarly low income in the Index and is higher larly well for its climate change action plan. dense forest known as the capital’s “green than the Indian city average of 0.03 km. Regard- While it is strong on policy, Delhi could improve lungs”. The government is also building a ing transport policies, the city performs well for its monitoring. It only partially monitors green- wildlife sanctuary and plans the forestation of its urban mass transport policy. It receives full house gas emissions, for example. 2,100 acres of the southern part of the Ridge. marks in the Index for taking steps to reduce Regarding buildings, the eco-code created for emissions from mass transport (see “green ini- Green initiatives: The Delhi government’s the 2010 Commonwealth Games mandates that tiatives” below), and for encouraging residents report, Climate Change Agenda for Delhi 2009- new buildings should have solar heating sys- to take greener forms of transport. However, its 2012, urges manufacturers to give 30% dis- tems, windows that make the best possible use pricing system for mass transport is only partial- counts on sales of compact fluorescent lamps, of sunlight, as well as energy-efficient artificial ly integrated, and it lacks some of the traffic con-Background indicatorsTotal population (million) 17.41 D elhi, the capital of India, is the third most populous city in the Asian Green City Index, with some 17.4 million inhabitants. An addition- recycling, and the fact that Delhi’s inhabitants generate the least waste per person of all the cities in the Index. In addition, among cities withAdministrative area (km2) 1,483.0 al 2 million commuters from neighbouring areas a similarly low income in the Index (with a GDPGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 2,004.1e visit Delhi daily for work or school. The capital per person of less than US$10,000), the city hasPopulation density (persons/km2) 11,733.0e produces 5% of India’s GDP, second within India the second highest share of waste collected andTemperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 25.0 only to Mumbai, the bustling financial centre. adequately disposed. Delhi is average in the cat-Data applies to NCT Delhi, 1) Delhi Municipal Corporation, e) EIU estimate Delhi’s main industries include food production, egories of land use and buildings, transport, which use less power and have a longer life than Performance Delhi Other cities textiles, leather, energy, media, tourism and real sanitation, air quality and environmental gover- traditional light bulbs. The government has set a well below average above well estate. Its average per capita income of an esti- nance. In the transport category, among cities target to install compact fluorescent lamps to below average average above mated US$2,000 is more than twice the national with a low income, the city has the second light 700 km of city roads, which is expected to average average average, but the city is among the poorest cities longest superior transport network (a definition conserve 100 megawatts of electricity every Energy and CO2 in the Index. Only two cities have a lower aver- which includes a metro, bus rapid transit or year. Land use and buildings age GDP per person. All data for Delhi in the trams). The city’s weakest performance is in the Index comes from the National Capital Territory water category, where it ranks below average, Land use and buildings: Delhi ranks Transport of Delhi. mainly for a high level of water leakages. average in land use and buildings. It has 19 Waste Despite the environmental challenges that Delhi hosted the Commonwealth Games in square metres per person of green spaces, less low income can sometimes pose, Delhi ranks 2010, which spurred city officials to embrace than the Index average of 39 square metres, but Water average overall in the Index. The city’s best per- green policies. They created a separate “eco- above the average for Indian cities in the Index, Sanitation formances are in the energy and CO2, and waste code” for the event, setting goals for energy and at 17 square metres. The city’s result is bolstered Air quality categories. In energy and CO2, Delhi has one of water efficiency, air pollution and waste man- by its relatively progressive policies on develop- the lowest levels of CO2 emissions in the Index. agement, among other green aims. The city ing green spaces. Since 1993 Delhi has Environmental governance In the waste category, the city benefits from advertised the event as the first-ever “green increased green cover from trees and forests Overall results some strong policies on waste collection and Commonwealth Games”. from 22 square kilometres to 300 square kilome- The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results.48 49
    • Asian Green City Index | Delhi_India Green initiatives: A new dam on the Yamuna eration are the main culprits behind the figures. try, pollution control in these sectors have well for having a strong Department of Environ- river, which will reduce the city’s reliance on sur- Explosive population growth has increased the helped to clean the air. Emissions standards are ment, which is actively engaged in overall envi- face water, is scheduled for completion by 2015- number of vehicles, and the need for energy to set down in India’s Air Act of 1981 and the Envi- ronmental assessment, monitoring, and protec- 16. In addition, the city’s water authority has run homes and businesses. However, Delhi ronment Act of 1986. National air quality stan- tion. It has a wide legal remit to address the created a leak detection and investigation unit records one of the lowest daily levels of sulphur dards, adopted in 1982 and revised in 1994, city’s environmental challenges, and is also to address water losses, and the authority has dioxide emissions in the Index, at 7 micrograms were tightened further in November 2009 to helping to raise environmental awareness replaced 1,200 km of damaged water mains in per cubic metre, compared to the Index average comply with global best practices. The new reg- among residents. In addition, the city is marked the last five years. of 23 micrograms. The switch from diesel to ulations require industrial areas to conform to up in the Index for public participation, but is cleaner fuel for Delhi’s buses and the sale of the same standards as residential areas, and set marked down for its efforts in environmental Sanitation: Delhi ranks average in the sani- ultra-low-sulphur diesel have helped to bring stringent standards in ecologically sensitive monitoring, which is often inadequate, particu- tation category. This reflects below average down Delhi’s sulphur dioxide levels. Although areas. More than 600 emission-control systems larly in the areas of sewage and water-usage results for the share of population with access to Delhi’s air quality is still relatively poor, it has have been installed in air-polluting industrial efficiency. sanitation — at an estimated 54% versus an improved in recent years. One of the reasons is units, with the aim of full monitoring coverage Index average of 70% — and for the share of that pollution-control initiatives have the back- by 2012. An Air Ambience Fund, set up in 2008, Green initiatives: The government has creat- wastewater treated, at 55% against an average ing of the government, society and industry. The is financed by a US$0.50-per-litre fee on diesel ed “eco-clubs” in about 1,000 schools, and these of 60%. Regarding sanitation policies, the city prospect of hosting the Commonwealth Games in Delhi. The fund, which collected US$8.2 mil- have played an active role in creating environ- does well in some areas, but could improve in in October 2010 also focused the minds of city lion in 2008-2009, provides a 30% subsidy on mental awareness among Delhi’s young. Under others. Delhi is marked up in the Index for its officials to try and improve air quality, as set purchases of battery-operated vehicles by the programme, 80 schools have set up “vermi- wastewater treatment standards, for example, down in the eco code for the Games. refunding the value-added tax and road tax. composting” projects, using worms to aid but is marked down for only making partial decomposition; 28 have rainwater harvesting efforts to monitor on-site sanitation facilities in Green initiatives: As much of Delhi’s undesir- Environmental governance: Delhi ranks projects to collect drinking water; and 88 have homes and communal areas. able air quality is caused by transport and indus- average in environmental governance. It scores paper recycling plants.gestion measures evaluated in the Index, such well as general waste recycling and re-use.as traffic light sequencing or traffic information However, officials only partially enforce envi-systems. ronmental standards for waste disposal sites. Nor does the city enforce and monitor commer-Green initiatives: To ease road congestion, cial hazardous waste disposal standards as rig-Delhi continues to add to its metro system, orously as many other cities covered in theaccording to the government’s State of Environ- Index.ment Report for Delhi, 2010. New routestotalling 121 km were scheduled to be finished Green initiatives: A recycling plant to handlein 2010. This was expected to double the num- 500 tonnes of construction waste per dayber of 1 million passengers daily. Delhi also has opened in 2009 at Burari, a low-lying area next6,000 buses running on compressed natural to one of Delhi’s landfills.gas, a less-harmful fossil fuel than diesel, and Green initiatives: The city’s US$290 million Quantitative indicators: Delhiaims to double this number by 2012. In April Water: Delhi ranks below average in the “Interceptor Sewer Project” aims to catch and2010, the city started selling greener diesel that Average Delhi* Year** Source water category. Although Delhi has a relatively clean most of the domestic and industrialmatches European and US fuel standards. Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions per person (tonnes/person) 4.6 1.1 e 2008 Directorate of Economics & Statistics - Delhi Statistical Handbook 2009; low water-consumption rate, at 209 litres per sewage flowing into the city’s three major drains NDPL; IPCC; EIU estimates person per day versus the Index average of 278 by 2012. To meet the goal, the city will build 50 Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$) 6.0 7.7 e 2008 Directorate of Economics & Statistics - Delhi Statistical Handbook 2009;Waste: Delhi ranks above average in the litres, this is partly due to low availability. Delhi km of new sewers to intercept effluent from 108waste category. India’s capital scores particular- EIU estimates suffers a supply shortfall of 900 million litres minor drains. Moreover, 693 km of existing oldly well by generating the least amount of waste Land use Population density (persons/km2) 8,228.8 11,733.0 e 2009 EIU estimate per day, according to the State of Environment and damaged sewer lines will be replaced, and and buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 38.6 18.8 1 2005 Forest Survey of Indiaper person of all the 22 cities covered in this report. The strain on Delhi’s water resources is 91 km will be de-silted and rehabilitated.report, at 147 kg per inhabitant annually versus Transport Superior public transport network , covering trams, 0.17 0.08 2010 Delhi Metro Rail; Times of India made worse by the leakage of 40% of water in According to the Delhi city master plan, the cityan Index average of 375 kg, and below the Indi- light rail, subway and BRT (km/km2) the city system, although the city is addressing expects to add treatment capacity of 1.3 billionan city average of 226 kg. One contributing fac- Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 82.8 93.6 2009 Primary research with Municipal Corporation of Delhi the problem (see “green initiatives” below). litres per day to its sewage treatment plans bytor is Delhi’s traditional culture of careful con- Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 375.2 146.8 2009 Primary research with Municipal Corporation of Delhi Delhi depends mainly on surface water, which 2021.sumption, which emerging prosperity has not Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 277.6 208.7 2 2008 Directorate of Economics & Statistics - Delhi Statistical Handbook 2009 is more prone to contamination than otheryet eroded. In addition, among cities with a sim- Air quality: Delhi ranks average in air quali- Water system leakages (%) 22.2 40.0 2009 The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) sources, and this comes largely from the heavilyilarly low income in the Index, the city has the Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 70.1 54.0 3e 2009 Delhi Jal Board polluted Yamuna river. An action plan to clean ty. Delhi is marked down for having the highestsecond largest share of waste collected and Share of wastewater treated (%) 59.9 55.0 2009 Delhi Jal Board the Yamuna is ongoing, but Delhi’s water poli- daily level of suspended particulate matter ofadequately disposed of, at 94% versus the Index Air quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 46.7 47.0 2007 Central Pollution Control Board cies address only partly the aim of better quality the 22 cities, at 384 micrograms per cubicaverage of 83%. Delhi performs well for its poli- Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 22.5 7.0 2007 Central Pollution Control Board surface water, and do not fully enforce water metre, well above the Index average of 108cies surrounding special waste collection, as Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 107.8 384.0 2007 Central Pollution Control Board pollution standards on local industry. micrograms. Industry, transport and power gen- * All data applies to NCT Delhi unless stated otherwise below, ** Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU estimate, 1) Total ”tree and forest cover”, 2) Based on 2009 population data, 3) Based on population with access to sewerage50 51
    • Asian Green City Index | Guangzhou_China in the waste category, among cities in the mid- MW is delivered to the largest cities on China’s only four other cities in the Index are less dense- Guangzhou_China population range, it has been estimated that south-eastern coast and is capable of supplying ly populated than Guangzhou. The city also has Guangzhou has the third best rate of waste col- up to five million households with electricity. the largest amount of green spaces per person lected and adequately disposed of. The city is The combination of the hydroelectric plants and in the Index, at 166 square metres, which is below average in the energy and CO2 and water the HVDC line reduces China’s annual CO2 emis- more than four times the Index average of 39 categories. These results reflect an economy sions by 33 million tonnes compared with the metres. Guangzhou shines when it comes to largely built on high-carbon industries, with an same energy output if using coal. policy. The city scores well for drawing up especially heavy dependence on coal, and a very strategies to contain urban sprawl and protect high level of per capita water consumption. Land use and buildings: Guangzhou is green spaces, and local authorities take a proac- average in the land use and buildings category. tive approach to promoting energy efficiency in Energy and CO2: Guangzhou ranks below It has one of the largest administrative areas in new buildings (see “green initiatives” below). average in the energy and CO2 category. The the Index and only a mid-size population, which city emits an estimated 9.3 tonnes of CO2 per makes it one of the least densely-populated Green initiatives: The Pearl River Tower, capita each year, about twice as much as the cities in the Index. With an average of barely which its designers herald as the “world’s most Index average of 4.6 tonnes. Guangzhou also more than 2,100 people per square kilometre, environmentally friendly tower block”, is sched- has a relatively high energy consumption in relation to its economic output, registering an estimated 11.7 megajoules per US$ of GDP, compared to the Index average of 6 mega- joules. Like other cities in China, Guangzhou remains very dependent on coal, and it accounts for around 80% of electricity produc- tion and half of overall energy consumption. Guangzhou’s overall use of renewable sources of energy is still small — accounting for just 1% of total energy consumption — but the city is making some progress in harnessing renewable energy for electricity production, accounting for 12% of the total. Guangzhou does well on clean energy policy, including waste-to-energy investments and investments in renewable energy. The city government is increasingly realising that an energy-intensive growth strat- egy is not sustainable in the long term and, in recent years, it has boosted energy efficiency. Furthermore, in order to reduce its dependence on coal, Guangzhou has also invested in natural gas, hydropower (see “green initiatives” below) and nuclear energy. Green initiatives: The national government is building a second West-East natural gas pipe- line, which will connect the western province ofBackground indicatorsTotal population (million) 7.9 G uangzhou, with a population of nearly 8 million and a GDP per capita of US$16,800, is the political and cultural capital of the south- term by encouraging residents to use the public network instead of private cars. Guangzhou is ranked average overall in the Xinjiang with Guangzhou and Hong Kong (the first West-East pipeline stretches from Xinjiang to Shanghai), which is scheduled to be in opera- Performance well Guangzhou below Other cities average above well below average average aboveAdministrative area (km2) 3,843.4 ern Chinese province of Guangdong. The pillar Asian Green City Index. Its best performance is tion at the end of 2011. The US$21 billion pro- average averageGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 16,834.1 industries in Guangzhou are car manufacturing, in the sanitation category, where it is ranked ject is expected to reduce the country’s coal con- Energy and CO2Population density (persons/km2) 2,067.5 petrochemicals and electronic appliances. Since above average, driven by relatively robust sani- sumption by 77 million tonnes per year, or aboutTemperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 22.0 2008 the city has been at the centre of an ambi- tation standards and strong policies on monitor- 2% of total coal consumption, and also reduce Land use and buildingsData applies to Sub-provincial City of Guangzhou tious infrastructure investment programme that ing. In addition, it is estimated that Guangzhou CO2 emissions by about 2%. In addition, Transport aims to promote economic integration between has the second best rate of access to sanitation Guangzhou obtains much of its hydro-electric Waste the Pearl River Delta, Hong Kong and Macau. As among cities in the mid-population range in the power from plants located 1,400 kilometres part of this effort, which will run until 2020, the Index (between 5 million and 10 million) and away in Yunnan province. The electricity is deliv- Water government has completed a number of major among cities in the mid-income range (between ered to Guangzhou over what is claimed to be Sanitation public transport projects. Some of these projects US$10,000 and US$25,000 in GDP per capita). the world’s longest and most powerful high- Air quality were also part of preparations for the Asian The city ranks average for land use and build- voltage direct current (HVDC) line in the world. Games, which Guangzhou hosted in November ings, transport, waste, air quality and environ- The HVDC line transports power at 800,000 Environmental governance 2010. Upgrades to mass transport infrastructure mental governance. Guangzhou registers the volts, which significantly reduces the loss of Overall results should improve the environment in the long most green spaces per person in the Index, and power over long distances. Its output of 5,000 The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results.52 53
    • Asian Green City Index | Guangzhou_Chinauled to finish in 2011. The 71-storey structure enforcing disposal standards for industrial haz- Sanitation: Guangzhou ranks above aver- majority of cars are still standard petrol-powered Efforts have also been made to improve environ-will include a number of energy efficiency fea- ardous waste. Local government has been age in sanitation, scoring particularly well for its cars, and dust from recent construction activities mental standards for cars.tures, including wind turbines and solar panels investing heavily to improve waste manage- sanitation standards and policies on monitor- has contributed to air quality issues. Although airto provide power for the building. It also uses ment in the city ahead of the 2010 Asian ing. An estimated 79% of Guangzhou’s popula- pollution from industry has receded in recent Environmental governance: Guangzhouwide-spaced double-glazing, which channels Games, which has had a positive impact on the tion have access to sanitation, compared to the years, rising emissions from the automotive sec- ranks average for environmental governance.hot air upwards to be harnessed for dehumidifi- city’s performance in this category. Index average of 70%. The city also treats a tor has cancelled out much of the progress on The city has its own environmental protectioncation. higher percentage of wastewater than the 22- improving air quality. To tackle air pollution, the department, and it also regularly monitors its Green initiatives: Panyu, a district of Guang- city average, at 74% for Guangzhou versus the city government is actively encouraging new environmental performance. It is also markedTransport: Guangzhou ranks average for zhou, has a pilot plan to recycle 30% of all rub- Index average of 60%. The city has four major environmentally friendly technology in the auto- up in the Index for providing a central accesstransport. At 0.07 km per square kilometre, bish in the district by 2012, according to the wastewater treatment factories, in addition to motive sector and has some firm clean air poli- point for citizens to receive information aboutGuangzhou’s superior transport network, con- New Energy and Environmental Digest, an envi- several smaller facilities, and more are planned cies in place, including the regular monitoring of the city’s environmental performance. The citysisting of a metro system and a bus rapid transit ronmental blog. Statistics on the current level (see “green initiatives” below). Also, sanitation a range of key air pollutants and informing cities authorities also appear to be becoming morenetwork, is shorter than the Index average of of recycling in Panyu were unavailable. services in the city are open to competition about the dangers of air pollution. responsive to the environmental concerns of0.17 km per square kilometre. However, the city between service providers. Guangzhou’s envi- city residents and non-governmental organisa-government has emphasised improving public Water: Guangzhou ranks below average ronmental authorities have a public informa- Green initiatives: In mid-2009 the govern- tions. Local government, for example, agreed totransport and is making investments to extend in water. This is due mainly to the city’s tion policy covering village sanitation, which ment announced plans to spend up to US$88 postpone a long-planned waste incinerator pro-its metro (see “green initiatives” below). high daily water consumption of 527 litres per encourages residents to use non-flush toilets million to improve air pollution in the city ahead ject in the district of Panyu after concerns wereGuangzhou’s transport policy results are also capita, which is nearly double the Index aver- when more modern services are not available. of the Asian Games. The government is moving raised by local residents about the potentialstrong. The city, for example, has a comprehen- age of 278 litres. The city enjoys a rela- the most polluting industries out of the city cen- health risks. The government is now to carry outsive mass transport policy, an integrated system tively abundant rainfall and, as a result, resi- Green initiatives: The city government has tre, including 32 chemical plants and 91 cement an environmental impact assessment, and willfor pricing, and encourages residents to take dents have little incentive to conserve. invested heavily in sewage treatment facilities. plants. Petrol stations, oil depots and oil tankers allow residents to participate in a new feasibilitygreener forms of transport. Guangzhou does slightly better at reducing By the middle of 2010, the city authorities had have also been overhauled in a move to reduce study with a view to announcing plans for a new water system leaks, with a 15% leakage rate, completed work on 38 new sewage treatment oil vapour emission by 10,000 tonnes a year. incinerator by late 2012.Green initiatives: Guangzhou has invested compared to the Index average of 22%. In plants, and three new major wastewater treat-heavily in its metro system. The city’s first line water policy areas, however, Guangzhou scores ment plans were scheduled be put into serviceopened in 1997 and, by the end of 2010, a total well. City authorities set quality standards for by the end of 2010.of eight lines covering 236 km were carrying key pollutants in surface and drinking water, Quantitative indicators: Guangzhoumore than 4 million riders on a daily basis. and are relatively strong at enforcing water Air quality: Guangzhou ranks average in airAccording to the Guangzhou Metro Corpora- pollution standards on local industry. Guang- Average Guangzhou* Year** Source quality. The city has higher levels of nitrogention, plans are in place to extend the network to zhou has also put in place water efficiency mea- dioxide and sulphur dioxide than the Index aver- Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions per person (tonnes/person) 4.6 9.2 e 2007 Guangzhou Statistical Yearbook; IPCC; EIU estimatesa total of 600 km and 20 lines by 2020. sures to reduce consumption, including water ages, which is largely a by-product of its heavy Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$) 6.0 11.7 e 2007 Guangzhou Statistical Yearbook; EIU estimates tariffs, greywater recycling, and rainwater col- industry and coal-fired economy. Guangzhou Land use Population density (persons/km2) 8,228.8 2,067.5 2009 Guangzhou Statistical Yearbook and buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 38.6 166.3 2008 Guangzhou Statistical YearbookWaste: Guangzhou ranks average in the lection. has daily nitrogen dioxide levels of 56 micro- Transport Superior public transport network , covering trams, 0.17 0.07 2010 China Daily; chinabrt.orgwaste category. Although the city has an above- grams per cubic metre, compared to the Indexaverage rate of waste generation per capita, at Green initiatives: In 2008 the city started a average of 47 micrograms per cubic metre. Its light rail, subway and BRT (km/km2)an estimated 415 kg per year, compared to the US$7 billion, 18-month programme to improve sulphur dioxide levels are 39 micrograms per Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 82.8 88.2 1e 2008 Guangzhou Environmental Protection BureauIndex average of 375 kg, it does much better water quality in the city in preparation for the cubic metre, compared to the Index average of Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 375.2 415.1 1e 2009 Guangzhou Environmental Protection Bureau; Guangzhou Statistical Yearbookwhen it comes to adequately collecting and dis- 2010 Asian Games, with a particular focus on 23 micrograms per cubic metre. Regarding daily Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 277.6 527.2 2009 Guangzhou Statistical Yearbookposing of its waste. At an estimated 88%, cleaning up sewerage and chemical waste in suspended particulate matter, Guangzhou per- Water system leakages (%) 22.2 14.8 2007 China City Construction YearbookGuangzhou’s share of waste collected and ade- Guangzhou’s rivers and canals. However, the forms better than the Index average — at 70 Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 70.1 79.0 2e 2009 EIU estimatequately disposed of is above the Index average project appears to have limited impact, with micrograms per cubic metre versus the average Share of wastewater treated (%) 59.9 74.1 3 2007 Guangzhou Statistical Yearbookof 83%. The city also scores relatively well in local residents still complaining of high levels of of 108 micrograms. Guangzhou’s relatively poor Air quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 46.7 56.0 2009 Guangzhou Statistical Yearbookpolicies for collection, disposal and recycling, river and canal pollution. It is unclear if the air quality is mainly caused by the large number Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 22.5 39.0 2009 Guangzhou Statistical Yearbookalthough it receives only partial marks for clean-up operation will be extended. of polluting vehicles on its roads, since the vast Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 107.8 70.0 2009 Guangzhou Statistical Yearbook * All data applies to Sub-provincial City of Guangzhou unless stated otherwise below, ** Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU estimate, 1) Based on household waste, 2) Based on regression analysis, 3) Proportion of sewerage treated54 55
    • Asian Green City Index | Hanoi_Vietnam accounts for nearly half of Hanoi’s total energy mercial Energy Efficiency Programme provided Hanoi_Vietnam consumption. In contrast, Hanoi is marked grants for energy audits in businesses, as well as down for relatively high levels of energy con- marketing efforts to promote energy efficiency sumption compared to its economic productivi- in industry. ty. Consuming 9.5 megajoules per US$ of GDP, another estimate based on 2007 data, Hanoi is Land use and buildings: Hanoi ranks above the Index average of 6 megajoules. well below average in land use and buildings, a Hanoi is also marked down in the Index for its performance reflecting in part Hanoi’s relatively relatively weak policies on climate change. It thin population density — 1,900 people per has not, for example, conducted a baseline square kilometre compared with the Index aver- review of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, nor age of 8,200 people — and the city’s low does it monitor them. Hanoi has, however, amount of green spaces. At 11 square metres signed up to international covenants to reduce per person, it is also below the Index average of GHG emissions and is a member of C40, a group 39 square metres. In addition, Hanoi is marked of cities committed to tackling climate change. down for some policy deficiencies. In particular, In addition, the national government has been the city authorities have yet to devise and active in promoting energy efficiency (see enforce a code for the eco-efficiency of new “green initiatives” below.) buildings, and the city does not enforce green standards on public buildings. However, the city Green initiatives: In an attempt to promote does publicly promote the importance of energy energy conservation, the Hanoi Energy Conser- efficiency in buildings. Hanoi is marked up in the vation Centre, which operates under the Hanoi Index for policies to protect green spaces and Industrial and Trade Department, began a pro- other environmentally sensitive areas, as well as gramme in 2010 to promote energy conserva- for its policies to limit urban sprawl. There are tion in about 1,000 households throughout 10 also national planning standards in Vietnam districts. The programme includes training covering the expansion of parks and green courses, with instruction on how to choose and spaces, which should help promote the provi- install energy-efficient household appliances, sion of green areas in Hanoi. In order to secure such as washing machines and refrigerators, building permits, new residential areas must be and energy conservation equipment. In Janu- designed with the equivalent of between three ary, a new law took effect across Vietnam requir- and four square metres of parks and gardens for ing organisations that receive state funds to every person housed. report on their energy use and develop energy conservation plans. Another initiative, the Viet- Green initiatives: Local authorities aim to turn nam National Energy Efficiency Programme, Hanoi into a “green, civilised and modern city”, took effect in 2006, setting out goals to reduce with a long-term goal, by 2050, of setting aside the country’s energy consumption from 3% to up to 70% of the city’s natural territory for tree 5% by the beginning of 2011 and between 5% and water space. The current trend is the build- and 8% by 2015. And in 2004, the national Com- ing of urban areas, supported by local authori-Background indicatorsTotal population (million) 6.5 H anoi, Vietnam’s 1,000-year-old capital city and one of the country’s five centrally con- trolled municipalities, is located in the north of a below-average GDP per capita of US$1,700. Hanoi ranks below average overall in the In- dex. Energy and CO2: Hanoi ranks average in the energy and CO2 category, with the city per- forming particularly well on CO2 emissions. At Performance well Hanoi below Other cities average above well below average average aboveAdministrative area (km2) 3,344.6 the country on the banks of the Red River. Hanoi The city’s best results are in the energy and 1.9 tonnes per head per year, an estimate based average averageGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 1,739.6 almost tripled in size in terms of land area in CO2, air quality, and waste categories, where it on 2007 figures, Hanoi’s CO2 emissions are Energy and CO2Population density (persons/km2) 1,935.1 August 2008, when it subsumed a neighbouring ranks average. Particular strengths in these cate- much lower than the Index average of 4.6Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 24.0 province in addition to some districts and com- gories include relatively low estimated CO2 tonnes. The result for CO2 emissions may reflect Land use and buildingsData applies to Hanoi munes, and is home to around 8% of the coun- emissions, a high rate of electricity generated not only an absence of heavy industry within Transport try’s total population of 86 million. With 6.5 mil- from hydropower, and its efforts to set and mon- the city limits, but also a growing use of renew- Waste lion residents, however, Hanoi still ranks behind itor standards for air pollution. It scores below able energy, which accounts for 20% of the the main commercial municipality of Ho Chi average in the categories of transport and water, city’s total energy consumption. In particular, Water Minh City in the south for population size and mainly for lacking any form of rapid transit and a Hanoi has embraced hydropower, which is Sanitation economic importance. high rate of water leakages. The city has signifi- responsible for 43% of its total electricity pro- Air quality The city’s economy, which has grown rapidly cant room for improvement in the categories of duction — this is the highest proportion of over the past decade, accounts for around 13% land use and buildings, sanitation and environ- hydropower use for electricity production Environmental governance of Vietnams GDP. Compared with the other mental governance, where it ranks well below among all Index cities. The performance is all Overall results cities in the Asian Green City Index, Hanoi has average. the more impressive given that electricity The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results.56 57
    • Asian Green City Index | Hanoi_Vietnamties, with ample green space. Construction of buses an hour, has greatly improved the quality works began supplying 50,000 Hanoi house- major campaign to clean the city’s heavily cy areas, following an air quality code and mea- agement. The city has a dedicated environmentone such area, ParkCity Hanoi, a 77-hectare site of the city’s bus network. holds in the southwest of the city, but concerns polluted rivers and lakes. In early 2010 the suring air pollutants, although it does less well department, but citizens and other stakeholderssome 13 km from the city centre, commenced in remain over meeting rising demand. Leakage is authorities announced that they would spend when it comes to promoting awareness among are only partly involved in the decision-makingMarch 2010. The new area is aimed at providing Waste: Hanoi ranks average in the waste cate- a problem in Hanoi, with 45% of the city’s water US$81 million, backed by domestic private citizens about air pollution. process relating to projects of major environ-mixed-density housing, shops and schools, with gory. Hanoi performs relatively well for the supply lost through system leaks, one of the firms, to clean up 45 lakes by 2015, and work mental impact. The city does receive full marks,a park accounting for around 14% of the total amount of waste generated per capita, at 282 kg highest rates in the Index. It is a figure based on has already begun on some of the city’s largest Green initiatives: In an effort to reduce vehi- however, for providing a central point of contactarea. per year compared with the Index average of 2003 data from the Asian Development Bank lakes. cle emissions, the Hanoi Transport Services Cor- for public information about the city’s environ- 375 kg. City authorities collect and adequately covering water delivered but not paid for. poration spent US$11 million in 2009 on mental performance.Transport: Hanoi ranks below average in dispose of 95% of waste, compared with the 22- Air quality: Hanoi ranks average in air quali- replacing 132 of its 800-bus fleet with ones thattransport, mainly due to Hanoi’s lack of a superi- city average of 83%, which is also the highest Green initiatives: Hanoi will be one of the ty. While Hanoi has daily levels of sulphur diox- conformed to European emissions standards. Green initiatives: In the first half of 2010, aor transport network (defined in the Index as rate among cities with a similarly low income in main beneficiaries of a planned nationwide pro- ide and particulate matter that are comparable Changes to Vietnam’s special consumption tax city-wide research project was conducted withtransport that moves large numbers of passen- the Index (with a GDP per capita of under ject to reduce leakage from water distribution to the Index average, the city achieves relatively regime in April 2009 also aim to discourage the the backing of the Hanoi People’s Committee.gers quickly in dedicated lanes, such as metro, US$10,000). The city’s policies on waste are rel- networks. A US$494 million project announced low levels of daily nitrogen dioxide emissions — purchase of cars that produce high levels of The results of the project will provide the basisbus rapid transit or trams). This partly explains atively weak. Hanoi is one of two cities in the by the Ministry of Construction in early 2010 is 20 micrograms per cubic metre versus the Index emissions and achieve poor fuel efficiency. for a strategy to tackle the city’s deteriorat-why the overwhelming majority of journeys Index that does not enforce and monitor stan- centred on the replacement of old water pipes average of 47 micrograms per cubic metre. All ing environment. The implementation of anyundertaken in the city are via the motorcycle. dards for industrial hazardous waste. Neither and investment in new technology to identify the emissions figures for Hanoi are from 2004, Environmental governance: Hanoi future strategy to halt the trend of environmen-While the city does relatively poorly in terms of does Hanoi offer an on-site collection service for leaking pipe sections. The target is to cut the but the performance on nitrogen dioxide is no ranks well below average in the environmental tal degradation, though, could be underminedintegrating the pricing of urban mass transport, household waste recycling. water loss rate to 15% by 2025. doubt helped by a comparatively small car popu- governance category, primarily owing to weak by a national focus on promoting economicwhich is maybe not surprising given Hanoi’s lation. Hanoi also scores reasonably well in poli- policies for environmental monitoring and man- growth.recent tripling in size through the absorption of Green initiatives: Local authorities have Sanitation: Hanoi is well below average forneighbouring provinces, progress has been approved a number of projects relating to waste sanitation. Only an estimated 40% of Hanoi’smade in other policy areas. City authorities pro- treatment and recycling. Plans were announced residents have access to sanitation, well belowmote the use of greener forms of transport and in 2009 for a US$31 million plant in one of the the Index average of 70%, although Hanoi’s fig-have taken steps to reduce emissions from mass city’s rural districts, with a capacity to handle ure, due to a lack of available data, only repre-urban transport. There are also measures in 2,000 tonnes of waste a day and convert it into sents connections to drainage facilities. Hanoi’s Quantitative indicators: Hanoiplace to reduce traffic congestion, including compost fertiliser for export. A waste-sorting sewerage and drainage system is over 50 yearscongestion charges, pedestrian-only areas, and project, financed by Japan International Co- old, and insufficient for the city’s current popula- Average Hanoi* Year** Sourcepark and ride systems. operation Agency, has also been piloted in a tion. In addition, the city’s policies are relatively Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions per person (tonnes/person) 4.6 1.9 1e 2007 EIU estimate number of inner districts. Once implemented weaker than other cities in the Index. For exam- Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$) 6.0 9.5 1e 2007 EIU estimateGreen initiatives: There are major plans to across the city, the project is expected to reduce ple, it is the only city in the Index that does not Land use Population density (persons/km2) 8,228.8 1,935.1 2009 EIU calculation and buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 38.6 11.2 2008 Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation,develop Hanoi’s mass transit networks, funded landfill waste by 30% by 2015, and by 70% by have a plan or a code to promote environmental-primarily by foreign donors. These include a 2020. ly sustainable sanitation services. Hiroshima Universitytwo-line “bus rapid transit” and a metro system, Transport Superior public transport network , covering trams, 0.17 0.00including elevated and underground portions, Water: Hanoi ranks below average in water. Green initiatives: The authorities are tighten- light rail, subway and BRT (km/km2)with up to five routes to be completed by 2020. Its average daily water consumption is 53 litres ing regulations regarding the treatment of Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 82.8 95.0 2 2009 Hanoi City Environmental Protection AgencyBut given these projects have suffered delays, a per person per day, well below the Index per wastewater, and the Department for Natural Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 375.2 282.0 2 2009 Hanoi City Environmental Protection Agencylot of catch-up work is required if the 2020 dead- capita average of 278 litres. However, the Hanoi Resources and Environment is increasingly fin- Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 277.6 53.1 3e 2006 GMSARN International Conference on Sustainable Developmentline is to be met. More solid progress has been figure is estimated from data for 2006 house- ing offenders. In mid-2010 the Hanoi People’s Water system leakages (%) 22.2 45.0 4 2003 Asian Development Bankmade in enhancing the bus network. A second hold water consumption only, which excludes Committee announced that it was compulsory Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 70.1 40.0 5e 2008 Hanoi Water Resources Universityinterchange station, Long Bien, opened in early consumption by industry. Lack of supply may for new industrial parks in the city to have Share of wastewater treated (%) 59.9 10.0 6e 2008 Hanoi Water Resources University2009 and provides a connection point for 21 also be a factor in explaining Hanoi’s relatively wastewater treatment facilities and that exist- Air quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 46.7 20.0 2004 Clean Air Initiativeroutes. For a relatively small-scale investment, low use of water. However, the city’s water sup- ing parks now have to treat their own waste. Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 22.5 25.0 2004 Clean Air Initiativethe new station, which can handle nearly 300 ply improved in 2008 when the Da River Water- Hanoi’s authorities have also embarked on a Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 107.8 110.0 2004 Clean Air Initiative * All data applies to Hanoi unless stated otherwise below, ** Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU estimate, 1) Based on regression analysis using city population and GDP, 2) Based on domestic waste 3) Based on household consumption, 4) ”Non-revenue water”, 5) Based on access to drainage facilities, 6) Based on industrial waste water treated due to lack of data58 59
    • Asian Green City Index | Hong Kong_China electricity production. However, the city has Standards are well established for the eco-effi- Hong Kong_China focused on relatively cleaner natural gas as an ciency of new buildings, as are incentives and energy source, with 15% of its energy consump- regulations to motivate businesses and house- tion coming from natural gas, and 24% of its holds to lower their energy use. The city also electricity production. actively promotes citizen awareness about ways to improve buildings’ energy efficiency, and Green initiatives: An inter-governmental work- leads by example through adopting its own ing group that coordinates Hong Kong’s policy green standards for public building projects. response to climate change is currently carrying out a comprehensive study on how the city can Green initiatives: In a city famous for its sky- cut greenhouse gas emissions. The group has scrapers, buildings account for about 90% of not set specific targets for reductions because total electricity consumption. Since 1998 the under the Kyoto protocol Hong Kong is consid- government has maintained building energy ered part of China, which, as a developing coun- codes, which stipulate minimum requirements try, does not have to meet specific targets. Hong for the energy efficiency of lighting, air-condi- Kong does have policies, however, to reduce its tioning, lifts and escalators. Compliance with carbon footprint by enhancing energy efficien- the codes was initially voluntary but the govern- cy. One of several measures introduced in the ment has a proposal in the legislature to make it last decade is an energy efficiency labelling mandatory. scheme for appliances and vehicles, which has been mandatory since 2008. Transport: Hong Kong ranks above average in transport. The city scores well for having a Land use and buildings: Hong Kong comparatively well-developed superior public ranks well above average in land use and build- transport network (defined in the Index as trans- ings. The city’s score is boosted by having the port that moves large numbers of passengers third largest amount of green space in the Index, quickly in dedicated lanes, such as metro, bus at 105 square metres per person, well above the rapid transit, or trams). Measuring 0.24 km per Index average of 39 square metres. The city’s square kilometre, it stretches farther than the success in green spaces is partly due to its natur- Index average of 0.17 kilometres. Hong Kong al geography — some mountainous areas are also does well on transport policy. The city has not easily developed — but also because of an integrated pricing system for its mass transit proactive policies towards conservation. About system, and has taken steps to reduce emissions 48,000 hectares of land are also under statutory from mass transport. The city’s transport perfor- protection in Hong Kong, with most of it desig- mance further benefits from policies to reduce nated as country parks and marine parks. traffic congestion, with measures such as Besides the parks, 6,600 hectares designated for pedestrian areas, congestion charges, “no-car conservation must follow strict planning and days”, and park and ride systems. Hong Kong’s development controls. Hong Kong also has traffic management system is also among the strong policies on eco-buildings and land-use. most sophisticated in the Index.Background indicatorsTotal population (million) 7.0 H ong Kong is a major financial, trading and transport hub in East Asia. Many of the shipments to and from southern China pass land use and buildings category, where it ranks well above average, boosted by one of the largest amounts of green spaces in the Index. In Kong is one of only six cities covered in the Index that regularly monitors greenhouse gas emis- sions and publishes the results. The city also Performance well Hong Kong below Other cities average above well below average average aboveAdministrative area (km2) 1,104,4 through Hong Kong’s port, making it one of the most other categories, Hong Kong ranks above consumes a relatively small amount of energy average averageGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 29,990.5 world’s busiest. Although the port brings eco- average. As well as having well-developed trans- per US$ of GDP, at an estimated 1.5 megajoules, Energy and CO2Population density (persons/km2) 6,362.2 nomic benefit to Hong Kong, it has also added port and sanitation infrastructures in place, well below the Index average of 6 megajoules.Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 23.0 environmental pressure through water pollution Hong Kong benefits from having a wide range of There is still room for improvement, however. Land use and buildingsData applies to Hong Kong and emissions from cargo-carrying road traffic. proactive policies to improve and protect its Hong Kong’s CO2 emissions, at an annual 5.4 Transport The city has a GDP per capita of nearly environment. The city ranks average in the tonnes per capita, are above the Index average Waste US$30,000, which places it in the high-income water category, mainly due to a high rate of con- of 4.6 tonnes. While electricity accounts for half group in the Asian Green City Index. As one of sumption and a relatively high level of water of Hong Kong’s total energy consumption, car- Water two special administrative regions of China, leakages. bon-intensive coal is responsible for generating Sanitation along with Macau, Hong Kong retains a high 54% of Hong Kong’s electricity supply. Heavy Air quality degree of autonomy from the Chinese central Energy and CO2: Hong Kong ranks above road traffic also helps to push up Hong Kong’s government. average in the energy and CO2 category, per- CO2 emissions. In addition, Hong Kong is one of Environmental governance Hong Kong ranks above average overall in forming particularly well for its clean energy only a few cities in the Index that does not use Overall results the Index. The city’s best performance is in the policies and climate change action plan. Hong renewables for either energy consumption or The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results.60 61
    • Asian Green City Index | Hong Kong_China Green initiatives: Hong Kong has plans to sub- age of 278 litres. The city has an ageing water stantially expand its metro system. For example, network, and an estimated 21% of the water the city’s subway authority began building a supply is lost to leakages, close to the Index aver- three-station extension of the main Hong Kong age of 22%. In terms of policy, however, Hong Island line through its densely populated west- Kong scores well. The city regularly monitors the ern district in July 2009. The project is scheduled quality of surface water, maintains targets for for completion in 2014. The city has also key pollutants in drinking water, and is strong at embraced innovation. In 2005, in a separate enforcing water pollution standards on local project, Hong Kong’s Mass Transit Railway industry. Regarding water efficiency initiatives, opened a 3.8 km line to take tourists to the Dis- Hong Kong is one of the most robust in the neyland resort. It was the first heavy rail train Index, with measures in place such as water tar- line to use automated, driverless technology. iffs, rainwater collection and public campaigns Regarding road congestion, the city has installed to promote conservation. These conservation Area Traffic Control systems to ensure smooth efforts partly reflect the fact that Hong Kong has traffic flow and optimum use of the road net- to import more than 70% of its water supply work in the Tuen Mun and Yuen Long districts. from mainland China, according to the city gov- The project involves the real-time coordination ernment. and adjustment of traffic control signals at 249 tonnes of sewage sludge from flowing into the air quality is strongly impacted by emissions In addition, cross-border emissions from main- junctions. Green initiatives: Since 2000 Hong Kong has harbour every day, and eliminate disease-caus- from mainland China, which might help explain land China are a major contributor to Hong undertaken major investment to upgrade the ing pathogens in the water by 90% and toxic the relatively high levels of nitrogen dioxide, the Kong’s air quality, so close cooperation with the Waste: Hong Kong ranks above average in city’s decades-old water mains to minimise ammonia by 10%, according to the Hong Kong city benefits from strong air quality policies. The mainland government is very important. A num- waste. Although Hong Kong produces 434 kg of water leakages. It will spend a total of US$2.5 government. The government hopes to recoup city regularly monitors air quality in various loca- ber of meetings, studies and agreements have waste per capita per year, which is more than billion by 2015 to replace or repair some 3,000 operating costs through “polluter pays” sewage tions around the city, not just in industrial areas, taken place in the past few years to improve the Index average of 375 kg, the city collects and km of the 7,700 km-long water-main network. charges. and promotes awareness among citizens about such cooperation. adequately disposes of all of the waste it gener- In another initiative, the Hong Kong govern- the dangers of air pollution. Hong Kong also ates, primarily through the city’s three existing ment and the government of the mainland Chi- Air quality: Hong Kong ranks above average scores well for measuring a wide range of air Environmental governance: Hong Kong landfills. However, as Hong Kong’s economy nese province, Guangdong, have been collabo- in air quality. Although the city’s daily nitrogen pollutants, including suspended fine particulate is above average for environmental governance. continues to grow and more waste is generated, rating on a water quality initiative in the Pearl dioxide levels are higher than the Index average matter and carbon monoxide. The city regularly monitors its environmental particularly from construction, the city’s landfills River Delta. The two governments joined forces — at 50 micrograms per cubic metre compared performance and publishes information on are running out of space earlier than expected. in 2000 to produce an innovative computer to the 22-city average of 47 micrograms — Green initiatives: The government has taken progress, and enjoys strong powers to imple- There is strong public resistance to new landfills, model that accurately simulates the flow of pol- Hong Kong performs well for relatively low lev- steps to reduce vehicle emissions, which are the ment its own environmental legislation. The so the government is focusing more of its efforts lution in the river network and coastal waters, els of sulphur dioxide and suspended particulate city’s second biggest source of air pollution city’s environmental department, which has a on waste reduction, primarily through the “pol- which allows for regional cooperation in moni- matter. At 14 micrograms per cubic metre, Hong behind power generation. Since 2007 the gov- wide remit, has also conducted a baseline envi- luter pays” principle (see “green initiatives” sec- toring water quality in the delta. Kong’s average daily sulphur dioxide concentra- ernment has provided financial and tax incen- ronmental review in all of the main areas cov- tion below) where the city charges those tions are lower than the Index average of 23 tives for owners of older cars and trucks to ered by the index within the last five years. Hong responsible for distributing the polluting items Sanitation: Hong Kong ranks above average micrograms, while the level of average daily sus- replace them with newer, less-polluting models, Kong also does well at involving citizens, non- rather than raising funds through other means. in sanitation. The city scores well on policy, reg- pended particulate matter, at 47 micrograms or cars with hybrid engines. Environmental governmental organisations and other stake- Hong Kong scores well for already having strong ularly monitoring wastewater treatment facili- per cubic metre, is less than half the Index aver- authorities are also promoting biodiesel by holders in decisions on projects of major envi- polices in place for waste, which include the ties and running public awareness programmes. age of 108 micrograms. Although Hong Kong’s exempting duty on the fuel for motor vehicles. ronmental impact. encouragement of better waste management Hong Kong treats 98% of its wastewater, com- by citizens through such measures as litter bans pared to the Index average of 60%. However, and making it illegal to dump waste. Waste re- due to data availability, Hong Kong’s figure in use and recycling services are also very well the Index comes from 2001. In addition, an esti- Quantitative indicators: Hong Kong developed in Hong Kong. mated 93% of the population has access to sani- tation, well above the Index average of 70%. Average Hong Kong* Year** Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions per person (tonnes/person) 4.6 5.4 2008 Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Green initiatives: The government relies on Hong Kong has also made firm progress in pre- Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$) 6.0 1.5 e 2009 Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department the “polluter pays” principle for its waste reduc- venting toxic effluents from flowing into its tion strategy. The most conspicuous policy so far famous Victoria Harbour. Today, about 75% of Land use Population density (persons/km2) 8,228.8 6,362.2 2009 Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department and buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 38.6 105.3 2009 Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region has been a US$0.06 levy on plastic shopping sewage discharged into Victoria Harbour is bags started in July 2009. Authorities estimate chemically treated and disinfected, according to Transport Superior public transport network , covering trams, 0.17 0.24 2010 Hong Kong Tramways Ltd; Hong Kong MTR that some eight billion plastic bags end up in the Hong Kong government. light rail, subway and BRT (km/km2) landfills annually. On the first anniversary of the Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 82.8 100.0 2009 Hong Kong Waste Statistics levy, the government reported that retailers are Green initiatives: The Harbour Area Treatment Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 375.2 434.3 2009 Hong Kong Waste Statistics distributing 90% fewer bags than before the pol- Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 277.6 371.2 2009 Water Supplies Department, Hong Kong Scheme to clean up Victoria Harbour is ongoing. icy was adopted. Water system leakages (%) 22.2 21.0 e 2009 Hong Kong Water Bureau By 2014 more sewage from further districts Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 70.1 93.0 1e 2008 Drainage Services Department, Hong Kong within the city will be diverted to a sewage treat- Water: Hong Kong is average in the water cat- Share of wastewater treated (%) 59.9 98.0 2001 Drainage Services Department, Hong Kong ment plant located on a promontory at the egory, mainly due to comparatively high water Air quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 46.7 50.0 2009 Environment Protection Department, Hong Kong north-western corner of the harbour that consumption. It consumes 371 litres of water Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 22.5 14.0 2009 Environment Protection Department, Hong Kong opened in 2001. When it is finished, the project per capita per day, compared to the 22-city aver- Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 107.8 47.0 2009 Environment Protection Department, Hong Kong is expected to prevent another 190 to 500 * All data applies to Hong Kong unless stated otherwise below, ** Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU estimate, 1) Based on access to sewerage62 63
    • Asian Green City Index | Jakarta_Indonesia about 10% of its electricity from cleaner produc- cy and other environmental standards. But so far Jakarta_Indonesia tion, mainly hydropower. its provisions remain voluntary. The decree includes standards for labelling energy efficient Green initiatives: Indonesia won plaudits at building materials, low-carbon fuel, water and the 2009 UN Conference on Climate Change waste management, and air quality. It also when it committed itself to voluntary reductions directs developers to build facilities to conserve in CO2 emissions, pledging to reduce emissions water and harvest rainwater. Meanwhile, the by at least 26% from 2009 levels by 2020. Going Jakarta administration, with the support of the farther than the nationwide target, the Jakarta International Finance Corporation, the private governor has said he will reduce the city’s emis- sector arm of the World Bank, is preparing regu- sions by 30% from 2009 levels by 2020. Howev- lations of its own covering green buildings, er, detailed policies aimed at meeting this com- which will also be voluntary. mitment have yet to be announced. Transport: Jakarta ranks average in the Land use and buildings: Jakarta is aver- transport category. It performs well for the age in the land use and buildings category. With length of its superior public transport network nearly 13,900 people per square kilometre, only (defined in the Index as transport that moves three other cities in the Index have higher popu- large numbers of passengers quickly in dedicat- lation densities than Jakarta. The city has a rela- ed lanes, such as metro, bus rapid transit or tively small amount of green spaces, at 2 square trams), at 0.19 km per square kilometre, above metres per person, compared to the Index aver- the Index average of 0.17 km per square kilome- age of 39 square metres. Regarding land use tre. This is also the longest superior network policies, Jakarta makes only partial efforts to among the lower income cities in the Index. contain urban sprawl or protect environmentally Some 7 million passengers per month are esti- sensitive areas. In addition, the city could im- mated to travel by the TransJakarta Busway, a prove its eco-buildings policies. It does have “bus rapid transit” service which first opened in energy efficiency standards for private build- 2004. The service carries passengers in modernBackground indicators ings, but its regulations are weaker for public air-conditioned buses in dedicated bus lanes buildings. In practice, Jakarta officials presently which cover about 120 km. Although the systemTotal population (million) 9.2 do not take account of environmental factors appears too small to meet current demand, theAdministrative area (km2) 664.0 when issuing building permits, although inde- city has plans to extend it (see “green initiatives”GDP per person (current prices) (US$) 7,636.4 pendent groups have called for greater third- below). Regarding its transport policies, JakartaPopulation density (persons/km2) 13,889.9 party scrutiny of developers who claim to be is marked down in the Index for only partly inte-Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 27.0 green. However, officials are working to improve grating the pricing system for the transport net-Data applies to Jakarta the situation with plans for new standards (see work, for example, and for limited attempts to “green initiatives” below). reduce emissions from mass transport. Green initiatives: In January 2010, the nation- Green initiatives: The city has plans to improveI ndonesia’s capital, Jakarta, is the country’s largest city, with a population of 9.2 million,extending across 660 square kilometres on the GDP among cities with a similarly low income in the Index (with a GDP per person of less than US$10,000). Jakarta is average in the categories energy consumption. The city, with its service- dominated and relatively low-carbon economy, emits an estimated 1.2 tonnes of CO2 per person al government issued a decree on green build- ings, setting some standards for energy efficien- the TransJakarta Busway by adding seven new lines, bringing the total number of lines to 15.northwestern coast of the island of Java. The of land use and buildings, transport, air quality per year, compared to the 22-city average of 4.6capital generates around 16% of Indonesia’s and environmental governance. In the air quali- tonnes. Jakarta consumes an estimated 2.4economic output, and has a GDP per person of ty category, Jakarta has the lowest average daily megajoules per US$ of GDP, compared with the Performance Jakarta Other citiesUS$7,600. This makes it Indonesia’s richest city, levels of nitrogen dioxide of all 22 cities in the Index average of 6 megajoules, which also is the well below average above wellbut it is still among the lower income cities in the Index, and in the transport category, among lowest rate of energy consumption among cities below average average aboveAsian Green City Index. Services account for low-income cities, it has the longest superior with low incomes in the Index. The city performs average average71% of Jakarta’s economy, followed by industry, public transport network (which can include well in the Index for its policies on carbon emis- Energy and CO2at 28%. The city’s tropical climate can lead to a metro, bus rapid transit or trams). The city sions. For example, it receives full marks for hav-flooding in the rainy season, aggravating sanita- ranks below average for water and sanitation. ing conducted a baseline review of greenhouse Land use and buildingstion and health problems. The city faces several Regarding water, although Jakarta has the third gas emissions within the last five years, and it Transportenvironmental challenges, but it has shown lowest water consumption rate in the Index, it also regularly monitors green-house gas levels Wasteleadership in pledging to reduce carbon emis- also has the highest level of water leakages. The and publishes the results. The city performs lesssions beyond national targets. city has the most room for improvement in the well for clean energy policies, largely because it Water Jakarta is ranked average overall in the Index. waste category, where it ranks well below aver- lacks a strategy to reduce the environmental SanitationThe city’s best performance is in the energy and age. impact of energy consumption, and makes only Air qualityCO2 category, where it ranks above average, partial investments in waste-to-energy initia-mainly for its low levels of CO2 emissions and Energy and CO2: Jakarta ranks above aver- tives and other forms of renewable energy. Environmental governanceenergy consumption. In addition, Jakarta has age in the energy and CO2 category, bolstered About 4% of Jakarta’s energy consumption Overall resultsthe lowest energy consumption in relation to its by relatively low levels of CO2 emissions and comes from renewable sources, and it generates The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results.64 65
    • Asian Green City Index | Jakarta_Indonesia waterways. Regarding sanitation policies, Jakar- cubic metre, compared with the Index average undergo regular emissions tests, but there have ta has a partial code to promote environmen- of 47 micrograms. It also has below average lev- been problems with enforcement. In addition, tally sustainable sanitation services and only els of average daily suspended particulate mat- TransJakarta Busway vehicles use biodiesel, partially promotes the clean use of sanitation ter, at 43 micrograms per cubic metre, com- which emits less CO2 than conventional diesel or systems. Although the city has wastewater pared to the average of 108 micrograms. The compressed natural gas. treatment standards, they are relatively weak city’s service-based economy may partly when compared with other cities in the In- explain the low emissions levels for these two Environmental governance: Jakarta dex. pollutants. However, the city’s sulphur dioxide ranks average for environmental governance. It emissions, at 53 micrograms per cubic metre, has a dedicated environmental department with Green initiatives: Flooding in the rainy season are above the Index average of 23 micrograms. legal capacity to implement its own legislation can overwhelm the sanitation system in Jakarta, Sulphur dioxide is produced mainly through and a wide remit over many aspects of sustain- and officials have introduced measures in recent burning sulphur-containing fuels, usually coal ability management. It receives full marks forA metro has been on the drawing board for sev- including household hazardous waste, medical tial standards on drinking water and regulations years to address the problem. These include and oil, and Jakarta indeed consumes and pro- regularly monitoring the city’s environmentaleral years too, and the first phase of a 22-km and infectious waste, and chemical waste. covering industrial water pollution. It lacks a flood canals to handle overflow, and the acquisi- duces relatively high percentages of its energy performance and publishing the results, and cit-north-south line is scheduled to begin operation Jakarta also has on-site recycling collection ser- code to reduce water stress or to consume water tion of 300 water pumps that can remove more from these sources. For example, it has the izens and non-governmental organisations arein late 2016. Regarding measures to ease traffic vices. more efficiently, but does publicly promote the than 300 cubic metres of water per second. highest share of oil used in electricity produc- involved in decisions on projects with an envi-congestion, in September 2010 the city admin- importance of water conservation. tion in the Index, at 26%, and coal accounts for ronmental impact. However, environmentalistration announced that it would build six ele- Green initiatives: Modern waste-treatment Air quality: Jakarta ranks average in air a further 29%. governance is weakened in Jakarta by problemsvated roads in order to handle cross-city traffic. facilities are limited. There is an environmentally Green initiatives: The government is spending quality. The city benefits from the lowest rate of associated with conflicting responsibilitiesThe city also has a longstanding regulation ban- friendly facility at Ciangir, around 20 km west of around US$225 million upgrading Jakarta’s average daily concentrations of nitrogen diox- Green initiatives: In 2005 the government between the various government agencies, andning private vehicles with fewer than three pas- Jakarta in Banten province, that has yet to begin water transmission network in a project that is ide among the 22 cities, at 19 micrograms per started requiring all vehicles in the capital to confused rules and regulations.sengers from central Jakarta’s main roads during operations amid disagreements between two expected to provide additional water supplies topeak hours. authorities over the choice of a technology sup- the city through closed pipes. However, the pro- plier. The Jakarta administration has also been ject is not expected to be completed until 2012.Waste: Jakarta is well below average in the promoting a so-called “3R” campaign to reduce Quantitative indicators: Jakartawaste category. Jakarta generates less waste waste, and promote re-use and recycling Sanitation: Jakarta is below average in sani-than the Index average, at an estimated 292 kg, through outreach work with businesses and Average Jakarta* Year** Source tation. An estimated 67% of Jakarta’s residentscompared to the average of 375 kg. However, households. have access to sanitation, which is the highest Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions per person (tonnes/person) 4.6 1.2 e 2007 Jakarta Central Statistics Bureau; IPCC; EIU estimatesthe city collects and adequately disposes of only rate among cities with a similarly low income in Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$) 6.0 2.4 e 2007 Jakarta Central Statistics Bureau; EIU estimatesan estimated 35% of its refuse, well below the Water: Jakarta ranks below average in the the Index, and close to the Index average of Land use Population density (persons/km2) 8,228.8 13,889.9 2009 Statistics Indonesia and buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 38.6 2.3 2008 Statistics Indonesiaaverage of 83%. Most of Jakarta’s collected water category, despite having the third lowest 70%. Because of data limitations, Jakarta’s fig-waste ends up at open rubbish dumps, such as Transport Superior public transport network , covering trams, 0.17 0.19 2010 TransJakarta per capita water consumption rates in the Index, ure in the Index was estimated from 2006 Worldthe 110-hectare Bantar Gebang landfill, situated light rail, subway and BRT (km/km2) at 78 litres per day, compared with the Index Bank data on the whole of Indonesia. In con-around 30 km east of the city. Jakarta is marked Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 82.8 35.0 e 2009 Jakarta Sanitation Agency; Jakarta Globe average of 278 litres. However, Jakarta loses an trast, the city has one of the lowest rates ofdown in the Index for lacking standards for Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 375.2 291.5 1e 2008 Jakarta Central Statistics Bureau estimated 50% of its water supply to leakage, the wastewater treatment in the Index, at an esti-waste disposal sites and for only making partial Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 277.6 77.6 2 2008 Statistics Indonesia highest rate in the Index, and more than twice mated 1%, compared to the Index average ofefforts to enforce standards for industrial haz- Water system leakages (%) 22.2 50.2 3e 2008 Water Environment Partnership in Asia the Index average of 22%. Jakarta sometimes 60%, reflecting the fact that the city has onlyardous waste. The city performs better for recy- Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 70.1 67.0 4e 2006 World Bank experiences water shortages during the dry sea- one sewage treatment plant in South Jakarta.cling policies, with an integrated policy to Share of wastewater treated (%) 59.9 1.0 5e 2006 USAID son, when supplies run low at the reservoir that Wealthier households typically use septic tanksreduce, re-use or recycle waste. The city also has Air quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 46.7 18.5 2008 Clean Air Initiative provides 60% of the capital’s water. Regarding for sewage treatment, but the less fortunate liv-special waste collection services in operation for ing in the city’s informal settlements invariably Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 22.5 52.7 2008 Clean Air Initiative policies, Jakarta has a code in place covering sur-the types of waste evaluated in the Index — discharge waste directly into the city’s rivers and Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 107.8 42.6 2008 Clean Air Initiative face water quality, but it is marked down for par- * All data applies to Jakarta unless stated otherwise below, ** Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU estimate, 1) Based on typical solid waste density, 2) Based on total volume of water sold, 3) Based on source water lost through network, 4) All urban areas in Indonesia, 5) Based on coverage of Jakarta treatment plant from USAID66 67
    • Asian Green City Index | Karachi_Pakistan bank, which will invest in return for carbon tive areas are relatively weak, largely because Karachi_Pakistan credits from the project. On energy efficiency, local government authority over policy is divid- the Karachi Electricity Supply Corporation has ed between agencies. Thus there is poor brought down the rate of losses in transmission enforcement of existing planning regulations. from 4.2% in 2008 to 2.4% in 2009 through a Karachi performs well for its eco-buildings poli- number of measures to track more accurately cy, including full marks for energy efficiency where electricity is being delivered. The US standards on public buildings, and incentives Trade Development Agency has also provided a for households and businesses to lower their grant for a feasibility study on improving effi- energy use. ciency in the electricity grid. Green initiatives: The government is making Land use and buildings: Karachi ranks attempts to urge developers to include parks in below average in land use and buildings. This is urban planning. In 2008 and 2009 the mayor due to a relatively low population density, a energetically promoted the concept of green lower-than-average result on green spaces per space, resulting in new parks and green areas person, and weaknesses on government poli- within new developments. For example, inBackground indicatorsTotal population (million) 14.5 K arachi is Pakistan’s largest city and the country’s commercial capital, with a GDP per capita of US$5,400. Figures in the Index are formance is in the water category, where it ranks average, mainly for a low rate of per capi- ta water consumption. Karachi is below average current data meant that the figure was estimat- ed based on 2006 data. Regarding energy effi- ciency, Karachi consumes an estimated 7.8 cies. The amount of green spaces, at 17 square metres per person, is below the Index average of 39 square metres, and the city only partially 2007 the city opened a new 130-acre park, one of the largest in Asia. In 2009, the national gov- ernment adopted eco-buildings policies thatAdministrative area (km2) 3,527.0 for the urban population of Karachi, at about in most other categories. The city has the megajoules per US$ of GDP, compared to the protects green spaces through regulations. outline mandatory minimum energy efficiencyGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 5,379.31 14.5 million, according to the latest official esti- biggest challenges in the transport and air qual- average of 6 megajoules. The city does receive Karachi’s land use policies aimed at maintaining standards for homes, offices and public build-Population density (persons/km2) 4,111.1 mates. The city’s appearance reflects the fact ity categories, where it ranks well below aver- full marks for policies to consume energy more green spaces and other environmentally sensi- ings such as hospitals.Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 26.0 that it is one of the world’s fastest growing age. In these categories, it is marked down par- efficiently, but is marked down for not monitor-Data applies to Karachi, 1) Based on 2007 population and US$ PPP prices metropolises. Karachi is a combination of old ticularly for lacking a superior public transport ing greenhouse gas emissions. Its climate seafront districts, residential and commercial network, such as metro lines, bus rapid transit change action plan covers only three of the Performance Karachi Other cities developments, golf clubs, skyscrapers, crowd- systems or trams, and for high average daily six areas evaluated in the Index: waste, trans- well below average above well ed roads and informal settlements. Its indus- concentrations of the three air pollutants evalu- port and energy, but not water, sanitation or below average average above tries include shipping, trade, finance, banking, ated in the Index. For the future, there are sev- buildings. The city has signed up as a participat- average average information technology, manufacturing, real eral projects underway to improve transport, ing member of the C40 group of cities, which Energy and CO2 estate, media and education. Karachi is situated sanitation, water and waste infrastructure, have pledged to reduce greenhouse gas emis- on a natural harbour facing the Arabian Sea, financed by international organisations such as sions. Land use and buildings Pakistan’s primary seaport. Because of its cen- the Asian Development Bank, the Japan Bank Transport tral location between India and the Middle East, for International Cooperation and the US Trade Green initiatives: The Landhi Cattle Colony in Waste Karachi has been an important trading port for Development Agency. Karachi has undertaken a US$5 million pilot centuries. Rapid growth has exacerbated envi- project to convert cow dung into electricity and Water ronmental challenges, and the city has strug- Energy and CO2: Karachi ranks below biogas. The pilot plant is currently producing 25 Sanitation gled to improve basic infrastructure, such as average in the energy and CO2 category. The kilowatts of electricity per day, but plans are in Air quality roads, water pipes and sanitation, to match ris- city produces less-than-average levels of CO2 place to build a larger plant with a 30-megawatt ing demand. per person, at an estimated 3.1 tonnes com- daily capacity. The larger plant will cost an esti- Environmental governance Karachi ranks well below average overall in pared to the Index average of 4.6 tonnes. But mated US$120 million, and its potential finan- Overall results the Asian Green City Index. The city’s best per- emission levels could be higher since lack of cial backers include the Asian Development The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results.68 69
    • Asian Green City Index | Karachi_PakistanTransport: Karachi is well below average in equal to the Index average, although this figure but only partially monitors surface water. The renovate the existing plants and install new sewer sions standards. Euro II is an earlier version of decisions about projects with environmentaltransport, mainly because it lacks a superior pub- is based only on household waste. This is also city is marked down for its efforts to encourage pipes. Land has been acquired for the new treat- current European standards, which put restric- impacts, but this is improving within the city.lic transport network (defined in the Index as the fourth highest rate among low-income cities water conservation and to enforce industrial ment plants, and the government will be seeking tions on the amount of particulate matter whichtransport that moves large numbers of passen- (below US$10,000 in GDP per person). Howev- water standards. The city does, however, receive additional financing within the next few months. vehicles are allowed to emit. Furthermore, the Green initiatives: The Orangi Pilot project,gers quickly in dedicated lanes, such as metro, er, Karachi is marked down for the absence of full marks for setting targets on the level of pol- Japan Bank for International Cooperation is hailed as a success story across Asia, gives resi-bus rapid transit or trams), although the city is in environmental standards for waste disposal lutants in drinking water. Air quality: Karachi is well below average for funding an environmental monitoring system dents of poor communities the resources andthe early stages of creating a bus rapid transit sites and for not enforcing standards for indus- air quality, with high average daily concentrations across Pakistan, which includes two air-quality engineering expertise to help solve their ownnetwork and circular railway (see “green initia- trial hazardous waste disposal or encouraging Green initiatives: The Karachi water board is in for nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and sus- monitoring stations in Karachi. environmental challenges. The project, whichtives” below). Currently public transport consists proper waste management by residents. Waste the first phase of a long-term plan for additional pended particulate matter. Karachi’s main chal- began in the 1980s in Orangi Town, an areaof minibuses and coaches. Many of these do not is not separated before collection and is dumped reservoirs and pumping stations that is expected lenges — vehicle emissions, industrial pollution, Environmental governance: Karachi within Karachi, initially focused on seweroperate on fixed routes, and most are filled to at two sites near the city’s western border, one to double the city’s water supply. Financing for dust and open burning — afflict many cities in ranks below average in environmental gover- improvements, with residents laying hundredscapacity. The result is an over-reliance on cars, of which will be at capacity within only a few the US$273 million project is currently being Asia. But Karachi is especially vulnerable because nance. The city has an environmental depart- of kilometres of pipes. By 1993, 72,000 addi-and as a result the roads are badly congested. years. Collection is poorly organised and is most- arranged through the city government and a its policies are not comprehensive. Its air quality ment, but it lacks the full legal remit to enact tional houses had been connected. Within tenKarachi also has room for improvement in its per- ly dependent on community dustbins located grant from the Asian Development Bank. Once code, set at national level, is only in draft stages. environmental regulations. The city gets full years, the programme had expanded to coverformance on mass transport policy and conges- around the city. under way, the first phase of the project — land Also, the city does not fully monitor air quality marks for having conducted a baseline environ- not only environmental challenges, but had alsotion reduction policies, including any form of acquisition and surveying potential sites — will around the city, nor does the government fully mental review within the last five years, but is led to the establishment of schools, health clin-road pricing, carpooling lanes or “no-car days”. Green initiatives: The city is in the early plan- take an expected four years. inform citizens about the dangers of air pollution. marked down for not fully monitoring its envi- ics, women’s work centres, stores and a credit ning stages of a project to add two more landfills ronmental performance and publishing the organisation to finance further projects. TodayGreen initiatives: The government is planning that are closer to the city, and which will there- Sanitation: Karachi ranks below average in Green initiatives: From July 2012 the govern- results. Karachi also has some of the weaker poli- the Orangi project model is being replicated into implement a “bus rapid transit” system. The fore reduce transport costs. But no firm con- the sanitation category. Access to sanitation is ment will require all diesel vehicles in the city, cies in the Index regarding public access to envi- other cities in Pakistan, as well as Sri Lanka,45 km, three-line system is estimated to cost struction plans have been announced. below the Index average, at an estimated 57% including buses, to comply with “Euro II” emis- ronmental information and involving citizens in India, Nepal and South Africa.around US$600 million, about three quarters of compared to 70%. Karachi is also below thewhich is being financed by the Asian Develop- Water: Karachi is average in the water catego- average for the share of wastewater treated, atment Bank. A total of 4,000 buses are expected ry. It has a relatively low water consumption per 22%, compared to 60%. Overall, the sewage sys- Quantitative indicators: Karachito be introduced within the first five years of the person, at 165 litres per person per day, com- tem is ageing, and the three existing treatmentplan. Officials have announced plans to move Average Karachi* Year** Source pared to the Index average of 278 litres. Howev- plants serving the city operate at about 50% effi-forward with a plan to construct a 49 km circular Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions per person (tonnes/person) 4.6 3.1 1e 2006 EIU estimate er, this performance is more likely a result of ciency, experiencing blocked pipes and frequentrailway in the city, although financing the Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$) 6.0 7.8 2e 2006 Karachi Master Plan 2020 water shortages and inefficiency than conserva- mechanical failure. In terms of sanitation poli-US$872 million initiative is still proving to be a Land use Population density (persons/km2) 8,228.8 4,111.1 2007 EIU calculation tion efforts. The water distribution system in cies, Karachi lacks regular monitoring of on-site and buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 38.6 17.0 3 2007 City District Government of Karachichallenge. If financing can be arranged, then a Karachi is about 40 years old on average, with treatment facilities in homes or communalportion of the new system could be expected to Transport Superior public transport network , covering trams, 0.17 0.00 many corroded pipes that disrupt effective areas, nor does it promote public awarenessopen within four years. Financing problems light rail, subway and BRT (km/km2) transmission to homes and businesses. The city around clean and efficient use of the sanitationhave also impeded plans to build another 87 km Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 82.8 82.7 4e 2006 Urban Resource Centre of Karachi has seen improvements in the past decade how- system. Karachi is marked down for lacking alight rail system in the city. Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 375.2 229.0 2006 Urban Resource Centre of Karachi ever, with one nationally recognised project, the comprehensive sanitation strategy, but the city does have minimum standards for the monitor- Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 277.6 164.5 5 2007 Karachi Master Plan 2020 Greater Karachi Water Supply project, supplying Water system leakages (%) 22.2 25.0 6 2007 Karachi Master Plan 2020Waste: Karachi is below average in the waste 100 million gallons per day to city residents ing and treatment of wastewater. Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 70.1 57.0 7e 2006 Karachi Master Plan 2020category. The city does produce a less-than- through two pumping stations. Still, the city suf- Share of wastewater treated (%) 59.9 22.0 2006 Karachi 2020 Master Planaverage amount of waste per person, at 229 kg fers from a relatively high rate of leakages: 25% Green initiatives: The provincial government Air quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 46.7 59.5 2008 Karachi Urban Resource Centreper person compared to the Index average of of the water is lost, compared to the Index aver- has approved the Greater Karachi Sewage Treat- Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 22.5 57.3 2008 Karachi Urban Resource Centre375 kg. The city collects and adequately dispos- age of 22%. Policies on water are also largely ment Project, a four-year, US$112 million initiative Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 107.8 180.4 2008 Karachi Urban Resource Centrees of an estimated 83% of its waste, which is partial. Karachi has a water quality code in place, to build three new wastewater treatment plants, * All data applies to Karachi unless stated otherwise below, ** Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU estimate, 1) Based on regression analysis, 2) Based on 2007 GDP data, 3) ”Tree and vegetation cover” 4) Based on household waste, 5) Based on final water supply, 6) ”Water loss”, 7) Based on access to sewerage70 71
    • Asian Green City Index | Kolkata_India Energy and CO2: Kolkata ranks below Land use and buildings: Kolkata is below Kolkata_India average in the energy and CO2 category, average in the land use and buildings category. despite performing relatively well for CO2 emis- It has the ninth highest population density, at sions and energy consumption. CO2 emissions, 8,500 people per square kilometre, and the at an estimated 1.5 tonnes per person, are bet- least amount of green spaces in the Index, at 2 ter than the Index average of 4.6 tonnes. Ener- square metres per person, compared to the gy consumption per US$ of GDP is also better Index average of 39 square metres. This is also than average, at an estimated 4 megajoules, lower than the average of Indian cities in the compared to the 22-city average of 6 mega- Index, at 17 square metres per person. Urban joules. In addition, the city generates 10% of its development has cut into existing green electricity from hydropower. However, Kolkata spaces, and many construction projects have is marked down in policy areas. Kolkata has not taken place without building parks or other conducted a baseline review of greenhouse gas green spaces to compensate. Kolkata is not as emissions in the last five years, nor are green- strong as other cities in policy areas covered by house gas emissions monitored on a regular the Index, including eco-buildings standards, basis. The city has also not signed up to any energy efficiency incentives and urban sprawl international covenants to limit greenhouse containment, although it does receive full gases. Its clean energy policies are also weaker marks for having green standards for public than in other cities in the Index. For example, it building projects and for publicly promoting receives partial marks for its energy strategy energy efficiency in buildings. and only makes partial efforts to consume ener- gy more efficiently. Green initiatives: Nine residential projects in Kolkata have received recognition from the Green initiatives: As an initial attempt to pro- Leadership in Energy and Environmental mote the use of solar power and reduce green- Design, an internationally recognized green house gas emissions, the West Bengal state building certification system developed by the environmental department has required all US Green Building Council. backlit billboards in the state to go solar. Bill- boards using grid electricity were required to Transport: Kolkata is well below average in make the switch by December 2010 and those the transport category. Its superior public trans- powered by diesel generators were required to port network consists mainly of trams and a make the switch from June 2010. The depart- metro, and measures 0.05 km per square kilo- ment has also directed local governments not metre. This is below the Index average of 0.17 to issue permits to any new billboards powered km per square kilometre, but is the third longest by fossil fuel. West Bengal’s environmental system among cities with similarly low incomes department says the measure can reduce CO2 in the Index, and similar to the Indian city aver- emissions by several tonnes per hour across the age of 0.03 km per square kilometre. The city is Kolkata metropolitan area, assuming that all also investing in upgrades to the network (see billboards make the switch. “green initiatives” below). On the policy side, Performance Kolkata Other cities well below average above well below average average above average average Energy and CO2 K olkata, the capital of the Indian state of West the lowest among the 22 cities the Index, at an of CO2 emissions per person and low concentra- Land use and buildingsBackground indicators Bengal, is located in the eastern part of the estimated US$1,400. Due to data limitations, all tions of sulphur dioxide. In addition, among TransportTotal population (million) 15.6 country, alongside the Hooghly River. With a environmental figures for Kolkata in the Index cities with a similarly low income in the IndexAdministrative area (km2) 1,851.0 Waste population of 15.6 million in the metropolitan only cover the urban centre, called Kolkata City, (below US$10,000 in US$ GDP per person), itGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 1,414.1e area, it is the fourth most populous city in the which has a population of about 5.1 million. has the third longest superior public transport WaterPopulation density (persons/km2) 8,451.6 Asian Green City Index, and a regional hub for Kolkata is ranked below average overall in the network (a definition that includes metro, bus SanitationTemperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 26.0 financial services and IT. The city is also home to Index. Its best performance is in the water cate- rapid transit or tram lines). However, Kolkata’sData applies to Kolkata Metropolitan Area, e) EIU estimate Air quality domestic manufacturing, producing a range of gory, where it is average, with one of the lowest policies are generally weaker than in other cities products including electronics and jute, a plant- per capita water consumption rates in the Index. in the Index. The city’s major challenges are in Environmental governance based fibre used in rugs and ropes. Despite its The city ranks below average in most other cate- the transport and environmental governance Overall results growing economy, Kolkata’s GDP per capita is gories. Kolkata does relatively well for low levels categories, where it ranks well below average. The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results.72 73
    • Asian Green City Index | Kolkata_IndiaKolkata still has room for improvement. The city on waste generation and collection. Kolkata gen- urban centre. A new “sanitary landfill” site marked down for its sanitation policy. There is grams. Both can be explained by traffic conges- taining 0.05% sulphur, and liquefied petroleumdoes not have an integrated pricing scheme for erates 282 kg of waste per person per year, com- spread across 114 hectares at Dhapa is also only partial monitoring of on-site treatment tion and various air-polluting industries, includ- gas, are also available in the urban centre. Thepublic transport, nor does it encourage resi- pared to the Index average of 375 kg. It collects being built as part of this programme. facilities in residential and communal areas, and ing foundries. However, Kolkata manages to measures to reduce vehicle emission have beendents to take greener forms of transport. It only and adequately disposes of 80% of its waste, only Kolkata’s policy towards promoting environ- register one of the lowest daily levels of sulphur reinforced by the introduction of an extensivegets partial marks in the Index for its urban mass slightly less than the 22-city average of 83%, Water: Kolkata is average in the water catego- mentally sustainable sanitation services could dioxide in the Index, at 7 micrograms per cubic network of upgraded emissions testing centres.transport policy and its efforts to reduce emis- although because of data availability, Kolkata’s ry. The city benefits from a relatively low level of be improved. metre, well below the average of 23 micro-sions from public transport. It lacks most of the figure in the Index comes from 2002. However, water consumption, at 138 litres per person per grams. The relatively low sulphur dioxide levels Environmental governance: Kolkatacongestion reduction and traffic management Kolkata is one of three cities in the Index that day. This is one of the best rates among the 22 Green initiatives: As part of the Jawaharlal in Kolkata can be attributed to an increased use ranks well below average in the environmentalsystems evaluated in the Index, such as road does not enforce environmental standards for cities, and better than the average of 278 litres, Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, backed of low-sulphur coal, as well as low-sulphur governance category. The city’s environmentalpricing, or carpooling lanes, although it has waste disposal sites. There are no official dump- although due to data availability, the figure in by the central government, US$120 million is petrol and diesel. department lacks full authority to oversee theestablished dedicated times for freight deliver- ing grounds in many of the metropolitan area’s the Index comes from 2006. The low rates of being invested in building and improving sewer- city’s environment, and Kolkata is also markedies and access points around the city. The city municipalities, and waste is often dumped inap- water consumption might partly be explained, age systems in the urban centre and the munici- Green initiatives: A project between the Pollu- down for a lack of environmental monitoring.also has plans to implement traffic information propriately in low-lying areas. Kolkata is also however, by a lack of supply. Kolkata also has a pal town of Bhidannagar. tion Control Board and the India Canada Envi- The city does make efforts to involve citizens,systems to ease traffic congestion. The city has marked down for its insufficient efforts to high leakage rate, losing 35% of its total water ronment Facility, an environmental joint venture non-governmental organisations and otheralso been making investments to extend its road enforce and monitor standards for disposing haz- supply through leaks, versus an Index average of Air quality: Kolkata is below average in air by the two governments, has provided business- stakeholders in projects with environmentalnetwork in recent years (see “green initiatives” ardous industrial waste, and for its overall strate- 22%, although, again, Kolkata’s figure comes quality. The result is largely due to relatively high es with 50% of the total cost to adopt cleaner impacts, but there is no central point of publicbelow). gy for re-using and recycling waste. However, from 2006. Regarding policies, the city has a average daily levels of nitrogen dioxide, at 61 fuel technology. The Board has also enforced access for information about the city’s environ- although it lacks a comprehensive strategy, the water quality code in place covering pollutants micrograms per cubic metre, versus the average tighter European-style emissions standards for mental performance. In addition, Kolkata is oneGreen initiatives: Kolkata looks set to benefit city does separately collect and dispose of most in surface water, and it is marked up for having of 47 micrograms, and average daily suspended all new four-wheeled passenger cars in the met- of the few cities in the Index that has not con-from central government investment to improve of the special materials evaluated in the Index, standards for key pollutants in drinking water, as particulate matter levels, at 190 micrograms per ropolitan area. Cleaner fuels, including unlead- ducted a baseline environmental review in theurban infrastructure. Under the Jawaharlal including household hazardous waste, medical well as enforcing water quality standards on cubic metre against the average of 108 micro- ed petrol, low-sulphur petrol and diesel, con- last five years.Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, eight waste and chemical waste. In addition, Kolkata industry. For example, the state governmentprojects primarily aimed at reducing traffic con- has on-site recycling collection, as well as central authorities regularly monitor water quality ingestion in Kolkata — at an estimated cost of collection points around the city. the Hooghly river, with river water samples col-US$194 million — are expected to be finished by lected every month from eight stations. Quantitative indicators: Kolkata2011. These include new flyovers, bypasses and Green initiatives: A range of projects areinterchanges throughout the city. Furthermore, Average Kolkata* Year** Source underway in Kolkata to improve waste manage- Green initiatives: One aim of the Kolkata Envi-the Kolkata Metro, the first underground railway ment. A nationally-funded project has already Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions per person (tonnes/person) 4.6 1.5 e 2007 ICLEI; CESC; CPCB; IPCC; EIU estimates ronment Improvement Project is to install waterin India, is to be extended to Howrah, a munici- been completed at a cost of around US$12 mil- meters in every household in the urban centre Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$) 6.0 4.0 1e 2007 ICLEI; CESC; CPCB; EIU estimatespal town in the metropolitan area. Funded by lion to provide a solid waste management sys- that has a water connection. But some elected Land use Population density (persons/km2) 8,228.8 8,451.6 2 2008 EIU calculation and buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 38.6 1.8 3 2009 National Commission on Urbanisationthe Kolkata Metro Rail Corporation, construction tem for ten municipal towns in the metropolitan officials have sided with consumers who wouldbegan in March 2009 and is due to be completed area, with plans to extend it further. The Kolkata have to pay more if meters replaced flat-rate tar- Transport Superior public transport network , covering trams, 0.17 0.05 2010 Calcutta Tramways; Metro Railway Indiain October 2014 at an estimated cost of US$106 Solid Waste Management Improvement Project, iffs, which has stalled progress. light rail, subway and BRT (km/km2)million. Another initiative designed to ease traf- with financial and technical support from the Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 82.8 80.0 2002 Abfallwirtschaft und informeller Sektor in der City of Calcutta,fic congestion is the Kolkata Monorail mass tran- Japan Bank for International Cooperation, also Sanitation: Kolkata ranks below average in Dr Lutz Trettin, Ruhr-Universität Bochumsit system, which has been under construction aims to improve waste management in a num- the sanitation category. An estimated 52% of Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 375.2 282.0 2007 Carbon Emission Report in Asian Cities 2008, ICLEIsince March 2009. The first phase of 20 km is ber of towns within the metropolitan area. This Kolkata’s population has access to adequate san- Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 277.6 137.8 2006 Kolkata Municipal Corporationscheduled for completion by mid-2011; the sec- project targets a population of 1 million at an itation facilities, compared to the Index average Water system leakages (%) 22.2 35.0 2006 Kolkata Municipal Corporationond phase will add another 52 km, although the estimated cost of around US$40 million. In addi- of 70%. But this figure comes from 2006. Yet Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 70.1 52.0 4e 2006 World Bankproject deadline is not clear. tion, the Kolkata Environment Improvement according to more up-to-date figures from Share of wastewater treated (%) 59.9 20.0 5 2009 Kolkata Municipal Corporation Program has a solid waste management compo- 2009, the city treats only 20% of its wastewater, Air quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 46.7 61.4 2009 West Bengal Pollution Control BoardWaste: Kolkata ranks below average in the nent aimed at effective management of munici- compared to the Index average of 60% and the Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 22.5 7.1 2009 West Bengal Pollution Control Boardwaste category. The city performs relatively well pal, hazardous, and biomedical waste in the Indian city average of 46%. Kolkata is also Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 107.8 189.6 2009 West Bengal Pollution Control Board * All data applies to Kokata City unless stated otherwise below, ** Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU estimate, 1) Energy for Kolkata City; GDP only available for Metropolitan Area, 2) Based on Kolkata Metropolitan Area, 3) ”Green cover”, 4) Estimate based on average of urban areas in India due to lack of data, 5) Excluding ”natural treatment” into wetlands74 75
    • Asian Green City Index | Kuala Lumpur_Malaysia Lumpur has the second lowest level of sulphur cities in the Index, Kuala Lumpur’s eco-efficiency lines on protecting environmentally sensitive Kuala Lumpur_Malaysia dioxide emissions in the Index. Kuala Lumpur’s standards for new buildings are not as compre- areas. In addition, the national government main environmental weaknesses are in the hensive. There is a national “green buildings expects to plant 100,000 new trees in the city by energy and CO2, sanitation, waste and water index” that measures water and energy efficien- 2020, as well as connect parks through green categories, where it ranks well below average, cy, but the plan provides a rating as a guideline corridors, under a comprehensive “Economic due in part to high water consumption and and is not mandatory. Regarding land use policy, Transformation Programme” launched in Octo- waste generation. In addition, the city ranks Kuala Lumpur does relatively well at protecting ber 2010. average in land use and buildings, and environ- and promoting the development of green spaces mental governance. and conservation areas. By contrast, its policies Transport: Kuala Lumpur ranks above aver- to contain urban sprawl are relatively weak. age in the transport category. Its superior public Energy and CO2: Kuala Lumpur ranks below transport network (defined in the Index as trans- average in the energy and CO2 category. The Green initiatives: The Kuala Lumpur govern- port that moves large numbers of passengers city’s fondness for automobiles has driven annu- ment is adding to its three existing forest quickly in dedicated lanes, such as metro, bus al CO2 emissions per capita past the Index aver- reserves with plans to build more parks in the rapid transit, or trams) is a light rail system mea- age of 4.6 tonnes to an estimated 7.2 tonnes. city centre. The new parks will increase coverage suring 0.27 km per square kilometre. This makes Nevertheless, Kuala Lumpur’s growing technol- area of public parks and open spaces from the it the fourth longest superior network in the ogy sector has helped to contain energy con- current 5% of Kuala Lumpur’s total area to 8% in Index, and second longest among cities in the sumption in relation to its economic output to 2020. The government is also developing guide- mid-income range (with a GDP per person of an estimated 5 megajoules per US$ of GDP, which is below the Index average of 6 mega- joules. And the city also generates 8% of its elec- tricity through renewable sources, primarily hydro power. In policy areas, Kuala Lumpur is less ambitious than the majority of other cities in the Index at converting local waste by-products to energy, and has made only partial efforts to produce and consume energy more efficiently. The city also does not regularly monitor its greenhouse gas emissions, and it has not con- ducted a baseline review of greenhouse gas emissions in the last five years. Green initiatives: The Malaysian national gov- ernment, rather than the city, has taken the lead on setting targets to reduce greenhouse gases. For example, the national government has announced targets to reduce greenhouse gases by up to 40% by 2020, compared with 2005 lev- els, but few specific initiatives have been announced in order to reach this target. The Malaysian government has, however, recently announced its National Renewable Energy Poli- cy and Action Plan to increase renewable energyBackground indicatorsTotal population (million) 1.7 K uala Lumpur is the capital of Malaysia and the country’s business and financial centre. Although the metropolitan area has a popula- nated zone offering tax breaks to technology companies that locate there. Kuala Lumpur is also home to several other major industries, from 1% to 5.5% of electricity supply by 2015. The government plans to introduce a “feed-in tariff”, a government subsidy for utilities that Performance well Kuala Lumpur below Other cities average above well below average average aboveAdministrative area (km2) 243.0 tion of some 7 million people, due to limited including banking, insurance, media, manufac- buy wind, water or solar energy to feed into the average averageGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 12,365e data availability all information in the Asian turing and education. national grid. If the legislature approves the Energy and CO2Population density (persons/km2) 6,811.1 Green City for Kuala Lumpur comes from the Kuala Lumpur ranks average overall in the plan, it will come into effect in 2011.Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 27.0 inner city, which has a population of 1.7 million. Index, with category performances ranging Land use and buildingsData applies to W.P. Kuala Lumpur, e) EIU estimate This makes it the least populous city in the Index from well below average to above average. Land use and buildings: Kuala Lumpur is Transport with the second smallest administrative area. Transport and air quality are Kuala Lumpur’s average in the land use and buildings category. Waste Kuala Lumpur is relatively prosperous, however, strongest categories, with above average rank- With 44 square metres of green spaces per per- with a GDP per capita of an estimated ings. Proactive transport policies, along with a son, the city is above the Index average of 39 Water US$12,400. The city’s economic performance relatively extensive and advanced rapid transit square metres. Its population density is just Sanitation partly reflects the national government’s suc- network are strengths for Kuala Lumpur. So too below the Index average, at 6,800 people per Air quality cess in attracting foreign investment in the are the city’s longstanding air quality measures, square kilometre, compared to the average of country’s burgeoning technology sector. This stretching over two decades, to promote low- 8,200 people. Kuala Lumpur performs relatively Environmental governance has been mainly achieved through its Multime- sulphur fuel and reduce emissions. Although poorly in policy areas, particularly in relation to Overall results dia Super Corridor project, a government-desig- vehicle traffic is still heavy in the city, Kuala eco-buildings. In comparison with most other The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results.76 77
    • Asian Green City Index | Kuala Lumpur_Malaysia raise recycling awareness as part of the national income cities in the Index. A significant number dioxide and suspended particulate matter. Aver- addition, there are plans to adopt tougher Euro- curriculum, and is considering other measures of households are still served by primary sewage age daily sulphur dioxide emissions are particu- pean standards on vehicle emissions, which to improve waste management, including treatment plants, such as septic tanks. Data is larly low in Kuala Lumpur, at 6 micrograms per would further reduce sulphur content in fuel. billing based on the amount of waste generated. also lacking. No information was available, for cubic metre. This is the second lowest level in the example, on the share of wastewater treated. Index, and well below the Index average of 23 Environmental governance: Kuala Lum- Water: Kuala Lumpur is well below average in Regarding sanitation policies, minimum stan- micrograms. The relative absence of large-scale pur is average for environmental governance. the water category, due to a combination of rel- dards exist for the treatment of wastewater, cou- industry in the city, combined with stricter stan- Officials regularly monitor the city’s environmen- atively high water consumption and one of the pled with regular monitoring, while on-site dards for emissions and the increased availability tal performance and publish information on highest leakage rates in Index. Kuala Lumpur’s treatment facilities are also regularly checked. of low-sulphur fuel, have all played their part in progress. Kuala Lumpur’s government also has rel- water consumption per capita, on a daily basis, But Kuala Lumpur is marked down for only partly improving Kuala Lumpur’s air quality. For two atively strong powers to implement its own envi-between US$10,000 and US$25,000). In addi- age of 375 kg. Rapid population growth, an measures an estimated 497 litres, well above promoting public awareness around the effi- decades the government has operated incen- ronmental legislation. The city’s environmentaltion, the national government has plans to fund increase in packaging from convenience goods the Index average of 278 litres. Relatively low cient and hygienic use of sanitation systems. tives to use unleaded gasoline and has required department, however, has a narrower remit thana new metro system, which is scheduled to and a lack of recycling facilities have all played water tariffs have played their part in stimulat- new vehicles to have catalytic converters, which most other cities in the Index, with climate change,begin construction in July 2011. The city’s trans- their part in driving up waste levels. Further- ing demand. But there are also difficulties on the Green initiatives: The national government reduce emissions from combustion engines. human settlements and sanitation each fallingport policies also show that the government has more, the city performs relatively poorly at col- supply side, with water leakages running at an has announced a major initiative to clean up the Fuel in Malaysia is also blended with palm oil — outside its purview. Kuala Lumpur is also markedambition to improve (see “green initiatives” lecting the waste it generates and disposing of it estimated 37%, compared with the Index aver- Klang river, which will be ongoing in 2011, Malaysia is the world’s largest palm oil producer down for omitting to do a baseline environmentalbelow). The city has an integrated pricing sys- adequately. Only an estimated 58% of Kuala age of 22%. In policy areas, Kuala Lumpur scores including upgrades to the sewage system to pre- — which further lowers emissions. In addition, a review of those areas, as well as energy, in the lasttem for public transport, encourages citizens to Lumpur’s waste is collected and adequately dis- better. Water quality standards are in force, vent wastewater from polluting the river. The ban on open burning has been in place since five years, although the city has conducted atake greener forms of transport, and has a rela- posed of, according to 2005 data based on the backed up by regular monitoring, and city plan also calls for relocating informal settle- 2005. The protection of the three forest reserves baseline environmental review within that time-tively advanced traffic management system. waste collected at landfills only, versus the Index authorities are relatively strong at enforcing ments and enforcing wastewater regulations on in the city has also benefitted air quality. frame in all of the other main areas covered by theKuala Lumpur could do better, however, at average of 83%. Kuala Lumpur performs better water pollution standards on local industry. The homes and businesses. Index, including water, waste, air quality, trans-developing policies to reduce emissions from for its waste collection and disposal policies. The city also promotes public awareness around effi- Green initiatives: The government plans to port and land use. Kuala Lumpur also does wellmass urban transport. Although some measures city does relatively well at enforcing environ- cient water consumption, although it could Air quality: Kuala Lumpur ranks above aver- require all vehicles to use biofuel from June 2011. for involving citizens, non-governmental organi-are in place to reduce traffic congestion, such as mental standards for waste disposal sites, as well implement a wider range of water efficiency age in air quality. The city scores well for better- This programme will start in Kuala Lumpur before sations and other stakeholders in decisions onroad charging, the city has not undertaken other as being vigilant at enforcing and monitoring measures. There are no separate pipes for non- than-average levels of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen being rolled out across peninsular Malaysia. In projects with major environmental impact.key initiatives, such as carpooling lanes, pedes- standards for industrial hazardous waste. Com- drinking water in Kuala Lumpur, for example,trian areas and “no-car days”. pared with many other cities in the Index, Kuala and the city does not enforce hose-pipe bans. Lumpur has a weaker strategy for reducing, recy- Quantitative indicators: Kuala LumpurGreen initiatives: The city government aims to cling and re-using waste. Even so, Kuala Lumpur Green initiatives: The Kuala Lumpur city gov- Average Kuala Lumpur * Year** Sourcemore than quadruple the number of daily com- does have infrastructure in place for waste recy- ernment is currently drafting a series of initia-muters using public transport, from the estimat- cling, both in terms of collection services avail- tives aimed at encouraging rainwater harvest- Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions per person (tonnes/person) 4.6 7.2 1e 2007 EIU estimateed 480,000 in 2010 to two million by 2015. It is able and the wide range of materials it recycles. ing, which is the direct collection of rainwater Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$) 6.0 5.0 1e 2007 EIU estimateexpanding the metro with additional coaches, from roofs and other specially built facilities. In Land use Population density (persons/km2) 8,228.8 6,811.1 2009 EIU calculation and buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 38.6 43.9 2004 Kuala Lumpur Master Planadding bus lanes, and will institute park and ride Green initiatives: Under the Kuala Lumpur addition, there are ongoing initiatives regardingfacilities at rail stations. The government also Transport Superior public transport network , covering trams, 0.17 0.27 2010 Kuala Lumpur City Hall Urban Transport 2020 City Plan, the city’s comprehensive long- recycling and water conservation. The govern-plans to improve existing bus lanes in 2011 by term development plan, the government plans ment has several pilot projects under way in light rail, subway and BRT (km/km2) Departmentinstalling barriers to separate them from the part to raise the proportion of waste recycled from houses and schools and hopes to make rainwa- Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 82.8 57.5 2e 2005 Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020of the road used by automobiles. In addition, the the current 20% level to 30% by 2015. (The ter harvesting mandatory by 2020, but these Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 375.2 815.7 2005 Universiti Sains Malaysia, WHOnational government is planning a high-speed national government has announced a further proposals are at very early stages. Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 277.6 497.2 3e 2008 National Water Services Commissionrail link between Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. target of 40% by 2020.) To help achieve this tar- Water system leakages (%) 22.2 37.0 4e 2004 Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU) Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 70.1 70.0 5e 2003 Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020 get, a solid waste treatment plant on the out- Sanitation: Kuala Lumpur ranks below aver-Waste: Kuala Lumpur ranks well below aver- skirts of the city is planned by 2015. It will con- age in the sanitation category. An estimated Share of wastewater treated (%) 59.9 0.0age in the waste category. The city generates a vert waste into energy or reusable products, 70% of the city’s population has access to sanita- Air quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 46.7 40.1 2008 Compendium of Environmental Statistics 2009relatively large amount of waste, at 816 kg per such as ethanol and other fuels. The national tion, which, although in line with the Index aver- Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 22.5 6.2 2008 Compendium of Environmental Statistics 2009capita per year, more than double the Index aver- government is also funding a programme to age, is the lowest proportion among other mid- Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 107.8 44.0 2008 Compendium of Environmental Statistics 2009 * All data applies to W.P. Kuala Lumpur unless stated otherwise below, ** Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU estimate, 1) Based on regression analysis, 2) Landfill figures available only; waste generation figures from Universiti Sains Malaysia, WHO, 3) Based on water supply; Based on Selangor region, 4) Based on non-revenue water in Malaysia, 5) Access to ”reticulated sewerage service”78 79
    • Asian Green City Index | Manila_Philippines of green spaces per person, access to sanitation Nonetheless, some city authorities in Metro ment. Regarding eco-buildings policies, Manila Manila_Philippines and the share of wastewater treated. In addi- Manila are doing more than others. Makati City, lacks energy efficiency standards for public and tion, the city could improve in some policy areas the city’s main business district, plans to reduce private buildings, and it has few incentives in such as eco-buildings standards and water quali- local CO2 emissions by 40% by 2020. place to motivate businesses and households to ty codes. When compared against other cities in lower their energy use. A national building code the low range for income in the Index (with a Land use and buildings: Manila ranks was approved by the national government in GDP per person below US$10,000), Manila reg- below average in the land use and buildings cat- 1972 and is now outdated. Some lawmakers are isters the second lowest rate of energy con- egory. The city performs well in terms of popula- calling for new legislation to promote environ- sumption per unit of GDP, and the second lowest tion density, with 18,200 people per square kilo- mentally friendly buildings, but no legislation level of particulate matter emissions. metre, more than double the Index average of has yet been introduced. Still, some developers, 8,200 people per square kilometre. However, it eager to market their developments as “green”, Energy and CO2: Manila ranks average for scores poorly for green spaces, and for its rela- have signed onto their own voluntary standards energy and CO2. The city generates an estimat- tively weak policies governing eco-buildings and (see “green initiatives” below). ed 1.6 tonnes of CO2 per person, well below the land use. The amount of green spaces in Manila, Index average of 4.6 tonnes. Manila’s perfor- at 5 square metres per person, is well below the Green initiatives: In 2009 the Philippine Green mance in this category partly reflects the fact Index average of 39 square metres. Although Building Council, an independent group, that many residents cannot afford energy-inten- the city has some attractive parks, including the launched a rating scheme known as Building for sive lifestyles. Although coal accounts for about famous Spanish colonialera Luneta in central Ecologically Responsive Design Excellence 63% of electricity generation, the remainder Manila City, uncontrolled building in other parts (BERDE) to provide voluntary assessments of comes from relatively cleaner natural gas. Mani- of the capital means that green spaces are limit- buildings based on their energy and water con- la performs less well in terms of energy efficien- ed overall. The city also has scope to improve its sumption, and waste management. BERDE is cy, although its consumption of an estimated 4 policies to contain urban sprawl and protect modelled on Singapore’s successful Green Mark megajoules per US$ of GDP is still better than the environmentally sensitive areas from develop- Scheme. In another initiative, city authoritiesBackground indicatorsTotal population (million) 11.6 T he Philippines’ capital, Manila, is the coun- try’s largest city and political centre, housing the presidential palace, government ministries try’s GDP. The city’s per capita GDP of around US$5,400 is the highest in the Philippines, but in comparison to the other cities in the Index, it is average of 6 megajoules, and is the second low- est level among cities with a similar income in the Index. Manila’s ranking in this category is Performance well Manila below Other cities average above well below average average aboveAdministrative area (km2) 636.0 and the central bank. The metropolitan area, the sixth lowest. Manila is also characterised by adversely affected by the lack of a strategy to average averageGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 5,365.3 Metro Manila, comprises 16 different cities, wide disparities of income between individuals. reduce the environmental impact of energy con- Energy and CO2Population density (persons/km2) 18,165.1 each with its own elected mayor and officials. Manila ranks below average overall in the sumption, for not having conducted a baselineTemperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 27.0 However, there is a department of the environ- Index. Its best performance is in the air quality review of greenhouse gas emissions within the Land use and buildingsData applies to Metro Manila ment and natural resources that has responsibil- category, where it ranks above average, mainly last five years, and for not monitoring green- Transport ity for environmental management across the for registering relatively low levels of the three house gases regularly and publishing the results. Waste metropolitan region. All data for Manila in the pollutants measured in the Index. It ranks aver- Asian Green City Index refer to Metro Manila. age in the categories of energy and CO2, and Green initiatives: The national government’s Water Some 11.6 million were living in the metropoli- environmental governance, and below average 2008 Renewable Energy Act provides financial Sanitation tan area in 2007 — which is the latest available in the remaining categories — land use and incentives to developers of renewable energy Air quality official population figure for Metro Manila. Ser- buildings, transport, waste, water and sanita- projects, including income-tax holidays for vices account for about 69% of the city’s econo- tion. The weaker performances in these cate- seven years and duty-free imports of machinery, Environmental governance my, with industry accounting for the remaining gories can be attributed mainly to poor results equipment and materials for 10 years. However, Overall results 31%. Overall, Manila produces 37% of the coun- for some quantitative indicators, such as amount the act does not set emission-reduction targets. The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results.80 81
    • Asian Green City Index | Manila_Philippineshave partnered with leading private developers Manila’s relatively low income also constrains delivery in different parts of the city, with one of ual on the rules and regulations of domestic ly higher levels of pollutants. Authorities say Manila Development Agency has also workedand Greenpeace, an environmental NGO, to consumption, and results in less waste. Only an the two main water companies supplying 24- sludge and septage, which improved disposal traffic congestion accounts for 80% of air pollu- with international donors to reduce pollutionencourage local authorities and private citizens estimated 77% of Manila’s waste is collected and hour water to almost all of its customers in practices among septic tank owners. A national tion in the city, and there is evidence that air from vehicles by conducting checks on exhaustto introduce energy efficiency measures in adequately disposed of, compared with the 22- 2009, while the other company only provided sustainable sanitation programme also promotes quality has worsened after improving from 2004 emissions.schools, hospitals and businesses. It builds on a city average of 83%. Regarding policies, Manila 24-hour water to two-thirds of its customers in environmentally sound sanitation practices such to 2007, which is the latest year for which dataprior initiative in Makati City in 2007, in which has relatively weak environmental standards for that same year. Manila loses an estimated 36% as not disposing untreated waste in waterways. was taken in the Index. Manila also has one of Environmental governance: Manilathe government partnered with local businesses waste disposal sites and for disposing industrial of its water to system leakages, well above the Manila’s two water companies are only slowly the weaker air quality codes among the 22 ranks average in the environmental governanceto promote changing to energy-efficient lamps hazardous waste. For example, the enforcement Index average of 22%. The city’s policies regard- connecting new customers to sewer systems and cities, although it is marked up for regularly category. The city receives full marks for having ain public buildings throughout the city. of the 2000 Ecological Solid Waste Management ing water quality and water sustainability remain investing in new sewage-treatment facilities. monitoring several pollutants. City authorities single citywide authority with responsibility for Act varies widely. The act established a national relatively weak. For example, the national 2004 have pursued policies aimed at improving air overall environmental policy, for regularly moni-Transport: Manila ranks below average in commission to promote environmentally friendly Clean Water Act was meant to improve water Air quality: Manila ranks above average in quality, mainly to comply with the national 1999 toring its environmental performance and forthe transport category. The city has only 0.05 waste management practices, prohibited the use quality, but pollution remains a serious concern, the air quality category. The city’s performance Clean Air Act, but enforcement varies. having a single point of public access for environ-km per square kilometre of superior mass trans- of open dump sites, introduced segregation of mainly owing to untreated wastewater. Lack of mainly reflects relatively low average annual lev- mental information. Still, because there are dif-port routes, consisting of a light rail network, solid waste at the source, and set ten-year targets financing remains a serious problem and the els of the three pollutants — nitrogen dioxide, Green initiatives: The Clean Air Act mandates ferent municipalities within the metropolitanwell below the Index average of 0.17 km per for waste disposal. The Metropolitan Manila national government has yet to establish a dedi- sulphur dioxide and suspended particulate mat- annual surveys of air quality and calls on local area, standards of environmental governancesquare kilometre. The capital’s three mass tran- Development Agency estimates that only 48% of cated fund to improve water quality, which is ter. For particulate matter, Manila registers the authorities to develop action plans to improve vary enormously, with some municipalities moresit rail lines, operated by the Light Rail Transit local authorities in Metro Manila are segregating mandated by the Clean Water Act. second lowest rate of emissions among cities air quality by lowering pollutants. Transport committed to environmental issues than others.Authority and the Metro Rail Transit Corpora- waste at the source. Waste that is not collected by with a similarly low income in the Index. policies, including the conversion of public and Richer parts of Metro Manila, such as Makati City,tion, only extend approximately 50 km across the authorities is either dumped or burnt. Smokey Sanitation: Manila ranks below average in Nonetheless, Manila’s air quality is not uniform, private vehicles to run on cleaner fuels, such as have performed relatively well in championingthe capital. Jeepneys, which were originally Mountain, a notorious open dump situated in the sanitation category. Although the city has an and the city’s most congested areas, such as the liquefied petroleum gas, have played an impor- environmental causes, but poorer neighbour-refurbished US army jeeps, but are currently pro- Manila City’s Tondo district, was closed 20 years environmental code governing sanitation ser- Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, have significant- tant role in reducing pollution. The Metropolitan hoods have often found it more difficult to do so.duced by private workshops and factories, ago and its tens of thousands of residents were vices, only 12% of the city’s households have Quantitative indicators: Manilaremain the most popular mode of public trans- resettled in public housing. But waste picking access to sanitation, well below the Index aver-port. Many of Manila’s transport policies could remains widespread in Manila, and the city lacks age of 70%. Likewise, officials have established Average Manila* Year** Sourcebe improved. It is marked down, for example, for regulations on this activity. Although on-site recy- wastewater treatment standards, but the city Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions per person (tonnes/person) 4.6 1.6 1e 2009 Department of Energy; Meralco; IPCC; EIU estimateshaving only a partially integrated pricing system cling collection and central collection points exist treats only 21% of its wastewater, compared to Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$) 6.0 4.0 e 2009 Department of Energy; Meralco; EIU estimatesfor mass transport. It also lacks congestion in the city, a recent report by the national waste the 22-city average of 60%. Wealthier housing Land use Population density (persons/km2) 8,228.8 18,165.1 2007 EIU calculation and buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 38.6 4.5 2007 Metro Manila Development Authorityreduction initiatives such as congestion charges management commission revealed that most developments maintain private septic tanks, butor carpooling lanes. recycling is performed by the informal sector. sludge treatment and disposal facilities are limit- Transport Superior public transport network , covering trams, 0.17 0.05 2010 Light Rail Transit Authority ed, resulting in the discharge of untreated waste light rail, subway and BRT (km/km2)Green initiatives: The city government has Water: Manila is below average in the water into the city’s rivers. Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 82.8 76.9 2e 2009 Metro Manila Development Authorityintroduced dedicated bus lanes, although there category. The city scores well in terms of water Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 375.2 247.6 2007 Environment Management Bureauare still problems with enforcement, with other consumption per person, with an average daily Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 277.6 154.8 3e 2009 Manila Water; Maynilad Green initiatives: As directed by the nationalvehicles sometimes intruding into lanes. consumption of an estimated 155 litres per per- 2004 Clean Water Act, the Department of Public Water system leakages (%) 22.2 35.9 4e 2009 Metro Manila Water Agency son, significantly less than the average of 278 Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 70.1 12.0 5 2009 Manila Water; Maynilad Works and Highways and other governmentWaste: Manila ranks below average in the litres per person. Frequent droughts often result agencies prepared a national programme on sew- Share of wastewater treated (%) 59.9 21.0 2009 Metro Manila Water Agencywaste category. The city scores well in terms of in low water levels at the Angat reservoir, which erage and septage management, which has Air quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 46.7 33.7 2003 Air Quality Management; National Air Quality Status Reportwaste generated per person per year, at 248 kg, supplies most of Manila, leading the city to raised awareness of the importance of sanitation. Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 22.5 7.3 2007 Air Quality Management; National Air Quality Status Reportcompared with the Index average of 375 kg. ration water. There are also disparities in water Also, the Department of Health published a man- Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 107.8 48.0 2007 Air Quality Management; National Air Quality Status Report * All data applies to Metro Manila unless stated otherwise below, ** Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU estimate, 1) Using population figures for 2007, 2) Data for controlled landfills only. Recycling not undertaken by Metro Manila Development Authority, 3) Based on household consumption, 4) Average of ”East zone” and ”West Zone” of Metro Manila Water Agency, 5) Based on primary research with Manila Water and Maynilad. Includes septic tanks.82 83
    • Asian Green City Index | Mumbai_India Energy and CO2: Mumbai ranks average in standards in place for both private and public ed in 100,000 buildings, will make annual elec- Mumbai_India energy and CO2. Its inhabitants emit an estimat- buildings, and receives full marks for publicly tricity energy savings of 200 million kilowatt- ed 1 tonne of CO2 per capita per year, which is promoting ways to save energy in buildings. hours and reduce CO2 emission by 1.8 million much lower than the Index average of 4.6 tonnes over a ten-year period. tonnes. Due to a lack of comprehensive data, Green initiatives: An eco-housing program however, Mumbai’s CO2 emissions performance makes it mandatory for construction companies Transport: Mumbai ranks below average in is based on calculations which include data from to obtain “Eco-Housing certification” from the transport. Although Mumbai’s suburban rail, 2004. Mumbai does well on the share of renew- city. The programme, launched in partnership bus and road network has seen real improve- ables it uses for electricity production. At 21% it between the city government, the United States ments in recent years, boosted by nearly US$1 has the fourth highest percentage in the Index, Agency for International Development, and the billion in investment since 2002 (see “green with hydro power accounting for most of it. On International Institute for Energy Conservation, initiatives” below), the network is overstrained. the other side, Mumbai registers an above aver- provides incentives to property developers to Although the city is well served by suburban rail age rate of energy consumption compared to its make their buildings more energy efficient. The services, the city lacks a superior public trans- economic output. It consumes an estimated 6.5 incentives include rebates on development port network as defined in the Index (metro, megajoules of energy per US$ of GDP, compared charges and some tax allowances. The MEA bus rapid transit, or trams). In transport policy to the Index average of 6 megajoules. However, (Mumbai Energy Alliance) has also successfully areas, Mumbai also has room for improvement. the same caveats apply to the calculation of piloted an initiative to install new energy-effi- The city government has yet to implement energy consumption figure as for the CO2 emis- cient water pumps in buildings around the city. measures to reduce traffic congestion, such as sions figures above. Elsewhere in the energy The new pumps have been operational since the creation of car pooling lanes, pedestrian and CO2 category, Mumbai scores poorly in poli- March 2010 and have resulted in improved effi- areas, or park and ride facilities in congested cy areas. For example, it has a relatively weak ciency, as well as electricity savings. The pilot ini- areas. Among traffic management measures strategy to reduce the environmental impact of tiative is now to be extended and, if implement- evaluated in the Index, Mumbai has traffic energy consumption. And Mumbai’s climate change action plan covers only energy, build- ings and waste, while missing, for example, transport. However, the city has signed up to the C40 group of cities that have made a pledge to reduce greenhouse gases, and it does score highly in the Index for its efforts to source renewable energy. Green initiatives: The Mumbai Energy Alliance (MEA), a partnership between local government and non-governmental organisations, promotes energy efficiency programmes in the Greater Mumbai region. Since 2008 the MEA has devel- oped a pipeline of 25 projects that apply innova- tive and energy-saving technology in lighting, heating and cooling applications for residential, commercial, municipal buildings and small- scale industries. The combined projects, over a ten-year period, are targeted to make energyBackground indicatorsTotal population (million) 12.7 M umbai is a burgeoning metropolis and India’s financial capital. For the purposes of the Asian Green City Index, Mumbai data is Index. Its best performances are in the cate- gories of energy and CO2, land use and build- ings, and water, where it ranks average. Regard- savings of 1,900 million kilowatt-hours and reduce CO2 emissions by 13 million tonnes. Performance Mumbai Other citiesAdministrative area (km2) 468.0 well below average above well based on Greater Mumbai, which has a popula- ing energy, the city has relatively low levels of Land use and buildings: Mumbai ranks below average average aboveGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 2,184.31 tion of about 12.7 million and comprises both CO2 emissions, and has embraced sources of average in land use and buildings. While Mum- average averagePopulation density (persons/km2) 27,136.8e the urban and suburban areas. Mumbai’s econo- renewable energy for electricity production, par- bai scores well for having the highest population Energy and CO2Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 27.0 my is dominated by the services sector, particu- ticularly hydro power. In the water category, density in the Index, it scores poorly for greenAll data applies to Greater Mumbai, 1) Based on estimated 2007 Land use and buildingspopulation figures, e) EIU estimate larly IT, although manufacturing still accounts Mumbai benefits from a relatively low level of spaces per person. The city only has 7 square for around one in five jobs according to city water leakages, and it is second best for this indi- metres of green space per person versus the Transport authorities. Despite generating a slightly higher cator among cities with a similarly low income in Index average of 39 square metres, and the Indi- Waste GDP per capita than its other three Indian coun- the Index (under US$10,000 in per capita GDP). an city average of 17 square metres. It is also terparts, at about US$2,200, the city is one of The city, however, ranks below average in sever- marked down for only having partial policies to Water the least prosperous in the Index. Spread across al other categories: transport, waste, sanitation contain sprawl and to protect its green spaces Sanitation a comparatively small area of 470 square kilo- and environmental governance. Air quality is a and other environmentally sensitive areas. Air quality metres, Mumbai also has the highest population particular challenge, with Mumbai registering a Mumbai is also among the weakest in the Index density in the Index, at an estimated 27,100 well below average result in this category. This is at providing incentives and regulations to moti- Environmental governance people per square kilometre. due mainly to very high levels of the three air vate business and households to lower their Overall results Mumbai ranks below average overall in the pollutants measured in the Index. energy use. However, it does have eco-building The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results.84 85
    • Asian Green City Index | Mumbai_Indialight sequencing but currently lacks traffic Green initiatives: The local government is pro- population have access to sanitation versus the with the results published on a web site. Howev- the agency’s budget went to “cleanliness andinformation systems or central access points moting a programme called “Advance Locality Index average of 70% (the Indian city average is er it is marked down for not monitoring carbon improvement of the city’s environment”, includ-around the cities, although they are in the plan- Management”, a voluntary association of citi- 54%), although the Index figure for Mumbai monoxide emissions. Mumbai is also one of two ing activities pertaining to solid waste, econing stage. zens who maintain cleanliness and reduce dates back to 2005. Despite these difficulties, cities in the Index that do not inform citizens housing, trees and air pollution. Yet while the waste in their respective “colonies”, groups of Mumbai still manages to treat 68% of the col- about air pollution and its associated health dan- city government is responsible for most servicesGreen initiatives: The Mumbai Urban Trans- 100 to 200 houses. Initiated in 1998, the pro- lected wastewater, which is higher than the gers. with a direct impact on the environment, includ-port Project has led to improvements in both rail gramme currently covers over 700 colonies. The Index average of 60%, and the Indian city aver- ing water, sanitation, waste, air quality, land useand road transportation infrastructure. The pro- main activities undertaken by the group include age of 46%. And the city scores relatively well for Environmental governance: Mumbai and human settlements, a number of otherject, initiated in 2002 and completed at a cost of segregation of waste at the source, handing its wastewater treatment standards. That said, ranks below average in environmental gover- agencies with unclear jurisdictions and overlap-US$945 million, built new railway tracks, intro- over dry waste to waste-pickers, composting Mumbai is one of only a handful of cities in the nance. Its environmental authority only has par- ping roles are also involved. These include theduced more comfortable railway coaches, con- wet waste and associated public awareness Index that does not regularly monitor sanitation tial jurisdiction to formulate and implement poli- Mumbai Metropolitan Region Developmentverted two major east-west roads into six-lane activities. Another local government initiative is facilities, either in communal areas or in the cies on environmental protection. The city Authority, Maharashtra Housing and Area Devel-highways, and modernised the bus fleet by the “slum-adoption scheme”, which has extend- home. performs well for environmental monitoring, opment Authority, Maharashtra State Roadintroducing more user-friendly buses that run ed door-to-door waste collection to 550 infor- reflecting the fact that one of the Municipal Cor- Development Corporation and the Slum Reha-on compressed natural gas. The second phase of mal settlements. Green initiatives: Mumbai is implementing poration of Greater Mumbai’s duties since 1994 bilitation Authority. The city also receives partialthe project, to be implemented over the next the second phase of the “Mumbai Sewerage Dis- has been “environmental protection and promo- marks for its efforts to involve citizens in deci-five years until 2015, will focus on improving Water: Mumbai ranks average in water. The posal Project”, which aims to comply with tion of ecology and urban forestry”. The agency sions about environmental projects, and providepassenger-carrying capacity, operational effi- city’s score is helped by a fairly efficient water national and international standards by improv- monitors environmental quality and reports the a central contact point for Mumbai’s citizens tociency and strengthening the management of system, losing just 14% of its water flow through ing sanitation access, sewerage-conveyance status of the environment annually through an access information on environmental perfor-the suburban rail system. leaks versus the Index average of 22%. This is infrastructure and treatment facilities. An official status report. In 2008-2009 about 8% of mance. the second best rate among cities with similarly important component of the first phase of theWaste: Mumbai ranks below average in low incomes in the Index (under US$10,000 in project, from 1996 to 2005, was the construc-waste, despite scoring well for the relatively low per capita GDP). The city has benefited from tion of 330 community toilet blocks — totallingamount of waste it produces. On average, Mum- recent official efforts to reduce water leakages, about 6,000 seats — that served 400,000 peo- Quantitative indicators: Mumbaibai generates 209 kg of waste per year on a per which once ran as high as 50%. Mumbai is also ple within informal settlements. The secondcapita basis versus an Index average of 375 kg, comparatively sparing in its water use, consum- phase aims to build another 35,000 toilet seats Average Mumbai* Year** Sourceand under the Indian city average of 226 kg. ing on average 250 litres per capita per day ver- by 2012. Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions per person (tonnes/person) 4.6 1.0 1e 2007 Maharashtra Economic Survey; Mahanagar Gas Limited; Central PollutionHowever, with a population of nearly 13 million, sus the Index average of 278 litres. In addition, Control Board; Bharat Petroleum Corporation; IPCC; EIU estimates Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$) 6.0 6.5 1e 2007 Maharashtra Economic Survey; Mahanagar Gas Limited; Central Pollutionthe seventh highest in the Index, that still leaves Mumbai’s sources its water supply from lakes Air quality: Mumbai ranks well below aver-a lot of waste to handle, and Mumbai struggles and rivers rather than less sustainable sources, age in air quality, due mainly to the city’s legacy Control Board; Bharat Petroleum Corporation; EIU estimatesto cope. It is estimated that just under a third of such as deep aquifers and desalination plants. manufacturing base, especially foundry produc- Land use Population density (persons/km2) 8,228.8 27,136.8 e 2005 Greater Mumbai City Development Plan 2005-2025 and buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 38.6 6.6 2009 Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority Statisticsthe city’s waste is collected and adequately To combat periodic water shortages, however, tion, combined with high volumes of car traffic.disposed of, the lowest proportion of the cities Mumbai has undertaken feasibility studies to Mumbai has the highest level of average daily Transport Superior public transport network , covering trams, 0.17 0.00covered in this report, and much lower than build a number of desalination plants. nitrogen dioxide emissions in the Index, at 86 light rail, subway and BRT (km/km2)the Index average of 83%, as well as the Indian micrograms per cubic metre. Similarly average Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 82.8 32.4 2e 2009 Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbaicity average of 72%. The city could improve reg- Green initiatives: The city has introduced uni- daily levels of suspended particulate matter, at Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 375.2 209.0 3 2007 NSWAI - State Reports - Maharashtra - Mumbaiulations covering its waste disposal sites, Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 277.6 250.0 2005 Greater Mumbai City Development Plan (2005 to 2025) versal metering and water rates to control 202 micrograms per cubic metre, are almostalthough it receives higher marks in the Index Water system leakages (%) 22.2 13.6 2005 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India - 2007 demand. With greater vigilance on water use, twice the Index average. Sulphur dioxide levelsfor its standards on industrial hazardous waste. Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 70.1 42.0 4e 2005 Greater Mumbai City Development Plan (2005 to 2025) the city also hopes to deter water theft and tam- are also high, at 34 micrograms per cubic metre,Mumbai’s recycling strategy is comparatively Share of wastewater treated (%) 59.9 67.6 2005 Maharashtra Pollution Control Board pering with the water mains. compared to the average of 23 micrograms.weak, although it does operate on-site collec- Mumbai has recognised the challenge and has Air quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 46.7 86.0 2008 Maharashtra Pollution Control Boardtion and central recycling collection points with- Sanitation: Mumbai ranks below average in implemented an air quality code, and monitors Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 22.5 34.0 2008 Maharashtra Pollution Control Boardin the city. sanitation. Only an estimated 42% of the city’s air quality at different locations around the city, Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 107.8 202.0 2008 Maharashtra Pollution Control Board * All data applies to Greater Mumbai unless stated otherwise below, ** Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU estimate, 1) Diesel and gasoline based on 2004 data; estimates for coal based on country consumption and city GDP, 2) Includes disposal by incineration only, 3) Based on estimated 2007 population figures, 4) Based on access to sewerage86 87
    • Asian Green City Index | Nanjing_China where it ranks above average, benefitting from 51% of its total energy consumption. Nanjing Nanjing_China a relatively low level of water leakages and also scores relatively well in policy areas, includ- robust policies on water quality and sustainabil- ing particularly high marks for having a strategy ity. Its rate of water leakages is also the lowest to reduce the environmental impact of energy in the Index for cities with similarly low consumption. It is marked down, however, for incomes. For most of the other individual cate- not having conducted a baseline environmental gories, the city ranks average. However in some review of greenhouse gas emissions within the aspects Nanjing stands out. In the land use and last five years, or regularly monitoring green- buildings category, for example, the city has the house gas emissions. second highest amount of green spaces per person in the Index. For the share of waste col- Green initiatives: The national government lected and adequately disposed of, Nanjing is wants 20% of China’s total energy consumption third among low-income cities, and second in to come from renewable sources by 2020, and this group for the share of wastewater treated. the Nanjing government is focusing on solar Its weakest overall performance is in energy power to help meet this ambitious target. For and CO2, where it ranks below average, reflect- example, in July 2009 the Nanjing government ing high levels of carbon emissions and energy announced plans to offer a subsidy until 2011 to consumption, similar to other Chinese cities in integrate solar power into buildings. the Index. Land use and buildings: Nanjing ranks Energy and CO2: Nanjing ranks below aver- average in land use and buildings. While Nan- age in energy and CO2, scoring particularly poor- jing is marked down for having one of the ly for its carbon emissions and energy consump- lowest population densities in the Index, at tion. Nanjing emits an estimated 5.7 tonnes of 1,200 people per square kilometre, comparedBackground indicators CO2 per person, above the Index average of 4.6 with an Index average of 8,200 people, the tonnes, and consumes an estimated 10.5 mega- city performs much better for green spaces.Total population (million) 7.7 joules of energy per US$ GDP, compared to the Each of Nanjing’s residents have on averageAdministrative area (km2) 6,582.3 22-city average of 6 megajoules. While these 108 square metres of green spaces, the secondGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 7,284.9 results are under par, they are similar to the highest figure in the Index and more than twicePopulation density (persons/km2) 1,171.8 results of the four other mainland Chinese cities the Index average of 39 square metres. LikeTemperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 15.0 in the Index, all of which rank below average or other Chinese cities, Nanjing is helped by theData applies to Sub-provincial City of Nanjing well below average for carbon emissions and expansive way it draws its administrative city energy consumption. That said, Nanjing is not as boundaries, but the city also actively pro- heavily dependent for its energy as its Chinese motes and protects its green spaces. Regarding counterparts on coal, which accounts for only a policies for the promotion of environmen-S ituated in the Yangtze River Delta and with a population of 7.7 million, Nanjing is a majormanufacturing base in China’s eastern Jiangsu quarter of the city’s total energy consumption. Although high by Index standards, the other four Chinese cities consume more coal than Nanjing, tally friendly buildings, Nanjing shows mixed results. On the downside, it is one of only two cities in the Index that makes only partial effortsprovince. The city has a special focus on chemi- particularly Guangzhou, which relies on coal for to promote public awareness about ways tocal and car production, but also a growing ser-vice economy, which now accounts for overhalf of total GDP. The city boasts the largestinland port in China. Even so, Nanjing gener-ates a GDP per capita of only US$7,300 and Performance Nanjing Other citiestherefore falls into the low-income range of the well below average above wellAsian Green City Index (with a GDP per capita of below average average abovebelow US$10,000). The state sector dominates average averagethe economy, with more than 100 enterprises Energy and CO2affiliated with state-owned businesses, primari-ly related to manufacturing. Nanjing’s govern- Land use and buildingsment is also in the midst of a drive to attract Transportmore foreign investment into the city. However, Wastelike other fast-growing Chinese cities, Nanjingstruggles with the adverse environmental Watereffects of rapid development. In particular, the Sanitationcity’s air quality has suffered from a coal-driven Air qualityeconomy, the presence of large-scale manufac-turing, and chronic traffic congestion. Environmental governance Nanjing ranks average overall in the Index. Overall resultsIts best performance is in the water category, The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results.88 89
    • Asian Green City Index | Nanjing_Chinaimprove energy efficiency in buildings. On the duce high-speed rail links across China, which loses just 12% of its water supply through leaks, called for spending US$560 million to improve ly the dangers of household pollution from, for management and for giving the public access topositive side, it has in place energy efficiency have the potential to ease inner-city traffic con- against an Index average of 22%. This makes its wastewater treatment capacity, although no example, inhaling the by-products of smoky environmental information. The city has alsostandards for new buildings and also provides gestion if commuters opt for the train over the Nanjing’s system the most efficient of all the low- specific targets were disclosed. fuels. Nanjing also scores well for its monitoring carried out a baseline environmental reviewincentives for businesses and households to car. In July 2010 one of the key pillars of the gov- income cities covered in the Index. The city, efforts, which take place in different locations that covered all of the areas evaluated in thelower their energy use. ernment’s nationwide strategy was unveiled, though, fares less well for water consumption. Air quality: Nanjing ranks average in air around the city on a daily basis. It regularly mon- Index — water, sanitation, waste, air quality, with the opening of the Nanjing-Shanghai high- On a per capita basis, Nanjing consumes 341 quality. Like other Chinese cities, it depends itors three of the five pollutants evaluated in the transport, land use, human settlements, energyGreen initiatives: Very few buildings in Jiang- speed rail route. The new route is expected to litres per day, which is well above the Index aver- heavily on a coal-fired economy, and its result- Index, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and one and climate change. Nanjing is marked down insu province have central heating, so officials in cut journey time between the two cities from age of 278 litres. The city also scores well for ing emissions levels reflect that fact. In terms of form of particulate matter; but does not regular- the Index for only making partial efforts toNanjing have unveiled plans for a new central two hours to just 72 minutes. The line will also water quality policies. These include developing daily sulphur dioxide levels in the air, Nanjing ly monitor carbon monoxide or fine particulate involve citizens, non-governmental organisa-heating project, scheduled to come into opera- go through the major industrial towns of a code for improving and sustaining the quality has one of the highest levels in the Index at 35 matter. tions or other stakeholders in decisions abouttion in 2011. According to new regulations, sur- Changzhou, Suzhou and Wuxi. of surface water, water quality monitoring that micrograms per cubic metre, above the average projects with major environmental impacts.plus heat which is generated by the city’s ther- takes place on a weekly basis, and enforcing of 22 micrograms per cubic metre. For nitrogen Green initiatives: In July 2009 the Nanjing The city’s environment department, the Nan-moelectric power stations, such as coal-fired Waste: Nanjing is average in the waste cate- water pollution standards on local industry. dioxide the city registers 48 micrograms per government introduced a pilot scheme to help jing Municipal Environmental Protectionpower stations, will be pumped into newly-built gory, scoring particularly well for the relatively cubic metre, about equal to the Index average of reduce dust pollution in the city, which involves Bureau, has a full remit to enact environmentalresidential blocks in the surrounding areas. little waste it generates. At an estimated 218 kg Green initiatives: In April 2009 the Nanjing 47 micrograms. Particulate matter concentra- charging firms according to the amount of dust legislation, and has been gaining an increasing- of waste per capita each year, versus the Index city government raised residential water prices tions are just below the average, at 100 micro- they generate. ly important profile in recent years, reflected byTransport: Nanjing is average in the trans- average of 375 kg, only two other cities in the by 12%. The measure, which has been copied in grams per cubic metre, versus the 22-city aver- its growing budget. In 2009, the city govern-port category. Perhaps not surprisingly, given Index produce less waste than Nanjing. It also cities across China, is designed to increase the age of 108 micrograms. The city does well on air Environmental governance: Nanjing ment’s environmental protection budget wasNanjing’s large administrative area, the city does collects and adequately disposes of an estimat- incentives for residents to use water more spar- quality policies, with an air quality code in place, ranks average in the environmental governance increased to US$1.9 billion, up 12% on the pre-not fare so well in the length of its superior pub- ed 86% of its waste, above the Index average of ingly. The city offers subsidies to limit the impact and receives full marks for making the public category. The city performs reasonably well for vious year, and equivalent to around 3% of thelic transport network (defined in the Index as 83%, and the third highest rate among low- of rising water prices on low-income house- aware of the dangers of air pollution, particular- its environmental monitoring, environmental city’s economic output.transport that moves large numbers of passen- income cities in the Index. Nanjing enforces holds.gers quickly in dedicated lanes, such as metro, environmental standards for waste disposalbus rapid transit or trams) when compared with sites, although it is marked down in the Index Sanitation: Nanjing ranks average in theall the other Index cities. Its network registers for only partially enforcing standards on indus- sanitation category. An estimated 65% of thejust 0.01 km per square kilometre, compared to trial hazardous waste. Regarding waste recy- city’s population has access to sanitation, com- Quantitative indicators: Nanjingthe Index average of 0.17 km per square kilome- cling policy, Nanjing has a strategy in place pared to the average of 70%, although up-to-tre. The city has a comprehensive bus network, aimed at recycling and re-use, on-site collection date and accurate figures are hard to come by Average Nanjing* Year** Sourcehowever, serving the central area and suburbs. for recyclable materials, and facilities to recycle for Nanjing. However, the city does particularly Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions per person (tonnes/person) 4.6 5.7 e 2008 Nanjing Statistical Yearbook; IPCC; EIU estimatesIt is also making other improvements to the the five types of waste materials evaluated in well for treating 86% of its wastewater, the sec- Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$) 6.0 10.5 e 2008 Nanjing Statistical Yearbook; EIU estimatestransport system, such as opening an extension the Index — organic, electrical, glass, plastics ond best rate among low-income cities in the Land use Population density (persons/km2) 8,228.8 1,171.8 2009 Nanjing Statistical Yearbook and buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 38.6 108.4 2008 Nanjing Statistical Yearbookto the city’s existing single metro line in 2010. and paper. Index, and well above the 22-city average ofFurthermore, the city government has a com- 60%. Sanitation policies are relatively weak for Transport Superior public transport network , covering trams, 0.17 0.01 2010 Nanjing Metroprehensive mass transport strategy, which Water: Nanjing ranks above average in the Nanjing. In particular, minimum standards for light rail, subway and BRT (km/km2)includes goals to increase the average car speed water category, performing well for its water wastewater treatment are not as ambitious as in Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 82.8 85.8 1e 2007 Nanjing Statistical Yearbookby 10% and the average bus speed by 15%. The quality and sustainability policies, and its low other Index cities, although the city has a sanita- Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 375.2 218.3 1e 2007 Nanjing Statistical Yearbookcity has taken steps to reduce emissions from rate of water leakages. Nanjing’s score on water tion code in place and regularly monitors on-site Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 277.6 341.4 2007 China Urban Statistics Yearbookmass transport and has an integrated pricing sustainability policy is boosted by fortunate geo- sanitation facilities in homes and communal Water system leakages (%) 22.2 11.6 2007 China Urban Statistics Yearbooksystem called “one card for all”, which can be graphical circumstances, since it is able to source areas. Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 70.1 64.7 2e 2008 EIU estimateused for bus, metro, ferry or taxi travel. much of its water supply from nearby lakes and Share of wastewater treated (%) 59.9 86.0 2008 Nanjing Statistical Yearbook rivers rather than from less sustainable sources, Air quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 46.7 48.0 2009 Nanjing Statistical Yearbook Green initiatives: As part of the city’s five-yearGreen initiatives: Nanjing has been at the cen- such as deep aquifers and desalination plants. plan that ended in 2010, the Nanjing govern- Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 22.5 35.0 2009 Nanjing Statistical Yearbooktre of the national government’s efforts to intro- The city’s water system is comparatively sound. It ment’s Integrated Water Management Initiative Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 107.8 100.0 2009 Nanjing Statistical Yearbook * All data applies to Sub-provincial City of Nanjing unless stated otherwise below, ** Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU estimate, 1) Based on household waste, 2) Based on regression analysis90 91
    • Asian Green City Index | Osaka_Japan sumption and policy areas. The city consumes island and help to combat global warming, Osaka_ Japan an estimated 1.6 megajoules of energy per US$ while stimulating the local economy through of GDP, which is well below the Index average of the development of industries that produce 6 megajoules. Osaka’s high standing in this area green materials such as solar panels and batter- is partly a reflection of a relatively high GDP and ies. In another initiative, the municipal govern- stringent national emission regulations. Osaka ment launched a programme in 2009 offering currently generates about 10% of its electricity subsidies to homes and businesses to install from renewable sources, just under the 22-city solar power systems. The city government average of 12%. By early 2010 it had 13 solar expects the installation of standard 4 kilowatt power facilities that produce an annual 400 kilo- solar generators in homes to reduce household watt hours of electricity. By the end of 2010, the CO2 emissions by about 40%. city had plans to have a total of 98 facilities pro- ducing an estimated 2,000 kilowatt hours. The Land use and buildings: Osaka ranks city also scores well in clean energy policy areas, above average in the land use and buildings cat- with a comprehensive energy policy, invest- egory. The city benefits from having a high pop- ments in renewable energy and other invest- ulation density, at 12,000 people per square kilo- ments in energy efficiency. These are driven in metre, compared to the Index average of 8,200 part by the Japanese government’s policy of people per square kilometre. Osaka is marked reducing CO2 emissions by 25% in 2050 from down for having one of the lower amounts of 1990 levels. Osaka also performs well for its green spaces in the Index, at 5 square metres per approach to climate change, receiving full marks person, compared to the Index average of 39 for conducting a baseline review of greenhouse square metres. This is the result of historical lega- gas emissions and regularly monitoring them. cy, when planners paid little attention to green The city, however, emits a relatively high level of spaces during Osaka’s development. Currently CO2, at an annual 7.6 tonnes per person, com- the city has strong policies in place to protect the pared to the Index average of 4.6 tonnes. green spaces that it does have, as well as good Osaka’s manufacturing sector is its top CO2 emit- controls on urban sprawl and developing envi- ter, releasing around 7 million tonnes per year. ronmentally sensitive areas. Osaka also has But municipal government-backed initiatives strong policies on the eco-efficiency for new have helped to reduce total greenhouse gas buildings, and it receives full marks for having emissions by 5% in fiscal 2008 from 2004 levels, incentives to motivate businesses and house- and the city was aiming to cut emissions by 7% holds to lower their energy use. from 2004 levels in 2010. Green initiatives: In 2004 Osaka adopted the Green initiatives: The city put out a tender in Comprehensive Assessment System for Building May 2010 for a private enterprise to work with Environment Efficiency (CASBEE). The voluntary the city to build a “Megasolar” large-scale solar scheme provides advice on energy efficiency power project on the artificial Yumeshima Island measures to developers at all stages of the in the city’s marine area. Osaka hopes the pro- process, from pre-design through to construc- ject will turn the area into a green technology tion. Developers who sign on for the assessmentBackground indicatorsTotal population (million) 2.7 O saka is Japan’s third largest city and an eco- nomic powerhouse. The metropolitan area has a population of 8.8 million, but Osaka City by wholesale and retail, at 20%, and manufac- turing, at 19%. Real estate and government ser- vices make up the remainder. The city’s main ranking above average in the remaining seven environmental categories of the Index. Its par- ticular strengths include a robust waste collec- Performance well Osaka below Other cities average above well below average average aboveAdministrative area (km2) 222.3 itself has a population of only 2.7 million. Due to environmental priorities include promoting tion and sanitation infrastructure; and one of average averageGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 70,927.4 data availability, all data for Osaka in the Asian waste reduction and recycling, and closer collab- lowest levels of particulate matter in the Index. Energy and CO2Population density (persons/km2) 11,981.2 Green City Index refers only to the smaller cen- oration between residents, businesses and the In addition, Osaka performs well for environ-Temperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 16.0 tral city. Osaka City occupies just 200 square city government. mental policies, including some of the strongest Land use and buildingsData applies to Osaka City kilometres, making it one of the most densely Osaka is ranked above average overall in the water sustainability policies among the 22 Transport populated cities in the Index. It is also the most Index. It performs best in the transport category, cities. The city is not without environmental Waste prosperous city in the Index, with a GDP per capi- where it is the only city to rank well above aver- challenges, including relatively high CO2 emis- ta of approximately US$71,000, although due to age. The city benefits especially in transport sions per person, although officials are address- Water data availability, this figure was taken from from having the second longest superior trans- ing the issue through investments in renewable Sanitation 2006. Small- and medium-sized businesses form port network in the Index (defined as transport energy. Air quality the backbone of the city’s economy, accounting that moves large numbers of passengers quickly for nearly all of its enterprises. The services in dedicated lanes, such as metro, bus rapid Energy and CO2: Osaka ranks above aver- Environmental governance industry is Osaka’s largest sector, accounting for transit or trams) in relation to its administrative age in the energy and CO2 category, largely Overall results almost a quarter of the city’s economy, followed area. Osaka performs well in other areas, too, because of strong performances in energy con- The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results.92 93
    • Asian Green City Index | Osaka_Japancan then market their “green” buildings to envi- pared to the Index average of 83%. However, like in a city recycling competition in 2009. Past win- tion laws. In comparison, the average waste- cubic metre, much lower than the Index average ronmental department with a wide remit, and itronmentally aware buyers or tenants. Further- other high-income cities, it also generates a rela- ners have reduced waste generation by about water treatment rate in the Index is only 60%. of 108 micrograms. Its average daily nitrogen ranks among the top cities in the Index for envi-more, in Osaka’s Morinomiya district, officials tively large amount of waste, at 573 kg per per- 60% and have comprehensive recycling pro- The city employs a sophisticated computer map- dioxide and sulphur dioxide levels are also below ronmental management and environmentaluse heat and energy generated from incinera- son, compared to the Index average of 375 kg. grammes in place, including information cam- ping system to manage its 4,900-kilometre the Index averages. Osaka scores well for its air monitoring. The city government has estab-tion and sewage plants to provide power for But the city has made significant improvements paigns for employees. In parallel to this, an sewer network. The city’s sanitation and waste- quality code, and it uses automated measuring lished a clear, colourful web page dedicated tonearby homes, as part of a larger plan to boost over the past two decades. According to city offi- ongoing campaign is currently promoting the water treatment standards, including regular instruments to monitor air quality in industrial, providing up-to-date information on the city’srecycling in the district. cials, the volume of waste processed in Osaka use of special bags certified by the city to con- monitoring, are also some of the strongest in commercial and residential areas on a daily basis. environmental initiatives and information on peaked in 1991 at 2.2 million tonnes, a figure tribute to more efficient recycling by individuals the Index. waste, recycling and other green issues.Transport: Osaka ranks as the only city in the the city had managed to reduce to 1.2 million and businesses. Green initiatives: In 2010 the Osaka municipal Through public campaigns, city officials consis-Index well above average in the transport cate- tonnes by 2009. Reducing business waste is an Green initiatives: The city government has government will increase the number of green tently reinforce the need for residents and busi-gory. The city scores particularly well for having important challenge for city officials, since busi- Water: Osaka is above average in the water launched a special water purification pro- “curtains” and “carpets” from roughly 100 to nesses to help conserve the environment.the second longest superior transport network ness waste represents about 60% of the total category, boosted by the fact that relatively little gramme for two of the city’s principal rivers, the almost 500. It will plant vegetables such as bitterin the Index (defined as transport that moves amount of waste processed in the city, well water leaks from the system, at an estimated 7% Dotonbori and the Higashiyokobori. The project, melons and sweet potatoes on roofs and walls of Green initiatives: The Eco Museum of Osakalarge numbers of passengers quickly in dedicat- above the national average of 40%, and Osaka compared to the Index average of 22%. Osaka due for completion in 2012, includes construct- primary and middle schools, the city hall head- was established in 1997 to encourage schools,ed lanes, such as metro, bus rapid transit or has initiated several projects in this area (see also has a wide range of water efficiency initia- ing a stormwater pipeline that will relieve pres- quarters, ward offices and other public facilities companies and individuals to get involved intrams), at 0.62 km per square kilometre versus “green initiatives” below). Osaka performs well tives, including meters and tariffs, separate sure on the system during heavy rains, when in the city to help ease the city’s heat island phe- environmental conservation. Its advisers workan index average of 0.17 km per square kilome- in the Index for its recycling policies. It has an pipes for non-drinking water, greywater recy- clogged pipes can push wastewater into the nomenon. This is a situation in which a city is to distribute information and train residents totre. Although Osaka’s superior network, consist- integrated strategy for reducing, re-using and cling and rainwater collection. In addition, it has rivers. warmer than its surroundings, and can also lead environmental projects. The facility wasing of a metro and trams, is well developed, its recycling waste, and it has on-site recycling ser- strong water quality policies, with strong codes increase the levels of pollutants in the air. refurbished in April 2006 to create more hands-strong result in this indicator is partly due to hav- vices as well as central collection points. The city and standards in place, including regularly pub- Air quality: Osaka ranks above average in the on exhibits, and a screening room was installeding one of the smallest administrative areas in also recycles all five of the materials measured in lishing the results of monitoring. The city is air quality category. The city has one of the low- Environmental governance: Osaka to show films about environmental issues. As ofthe Index. The city also scores well for its mass the Index – organic waste, electrical waste, marked down for a relatively high level of con- est daily average levels of particulate matter in ranks above average in the environmental gov- May 2009, about 3 million people had visitedtransport and congestion reduction policies. glass, plastics and paper. Osaka has recently sumption, at 418 litres per person per day, com- the Index, at an estimated 35 micrograms per ernance category. The city has a dedicated envi- the museum.These include an integrated pricing system, increased the number of locations where items pared to the Index average of 278 litres.investments in reducing emissions from mass such as paper cartons, fluorescent lights and bat-transport and “no-car days”. Rail is the most pop- teries can be recycled. Collection boxes for these Green initiatives: In December 2008, Osaka’s Quantitative indicators: Osakaular mode of transport in Osaka, at 32% of all items have been placed at 300 public buildings waterworks bureau became the first publicjourneys, followed by walking, at 27%, and in the city and at 61 private facilities such as Average Osaka* Year** Source water supply body in the world to be certifiedcycling, at 23%. Cars make up just over 15% of supermarkets. In 2008, 360 tonnes of paper car- Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions per person (tonnes/person) 4.6 7.6 2006 Osaka Environment Bureau with the international food safety administra-journeys, with buses accounting for about 2%. tons, 29 tonnes of batteries and 16 tonnes of flu- Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$) 6.0 1.6 1e 2007 Yokohama Municipal Government; Agency for Natural Resources and tion standard ISO22000. Advanced purification orescent lights were collected for recycling. Energy, Japan; Kansei Electric Power Company; IPCC; EIU estimates technologies enable the bureau to supply safe Land use Population density (persons/km2) 8,228.8 11,981.2 2009 EIU calculationGreen initiatives: The Osaka city government tap water at a comparable standard to bottled and buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 38.6 4.5 2005 Osaka City Hallis in the process of installing rapid chargers for Green initiatives: Companies that generate a water. Additionally, every year the city holds Transport Superior public transport network , covering trams, 0.17 0.62 2010 Osaka City Hall; Yokohama City comparative statisticselectric vehicles at ten locations in the city, large amount of waste are obliged to employ a about 150 workshops to educate primary school light rail, subway and BRT (km/km2)including the car park of the main city office. As waste management supervisor at their buildings children about the water system and the purifi- Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 82.8 100.0 2e 2008 Bureau of Environment, Osaka City Hallpart of city policy to encourage the use of low- and to develop a waste reduction plan. City offi- cation process, as well as measures to maintain Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 375.2 573.4 2008 Bureau of Environment, Osaka City Hallemission vehicles, such as electric cars, natural cials also conduct on-site inspections, and offer the quality of the city’s water sources. Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 277.6 417.9 2008 Statistics Bureau of Osaka City Hallgas-powered vehicles and hybrids, the city guidance on waste reduction. As early as 1999, Sanitation: Osaka ranks above average in Water system leakages (%) 22.2 6.9 3e 2007 Osaka City Hallbegan introducing these vehicles for use by civil buildings that had significantly reduced their Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 70.1 100.0 4e 2004 Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourismservants in April 2007. waste were granted the Certification of Achieve- the sanitation category, bolstered by providing ment for Excellence in Waste Reduction. Since Share of wastewater treated (%) 59.9 100.0 2009 Osaka Bureau of Construction access to sanitation to an estimated 100% of its Air quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 46.7 45.1 2007 Osaka City HallWaste: Osaka ranks above average in the then, two additional awards have been estab- residents, compared to the Index average ofwaste category. The city collects and adequately lished to reward continued efforts to reduce Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 22.5 14.3 2007 Osaka City Hall 70%. It also treats all of its wastewater at 12disposes of an estimated 100% of its waste, com- waste. In addition, 12 organisations participated Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 107.8 35.3 e 2007 World Bank; Osaka City Hall sewage plants, in line with strict national sanita- * All data applies to Osaka City unless stated otherwise below, ** Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU estimate, 1) Estimate of “other fuels” using total CO2 actual data, 2) Waste disposed in fiscal year. Waste collected in calendar year, 3) Based on estimates of non-effective water ratio, 4) Population coverage rate of sewerage system94 95
    • Asian Green City Index | Seoul_South Korea air quality, where it ranks average, and in the has a partial strategy for protecting environmen- guidelines. The guidelines aim to reduce build- Seoul_South Korea waste category, where it ranks below average. tally sensitive areas from development, and con- ings’ energy consumption by 20% by 2030 from For air quality, Seoul has a relatively high level of taining urban sprawl. Buildings in Seoul account 2000 levels. They include using double-layered nitrogen dioxide concentrations, and in the for 60% of the city’s energy consumption — they windows, limiting the size of balconies and waste category, the city generates the most require both heating and cooling systems to replacing incandescent light bulbs with LED waste per capita in the Index. However, Seoul is deal with extreme summers and winters — and lights. consistently strong across most categories on the city has addressed the challenge with com- policies to maintain and improve the urban envi- prehensive eco-buildings policies. Seoul has Transport: Seoul is above average in the ronment. eco-efficiency standards in place for new build- transport category. The city has the longest ings, green standards for public buildings, and superior transport network in the Index — con- Energy and CO2: Seoul ranks above aver- incentives to motivate businesses and house- sisting of a metro and a bus rapid transit system age in the energy and CO2 category. The city’s holds to lower their energy use. Furthermore it — at 0.94 km per square kilometre, compared to CO2 emissions, at an estimated 3.7 tonnes per promotes public awareness among residents to the Index average of 0.17 km per square kilome- person, are below the Index average of 4.6 improve energy efficiency in buildings. tre. The city is still expanding its subway system, tonnes. The city does well on energy efficiency but the existing 13 lines already handle some too, consuming 3.2 megajoules per US$ of GDP Green initiatives: In 2007 the city implement- 6.3 million commuters per day, making it one of compared to the average of 6 megajoules. ed “low-carbon, green-energy” building-design the world’s busiest. A further 5.6 million people Among cities with incomes in the middle range in the Index, Seoul leads the Index for both CO2 emissions and energy efficiency. The fact that service industries dominate Seoul’s economy partly explains the city’s good performance. The city’s policies on energy and CO2 are gener- ally strong too. Seoul has a strategy in place to reduce the environmental impact of energy consumption, and the city has conducted a baseline review of its greenhouse gas emis- sions. It has also signed international covenants to reduce emissions, such as membership to the C40 group of cities that have pledged reduc- tions. Green initiatives: In 2009 Seoul unveiled a master plan to reduce greenhouse gas emis- sions by 25% by 2020 and 40% by 2030 from 1990 levels. Since the percentage of green- house gas emissions from industry is already rel- atively low, the city plans to achieve these tar- gets partly by increasing the amount of energy generated from renewable sources. By 2030 Seoul hopes to meet 20% of its energy demand with hydrogen fuel cells, solar power and geot- hermal heat. In 2009, the city opened a 2.4-Background indicatorsTotal population (million) 10.5 S eoul, the capital of South Korea, is the coun- ty’s political, economic, intellectual and cul- tural centre. The city is home to most of the Seoul ranks above average overall in the Index, and the city is above average in six of the eight individual categories. Seoul sees particu- megawatt power station that runs on fuel cells as a pilot project. Subsidies from the national government will fund 60% to 70% of these pro- Performance well Seoul below Other cities average above well below average average aboveAdministrative area (km2) 605.3 country’s big corporations, major financial insti- larly strong results in the transport category for jects. average averageGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 19,597.1 tutions, top universities and national media. Ser- having the longest superior public transport net- Energy and CO2Population density (persons/km2) 17,288.8 vice industries account for about 90% of Seoul’s work (defined in the Index as metro, bus rapid Land use and buildings: Seoul ranksTemperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 12.0 economic output. However, Gyeonggi-do, the transit or trams). The city also has one of the above average in the land use and buildings cat- Land use and buildingsData applies to Seoul province surrounding Seoul, has a concentra- lowest levels of water leakages, and one of the egory. The city has one of the highest popula- Transport tion of manufacturing industries, including elec- highest rates of access to sanitation. In addition, tion densities in the Index, at 17,300 people per Waste tronics and textiles, which affect the capital’s air Seoul leads the Index for many individual indica- square kilometre, which is more than twice the quality. The city generates almost a quarter of tors when population and income are taken into Index average of 8,200 people per square kilo- Water South Korea’s gross domestic product and has a account. For example, the South Korean capital metre. Green spaces are limited in Seoul, how- Sanitation per capita GDP of US$19,600, the seventh high- has the lowest CO2 emissions per capita and ever, at 23 square metres per person, below the Air quality est in the Asian Green City Index. With 10.5 mil- lowest energy consumption per unit of GDP Index average of 39 square metres. This is main- lion residents living in the sixth smallest area in among cities in the middle range for income ly a result of a long-ingrained habit of placing Environmental governance the Index, Seoul also is the third most densely (between US$10,000 and US$25,000 in GDP development over conservation. The city scores Overall results populated city in the Index. per person). Seoul faces its biggest challenges in well for protecting its green spaces, but it only The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results.96 97
    • Asian Green City Index | Seoul_South Korea ones powered by natural gas. The city also has plans to introduce 7,000 electric and hybrid buses, and is currently conducting pilot programmes. In addition to initiatives aimed at reducing the num- ber of cars on the road (see “transport” above), the city is addressing industrial emissions. Environ- mental officials inspect industrial facilities up to four times a year, and those that meet the highest standards are rewarded by being allowed to self- inspect and self-report in subsequent years. Underperformers continue to be subject to further official inspections. Environmental governance: Seoul ranks above average in environmental governance. The city has a dedicated environmental depart- ment with a wide remit to cover the areas evalu- ated in the Index, including water, sanitation, waste, air quality and climate change. The city also has strong policies on public participation (see “green initiatives” below). For example, it regularly publishes the results of its environ- mental reviews, provides a central point ofuse the city’s extensive bus network every day, incomes in the middle range. It also has robust enforce industrial water pollution standards. enable sanitation authorities to respond more late matter, with levels well below the Index access for the public to receive environmentaland according to the city, it is one of the largest policies on waste. Seoul has environmental stan- Authorities have identified water shortages as promptly to cracks and floods. averages, driven in part by the spread of natural information, and involves the public and othernetworks in the world. It consists of some 8,000 dards in place for waste disposal sites, for exam- one of Seoul’s key environmental vulnerabilities gas consumption in homes, rather than dirtier stakeholders in decisions about projects withbuses operating on a two-way distance of 7,000 ple, and enforces standards for hazardous indus- and as a result have promoted the expansion of Air quality: Seoul is average for air quality, a fuels. Seoul officials are well aware of the poten- environmental impacts.km, and 206 km of these routes are dedicated trial waste, in line with national regulations. In water saving devices and adopted water performance due mainly to the city’s record on tial for improvement, and Seoul achieves goodexclusively to buses. Seoul has comprehensive addition, organic and electrical waste, glass, plas- charges, among other measures. nitrogen dioxide emissions. It has the second results for its clean air policies, including regu- Green initiatives: The city runs the “Greenmass transport policies in place, with an inte- tics and paper are all recycled. However, the city highest concentration of this pollutant in the larly monitoring air quality, and informing citi- Seoul Citizen Committee” which encourages cit-grated pricing system for public transport, and produces the most waste among all 22 cities in Green initiatives: Since 2001 Seoul has made Index, at 71 micrograms per cubic metre, com- zens about the dangers of air pollution. For izen participation in environmental policy.promotional campaigns to encourage citizens to the Index, at an estimated 996 kg per person per a major push to improve the quality of house- pared to the average of 47 micrograms. This is example, the city operates 43 air quality measur- Established in 1995, the green committee isuse greener transport. The roads are often grid- year, well above the Index average of 375 kg. hold water by replacing old pipes and water due to Seoul’s over-reliance on cars — automo- ing stations throughout the city and publishes chaired by Seoul’s mayor and has 100 memberslocked, and the city has made a concerted effort tanks. The water department aimed to have biles are a main source of nitrogen dioxide — information on a regular basis from 37 of them. from non-governmental organisations and busi-to ease traffic flows in recent years. As a result, Green initiatives: Since 2003 Seoul has levied its inspectors do a free inspection of pipes and they are responsible for almost three quar- nesses. Meetings take place about 120 times perthe city is strong on congestion reduction poli- fines on businesses that exceed limits on distrib- and water tanks for every household in the ters of Seoul’s air pollution. The city performs Green initiatives: By 2010 Seoul had planned to year to review new policy proposals on conser-cies, and has introduced road-congestion tolls, uting disposable goods, such as shopping bags, city by the end of 2010. It also offers subsidies to well on sulphur dioxide and suspended particu- replace all city buses running on diesel with new vation and climate change.pedestrian areas, “no-car days”, and park and plates, cups, chopsticks, razors, toothbrushes finance upgrades when deficiencies are found.ride systems. It also scores highly for having and paper fliers. In 2005 the city adopted theestablished traffic light sequencing, traffic infor- “producer responsibility” principle for recycling Sanitation: Seoul ranks above average inmation systems, dedicated delivery times for such items as TVs, refrigerators, washing ma- sanitation. An estimated 100% of residents have Quantitative indicators: Seoulfreight, and access points around the city. chines, computers and mobile phones. For access to sanitation, compared to the 22-city example, for these products, buyers can ask average of 70%. And Seoul treats an estimated Average Seoul* Year** Source Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions per person (tonnes/person) 4.6 3.7 e 2008 Korea Energy Economics Institute, Yearbook of Regional Energy Statistics;Green initiatives: Since 2007 the city has retailers to take back free of charge the ones 82% of its wastewater, well above the Indexadded more than 100 km of bicycle lanes to pro- being replaced, and the retailer is responsible for average of 60%. For both sanitation access and Korea Electric Power Corporation Annual report 2009; IPCC; EIU estimatesmote the use of bikes for non-leisure purposes. properly disposing of the item. wastewater treatment, Seoul leads among cities Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$) 6.0 3.2 2008 Korea Energy Economics Institute, Yearbook of Regional Energy Statistics;In 2006 Seoul began participating in the annual with similar mid-range income in the Index. Korea Electric Power Corporation Annual report 2009“World Carfree Day” to raise public awareness Water: Seoul is above average in the water Seoul is marked up in the Index for having estab- Land use Population density (persons/km2) 8,228.8 17,288.8 2009 EIU calculation and buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 38.6 23.4 2008 Seoul Statistics Online Databaseabout the need to reduce dependence on cars. category. The city is better than average when it lished policies evaluated in the Index, includingIn the same spirit, in 2003 the city launched a Transport Superior public transport network , covering trams, 0.17 0.94 2010 Seoul Metro; Seoul City Transportation Department comes to leakages. Only 7% of the water is lost regular monitoring of on-site treatment facili-voluntary “leave your car at home” programme light rail, subway and BRT (km/km2) in leaky pipes. This is the best rate among cities ties, as well as promoting public awareness onthat asks residents to do so once a week. As of Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 82.8 100.0 2008 Seoul Statistics Online Database with mid-range incomes in the Index, and below the clean use of sanitation systems.March 2010 about 40% of Seoul’s car owners Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 375.2 995.6 1e 2008 Seoul Statistics Online Database; Environment of SEOUL the 22-city average of 22%. It has a slightly high-were participating in the programme, contribut- Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 277.6 311.0 2008 The Office of Waterworks, Seoul Metropolitan Government er-than-average water consumption rate, at 311 Green initiatives: In April 2010 the city gov-ing to around a 6% drop in daily traffic volume. Water system leakages (%) 22.2 7.0 2 2009 The Office of Waterworks, Seoul Metropolitan Government litres per person per day, compared with the ernment began installing closed-circuit televi- Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 70.1 100.0 3e 2008 Seoul Statistics Online Database average of 278 litres. Policies in place in the city sion cameras throughout Seoul’s sewer net- Share of wastewater treated (%) 59.9 82.0 4e 2008 Environment of SEOULWaste: Seoul ranks below average in the waste include water efficiency codes and promoting work, at a cost of about US$440,000, to facili-category. The city collects and disposes of almost Air quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 46.7 71.4 2008 Seoul Statistics Online Database conservation awareness among the public. tate maintenance of ageing sewer pipelines.100% of its waste, well above the Index average Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 22.5 17.2 2008 Seoul Statistics Online Database Seoul also has an array of strategies to improve Images from the cameras will feed into a com-of 83%, and the best rate among cities with Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 107.8 55.0 2008 Seoul Statistics Online Database and monitor the quality of surface water, and puterised sewer-monitoring system, which will * All data applies to Seoul unless stated otherwise below, ** Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU estimate, 1) Based on estimate of household waste, 2) Water loss, 3) Based on access to sewerage 4) Based on construction of treatment plants almost finished in 2008. 58% in 2005 otherwise.98 99
    • Asian Green City Index | Shanghai_China Shanghai’s total energy consumption, whereas ural gas, nuclear and “clean coal”, which Shanghai_China in 2007 the figure was down to 47%. But the involves capturing and storing greenhouse prevalence of energy-intensive heavy industry gases at coal plants. But there is still room for in the city — particularly steel, construction and improvement in policies with regard to climate automotive manufacturing — has driven up change. Shanghai, for example, has not con- Shanghai’s energy consumption per US$ of GDP, ducted a baseline environmental review of which is the highest in the Index at 14.8 mega- greenhouse gas emissions within the last five joules. Falling steel prices, which reduce the years. amount of revenue collected from steel, have also played a part in increasing the city’s ratio of Green initiatives: Shanghai has been investing energy consumption to economic output. And in wind farms, and in 2006 the city set a target to recent construction work to prepare for the have 13 major wind farms in operation by 2020. World Expo in 2010 may also have increased the They will have a total capacity of 2 gigawatts and figure. Shanghai scores better in clean energy will provide enough electricity to meet the annu- policies, however, by investing in waste-to-ener- al needs of four million households. gy projects, sourcing or producing clean and renewable energy, and making efforts to con- Land use and buildings: Shanghai ranks sume energy more efficiently. In addition, below average in land use and buildings. The Shanghai and the national government are city has a relatively low population density, at investing in alternative sources of electricity for 3,000 people per square kilometre, compared to the future, including solar, biomass, wind, nat- the Index average of 8,200 people per squareBackground indicatorsTotal population (million) 19.2 S hanghai, often referred to as China’s com- mercial and financial centre, has enjoyed strong economic growth over the past two Shanghai ranks average overall in the Index. The city ranks average in six of the eight cate- gories: transport, waste, water, sanitation, air ranks well below average, mainly because it has the highest CO2 emissions per capita and the highest level of energy consumption in the Performance well Shanghai below Other cities average above well below average average aboveAdministrative area (km2) 6,340.5 decades. It is now among the country’s richest quality and environmental governance. The Index. average averageGDP per person (current prices) (US$) 11,463.7 cities, with a GDP per capita of US$11,500. The results reflect the fact that Shanghai is generally Energy and CO2Population density (persons/km2) 3,030.2 State Council, China’s cabinet, approved a blue- average for indicators such as green spaces per Energy and CO2: Shanghai ranks well belowTemperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 16.0 print in March 2009 for Shanghai to become a person or the share of wastewater treated. Gov- average in the energy and CO2 category. It has Land use and buildingsData applies to Shanghai Municipality global international financial and shipping cen- ernment policies in these areas also have room the highest level of CO2 emissions per capita in Transport tre by 2020. A sign of Shanghai’s growing inter- for improvement, although Shanghai’s clean air the Index, at an estimated 9.7 tonnes, more Waste national status was the city’s selection as venue policies are among the strongest in the Index. than twice the 22-city average of 4.6 tonnes. for World Expo 2010, a world trade fair, held When compared to other cities with incomes in Nearly half of Shanghai’s energy consumption is Water between May and October 2010. Heavy indus- the middle range (with a US$GDP of between based on coal, versus an Index average of 14%. Sanitation try, however, still accounts for a large proportion US$10,000 and US$25,000), Shanghai gener- Coal also accounts for 95% of the city’s electrici- Air quality of Shanghai’s economy. With 19.2 million inhab- ates the least waste per capita and has the sec- ty production, compared with about 80% for the itants, Shanghai has the most highly populated ond lowest level of water leakages. In the land rest of the country as a whole. Nevertheless, the Environmental governance administrative area within the Asian Green City use and buildings category, Shanghai ranks city is making progress in reducing its reliance Overall results Index. below average, and for energy and CO2 the city on coal. In 2000, coal accounted for 65% of The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results.100 101
    • Asian Green City Index | Shanghai_China Shanghai government’s target to reduce sul- phur dioxide emissions 26% by 2010, compared with 2005 levels, the city also introduced tougher European standards on vehicle emis- sions. Environmental governance: Shanghai ranks average in environmental governance. The city performs particularly well for environ- mental monitoring and environmental manage- ment, but does not fare as well in terms of public participation. The city regularly monitors its environmental performance and publishes information on its progress. It has also conduct- ed a baseline environmental review in all of thekilometre. In addition, Shanghai’s amount of range of improvements in its transport infra- enforcing environmental standards for waste Sanitation: Shanghai ranks average in the Air quality: Shanghai ranks average in air main areas covered by the Index, apart from airgreen spaces, at 18 square metres per person, is structure, including significantly extending its disposal sites, it is relatively poor at enforcing sanitation category. The city does relatively well quality. High traffic volumes and a heavy quality, within the last five years. The Shanghaibelow the Index average of 39 square metres. metro lines (see “green initiatives” below). As in and monitoring industrial hazardous waste stan- on the proportion of wastewater treated, at an reliance on coal have helped push up average Environmental Protection Bureau also has aHowever, it does have measures in place to pro- other Chinese cities, traffic congestion is a chal- dards. Shanghai does have, however, a well- estimated 78%, compared to the Index average daily sulphur dioxide emissions to 35 micro- wide remit, monitoring all the main areas cov-tect existing green spaces and other environmen- lenge, and according to some estimates, Shang- developed infrastructure for waste recycling, of 60%. And this figure has risen sharply in grams per cubic metre, higher than the Index ered by the Index, while the city enjoys relativelytally sensitive areas (see “green initiatives” hai’s road traffic could outstrip road capacity by both in terms of collection services available and recent years (see “green initiatives” below). The average of 23 micrograms. Daily nitrogen diox- strong powers to implement its own environ-below). Shanghai also has a policy aimed at con- three times by 2025. In policy areas, Shanghai the wide range of materials it recycles. level of access to sanitation in Shanghai, at an ide levels, at 53 micrograms per cubic metre, are mental legislation. Shanghai is marked down,taining urban sprawl, and has taken steps to pro- scores relatively well. The city has taken steps to estimated 73%, is also above the Index average also higher than the Index average of 47 micro- however, for being relatively weak at involvingtect environmentally sensitive areas from devel- reduce emissions from public transport, encour- Green initiatives: According to the United of 70%. Shanghai has the third best rate of sani- grams. In terms of daily suspended particulate citizens, NGOs and other stakeholders in deci-opment. Policies on eco-buildings are also ages citizens to travel more sustainably, and has Nations, two waste incinerators have been estab- tation access when compared among cities with matter, Shanghai does relatively better, measur- sions on projects of major environmentalrelatively strong. The city actively increases public an integrated pricing system for the network. lished in Shanghai over the last decade with a the highest populations in the Index (above 10 ing 81 micrograms per cubic metre versus an impact.awareness of ways to improve the energy effi- Shanghai also scores well for its proactive poli- total capacity of 2,500 tonnes per day. Through million people). While Shanghai performs rea- Index average of 108 micrograms. For its cleanciency of buildings, as well as providing incen- cies to reduce traffic congestion, implementing investment in more facilities, and the closing sonably well for sanitation policy overall, includ- air policies, Shanghai scores well. The city regu- Green initiatives: The World Expo 2010, withtives and regulations to motivate businesses and measures such as pedestrian areas, congestion down of sub-standard waste plants, Shanghai’s ing a code to promote environmentally sustain- larly monitors air quality in different locations in the motto “Better city, better life”, took place inhouseholds to lower their energy use. In addition, charges, “no-car days”, and park and ride sys- authorities aim to increase the proportion of able sanitation services and minimum standards the city, not just in business areas, and informs Shanghai from May to October. More than 200the city leads by example through adopting its tems. In addition, Shanghai has a very well- waste the city safely disposes of to 85% by 2020. for wastewater treatment, the city does not pro- citizens about the dangers of household pollu- countries participated and 73 million visitorsown green standards for public building projects. developed traffic management system. mote public awareness around the efficient and tion. Shanghai is also marked up for measuring a attended displays relating to economic prosper- Water: Shanghai is average in the water cate- hygienic use of sanitation systems. wide range of air pollutants, including suspend- ity, the role of science and technology in cityGreen initiatives: Shanghai’s city government Green initiatives: By the end of 2012, the city gory. The city is marked down for its relatively ed fine particulate matter and carbon monox- life, and urban sustainability. Some of the build-has undertaken a range of projects aimed at government plans to extend Shanghai’s metro, high daily consumption of water, at 411 litres Green initiatives: Shanghai has built 50 new ide. ings used in the displays demonstrated thereducing energy consumption in buildings, with a already the world’s longest in absolute terms, per capita, compared to the Index average of sewerage treatment plants in recent years, allow- potential for innovation, with, for example,goal to save the equivalent of 9 million tonnes of from 420 km currently to 560 km, and then to 278 litres. If Shanghai’s large population of 19.2 ing the city to treat more than three quarters of its Green initiatives: Shanghai forced more than technologies to improve energy efficiency, suchcoal between 2006 and 2010. The projects more than 800 km by the end of 2020. Exclusive million is factored in, the huge scale of Shang- total sewage, up from only 55% in 2000. The goal 1,500 heavily polluting enterprises to close as LED lights rather than traditional incandes-include energy-efficient lighting, reusing waste bus lanes have also been introduced into Shang- hai’s total water consumption becomes even is to treat 90% of sewage by 2020. between 2005 and 2007. To help meet the cent bulbs.heat, and improving efficiency of coal burners. hai: 86 km were created between 2002 and more apparent. The high water demands ofShanghai’s authorities have also made a concert- 2008, and more have been planned. In July Shanghai’s manufacturing sector largely explained effort to increase green spaces in the city. The 2010 the central government announced plans the above average per capita consumption level.United Nations estimates that the city doubled the for a Shanghai-Nanjing high-speed rail route. But water is also plentiful in Shanghai, located atamount of green spaces between 2000 and 2008. The new route is expected to cut journey time the mouth of the Yangtze River, and the city Quantitative indicators: ShanghaiAs part of its green spaces expansion, a number of between the two cities from two hours to just 72 scores well for its comparatively efficient waterparks have been established in Shanghai’s urban minutes, and has the potential to ease traffic system. Losing just over 10% of its water flow Average Shanghai* Year** Sourceareas, including the Yanzhong Green Area, Min- congestion if commuters opt for the new train through leaks, compared with the Index average Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions per person (tonnes/person) 4.6 9.7 e 2008 Shanghai Statistics Yearbook; IPCC; EIU estimateshang Sports Park and the North Bund Green Area. rather than their cars. of 22%, Shanghai has the second most efficient Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$) 6.0 14.8 2009 China Statistical Yearbook 2010 water system among cities with mid-range Land use Population density (persons/km2) 8,228.8 3,030.2 2009 EIU calculation and buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 38.6 18.1 2008 Shanghai Statistical YearbookTransport: Shanghai is average in the trans- Waste: Shanghai ranks average in the waste incomes. In water policy areas, Shanghai scoresport category. The city’s superior public trans- category. An estimated 82% of the city’s waste is reasonably well for having regulations in place Transport Superior public transport network , covering trams, 0.17 0.07 2010 news.163.com; Shanghai Metroport network (defined in the Index as transport collected and adequately disposed of, just below to improve and sustain the quality of surface light rail, subway and BRT (km/km2)that moves large numbers of passengers quickly the Index average of 83%. The amount of waste water. The city also sets standards for levels of Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 82.8 82.3 1e 2009 Shanghai Statistics Yearbookin dedicated lanes, such as metro, bus rapid that the city generates annually on a per capita key pollutants in surface or drinking water, and Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 375.2 369.5 1e 2009 Shanghai Statistics Yearbooktransit, or trams) measures 0.07 km per square basis, at an estimated 370 kg, is just below the enforces water pollution standards on local Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 277.6 411.1 2008 China Urban Statistics Yearbook (2008)kilometre, shorter than the Index average of Index average of 375 kg. Shanghai generates industry. In addition, Shanghai is among the Water system leakages (%) 22.2 10.2 2008 China Urban Statistics Yearbook (2008)0.17 km per square kilometre, but it is the the least waste per capita in the Index when most proactive cities in Index at implementing a Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 70.1 72.5 2e 2009 EIU estimatelongest in the world in absolute length (see compared with cities in the middle-income wide range of measures, including water tariffs, Share of wastewater treated (%) 59.9 78.4 3e 2008 Shanghai Statistical Yearbook Air quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 46.7 53.0 2009 Shanghai Statistical Yearbook“green initiatives” below). In 2008 the city range. In policy areas, Shanghai scores moder- to improve water efficiency and reduce over-announced plans to invest US$16 billion for a ately well. While the city does a good job at consumption. Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 22.5 35.0 2009 Shanghai Statistical Yearbook Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 107.8 81.0 2009 Shanghai Statistical Yearbook * All data applies to Shanghai Municipality unless stated otherwise below, ** Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU estimate, 1) Based on household waste, 2) Based on regression analysis, 3) Based on share of sewerage treated102 103
    • Asian Green City Index | Singapore_Singapore also among the best in the Index, with policies in road-pricing has been in place since 1975, and Singapore_Singapore place for eco-efficiency in new buildings, green traffic is monitored so prices can be altered standards for public buildings, and incentives to depending on volumes. An “intelligent transport motivate households and businesses to con- system” monitors the roads in real time so serve energy. authorities can divert traffic away from acci- dents and breakdowns. Green initiatives: The government wants 80% of all buildings to meet its minimum “Green Mark Green initiatives: By 2020 the government Certified” energy efficiency standards by 2030. wants 70% of trips taken during morning peak The standards are mandatory for new buildings, hours to be on public transport, up from 59% in and the city has a cash incentive scheme to 2008. To achieve this goal it plans to double the encourage the owners of existing buildings to rail network and develop more seamless con- adopt them. The government also aims to nections between bus and rail services. This will increase park space in the city from 3,300 include running more frequent and direct feeder hectares currently to 4,200 hectares by 2020. It is bus services so that commuters can reach trans- also adding “eco-links” between parks so wildlife fer hubs and metro stations from their homes can move freely from park to park. In 2007 Singa- more quickly. Real-time travel information will pore had 100 km of such connections, and it aims also be supplied online and to mobile phones to to raise this figure to 360 km by 2020. help commuters plan their journeys. Singapore also has a vehicle quota system that controls the Transport: Singapore is above average in the number of vehicles in the city. Between 1990 transport category, boosted by one of the and 2008 the vehicle stock was allowed to grow longest superior public transport networks in by 3% a year, but growth has since been capped the Index (defined as transport that moves large at 1.5% a year. Within the quota system, more numbers of passengers quickly in dedicated licences are available for smaller, fuel-efficientBackground indicators lanes, such as metro, bus rapid transit or trams), cars. The government offers a 40% rebate on and robust urban mass transport policies. The purchases of green vehicles, such as hybrid,Total population (million) 5.0 city’s superior network, at 0.21 km per square electric and compressed natural gas cars.Administrative area (km2) 710.3 kilometre, is above the 22-city average of 0.17GDP per person (current prices) (US$) 36,519.6 km per square kilometre. The government has Waste: Singapore ranks as the only city wellPopulation density (persons/km2) 7,025.2 been investing in mass transport improvements above average in the waste category. The cityTemperature (24-hour average, annual) (°C) 27.0 ever since the metro opened in 1987, realising generates 307 kg of waste per person per year,Data applies to Singapore that limited land area — 12% of which is taken lower than the Index average of 380 kg, and the up by roads — could not sustain big increases in authorities collect and dispose of all of it. Singa- traffic. The government supports its network pore’s waste disposal policies are also amongS ingapore is a prosperous city-state on the southern tip of Malaysia, with a population ofabout 5 million people. Its residents are on aver- ronment. Singapore’s best performances are in the waste and water categories, where it ranks well above average. It has one of the highest also one of five cities in the Index that does not consume any energy produced from renewables. It does, however, generate 80% of its electricity jects, Singapore also has Asia’s largest “anaero- bic digestion” facility, which uses microorgan- isms to break down biodegradable material. It with a comprehensive mass transport policy, a fully integrated pricing system and emissions- reduction plans. The city’s congestion reduction the best in the Index. The city burns some organ- ic waste at temperatures of more than 1,000°C, which removes acidic gases and dioxins, andage the fourth wealthiest among the 22 cities in rates of waste collection in the Index and the from natural gas, a cleaner source than coal, for processes around 800 tonnes of organic waste policies are also a strong complement to its these plants in turn account for around 1% ofthe Asian Green City Index, generating a GDP per second lowest rate of water system leakages. example. The city’s policies on energy and CO2 per day, reducing the amount of food that Singa- management of mass transport. For example, Singapore’s power generation. In addition,person of US$36,500, nearly double the Index Singapore ranks above average in all other cate- are generally strong, however. For example, it pore incinerates by 50%, and the resultingaverage. Services account for about two-thirds of gories, with particularly strong results for its gets full marks in the Index for having an energy methane is used in power generation.the city’s economic output, with industry making large amount of green spaces per person, the reduction strategy, for making efforts to con-up just over a quarter. Singapore’s government length of its rapid transit network and its sanita- sume energy more efficiently, for having a cli- Land use and buildings: Singapore ranks Performance Singapore Other citiesfaces challenges in maintaining the city’s eco- tion system. Overall, Singapore’s impressive mate change action plan and for signing up to above average in land use and buildings, driven well below average above wellnomic success, however, including a lack of fossil- environmental performance is a legacy of its his- international environmental covenants. The city by full marks for almost all of the land use and below average average abovefuel resources and a limited water supply. And like tory. Since the city gained independence in is also relatively energy efficient, consuming eco-buildings policies evaluated in the Index. average averagemany cities in Asia, economic growth must be 1965, the government has emphasised the only 3 megajoules per US$ of GDP, compared to Land constraints in Singapore require careful Energy and CO2balanced with environmental demands. The city’s importance of sustainability. the Index average of 6 megajoules. urban planning, and the city has robust policiesrelatively large industrial presence, for example, in place to contain urban sprawl and to protect Land use and buildingscontributes greatly to Singapore’s wealth, but Energy and CO2: Singapore ranks above Green initiatives: In the last decade significant green spaces from the negative side effects of Transportcompared to the services sector, industry pro- average in the energy and CO2 category. Cities investments in natural gas pipelines have development. The tone was set early, with Sin- Wasteduces more waste, uses more energy and con- with high incomes in the Index tend to produce moved the city away from its dependency on gapore’s first prime minister, Lee Kuan Yew,sumes more water. more CO2, and Singapore is no exception: The high-emission, oil-fuelled power stations. In vowing that Singapore would not become a Water Still, Singapore appears to have found a suc- city generates 7.4 tonnes of CO2 emissions per 2008 natural gas plants accounted for 80% of “grey city”. Presently Singapore has 66 square Sanitationcessful formula. It is the only city in the Index to person, compared to the Index average of 4.6 electricity generation, up from 19% in 1999. The metres of green space per person, well above Air qualityrank well above average overall, and it shows tonnes. Industry is partly the reason. Although construction of a liquefied natural gas import the Index average of 39 square metres, and theconsistently strong results across all individual the industrial sector contributes just over a quar- terminal is expected to allow Singapore to gen- highest amount among cities with a small popu- Environmental governancecategories, performing especially well for its ter of the city’s GDP, it accounts for more than erate 90% to 95% of its electricity from natural lation in the Index (under 5 million people). Sin- Overall resultspolicies to maintain and improve the urban envi- half of Singapore’s CO2 emissions. Singapore is gas by 2013. Regarding waste-to-energy pro- gapore’s environmental building standards are The order of the dots within the performance bands has no bearing on the cities’ results.104 105
    • Asian Green City Index | Singapore_Singapore vehicles in the city. The city also performs well in the Index for its comprehensive air quality poli- cies. For example, air quality is monitored at 11 stations scattered around Singapore in residen- tial, commercial, industrial and roadside areas. Green initiatives: Singapore will apply stricter Euro IV emissions standards for all taxis by 2014 and all buses by 2020. The city is also running trials on emission-reducing “diesel particulate filters” for diesel-powered vehicles, as an initial step before planning to introduce them more widely. Regarding industrial emissions, the city mandates that industries conduct self-monitor- ing on air pollutants. This is supported by regular checks from the government and backed by the ability to fine offenders. Environmental governance: Singapore ranks above average for environmental go- vernance. The city regularly monitors all aspects of its environmental performance, pub- lishes the results and involves citizens in envi- ronmental decisions. Singapore has had a Min- istry for Environment and Water Resources since 1972, and together with two statutory boards — the National Environment Agency and the PUB, the national water agency — the ministry is charged with ensuring a clean and hygienic living environment. It sets targets in asome of the ash created is then used in construc- Green initiatives: Singapore has five world- development programme to meet the demands broad range of areas and the government has a tive to create Singapore’s national strategy on spaces and cleaning major water sources;tion materials. renowned water-reclamation plants, called of industrialization and an expansion in modern good record of meeting them. Policies are usu- sustainable development. Its members include encouraging residents to adopt a more environ- “NEWater” factories, which treat wastewater housing. The current system has separate net- ally implemented in a highly competent man- ministers of finance, environment and water mentally responsible lifestyle; and developingGreen initiatives: The government has set a through micro-filtration, reverse osmosis and works for used water and rainwater, which helps ner. The government informs the public about resources, transport, and trade and industry. technologies to help balance growth with sus-target to recycle 65% of waste by 2020, up from ultraviolet technology. These currently deliver to ensure high standards for water collected in environmental issues through schools and The committee held hundreds of meetings with tainability. The plan includes proposals to im-56% in 2008. Authorities distribute recycling one-fifth of Singapore’s water supply. Singapore reservoirs. Singapore also has strong sanitation media campaigns. the business community and members of the prove environmental education in schools, fundbags or bins to households, and recycling bins has a desalination plant that provides 10% of its policies, achieving full marks for environmentally public. It also recommended numerous initia- partnerships with environmental NGOs, and ahave been placed in public areas. Singapore resi- water, with a second plant due to open in 2013. sustainable sanitation standards and for waste- Green initiatives: The city established the Inter- tives in four strategic areas: improving resource pledge to implement ideas from the public anddents have responded well to the initiative, with The government wants desalination to meet at water treatment and monitoring, among others. Ministerial Committee on Sustainable Develop- efficiency; enhancing the physical environment business community to improve environmentalhousehold participation in recycling rising from least 30% of its water needs by 2060. But mind- ment in January 2008, a cross-functional initia- through controlling pollution, increasing green sustainability.15% in 2001 to 63% in 2008. ful that desalination is currently the most ener- Green initiatives: Over the last decade Singa- gy-intensive water source, it is also funding pore has also built a so-called “deep tunnel”Water: Singapore ranks well above average research into more efficient processes that use sewage system, which is set to meet the city’s Quantitative indicators: Singaporein the water category. The city’s consumption only half the energy. Regarding water efficiency, wastewater needs far into the future. The tun-per person is 309 litres per person per day – a the government also aims to reduce residential nels, which are sloped to conserve energy, chan- Average Singapore* Year** Sourcefigure that includes domestic and industrial water consumption by promoting water-effi- nel wastewater to the Changi Water Reclama- Energy and CO2 CO2 emissions per person (tonnes/person) 4.6 7.4 2008 National Environment Agencyusage – above the Index average of 278 litres. cient appliances and through public awareness tion Plant. The plant is capable of treating Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$) 6.0 2.9 2008 National Environment Agency; Singapore Government StatisticsHowever, Singapore’s performance in the water campaigns in the media and in schools. As part 800,000 cubic metres of wastewater per day to Land use Population density (persons/km2) 8,228.8 7,025.2 2009 Singapore Government Statistics and buildings Green spaces per person (m2/person) 38.6 66.2 2009 Singapore National Parks data; Singapore Government Statisticscategory is bolstered by the second lowest leak- of the city’s “Water Efficient Homes” programme, international standards. After it is treated, theage rate, at 5%, compared to the Index average authorities have given households “do-it-your- water is discharged into the sea or sent to a Transport Superior public transport network , covering trams, 0.17 0.21 2010 Land Transport Authorityof 22%. The city imports 40% of its water from self” water efficiency kits, which include thim- NEWater factory to be purified further. light rail, subway and BRT (km/km2)Malaysia, with the rest gathered through its bles to fit on taps and showers to limit leakage, Waste Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%) 82.8 100.0 1 2009 Ministry of Environment and Water Resourceswide catchment network, or through reclama- and water-saving bags for cisterns. Air quality: Singapore ranks above average in Waste generated per person (kg/person/year) 375.2 306.6 1 2009 Ministry of Environment and Water Resourcestion and desalination. The city hopes to become Water Water consumption per person (litres per person per day) 277.6 308.5 2009 Key Environmental Statistics 2010 the air quality category, with some of the lowestcompletely self-sufficient in water by 2061, Sanitation: Singapore is above average in Water system leakages (%) 22.2 4.6 2009 Key Environmental Statistics 2010 levels of nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxidewhen its long-term agreement with Malaysia Sanitation Population with access to sanitation (%) 70.1 100.0 2009 Ministry of Environment and Water Resources the sanitation category. All of its residents have emissions among the 22 cities. Its daily levels ofruns out. As a result, it has some of the best Share of wastewater treated (%) 59.9 100.0 2009 PUB Singapore access to sanitation and all of the wastewater col- suspended particulate matter are also muchpolicies in the Index for water conservation, Air quality Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m3) 46.7 22.0 2009 Key Environmental Statistics 2010 lected is treated. The government laid the lower than average. Singapore achieves its cleanand it also leads the Index for its policies on Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m3) 22.5 9.0 2009 Key Environmental Statistics 2010 groundwork for this first-class system in the air primarily through stringent controls on indus-water quality. Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m3) 107.8 56.0 2008 Yearbook of Statistics Singapore 1960s, when it began an intensive sewerage try and by carefully managing the number of * All data applies to Singapore unless stated otherwise below, ** Where data from different years were used only the year of the main indicator is listed, e) EIU estimate, 1) Based on domestic waste disposed106 107
    • Asian Green City Index | Taipei_Taiwan for lowering greenhouse gas emissions to 2008 are conscious of the need for green spaces, and Taipei_Taiwan levels between 2016 and 2020. receive good marks in the Index for protecting them. Regarding eco-building standards, Taipei Green initiatives: The Taiwan government has City has improved from the lax regulations dur- outlined 167 specific actions as part of its 2008 ing its early development in th