Motivation As Per Psych.


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Motivation As Per Psych.

  1. 1. Motivation <ul><li>Hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Love/ Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul>
  2. 2. Instinct <ul><li>A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imprinting in birds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The return of the salmon to their birthplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innate tendencies in humans such as rooting and sucking </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. (1) Drive Reduction Theory <ul><li>A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological Need </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Need </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Inner Pushes </li></ul><ul><li>We are pushed by our need to eat (hunger) to reduce the tension by eating. </li></ul><ul><li>The physiological aim of drive reduction is homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>External Pulls </li></ul><ul><li>We are pulled by incentives – positive or negative stimuli that lure or repel us. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The sight of an attractive person </li></ul><ul><li>The threat of disapproval </li></ul>
  5. 5. (2) Arousal <ul><li>Some motivated behavior increase arousal. </li></ul><ul><li>Well-fed animals will leave their shelter to explore, seemingly in the absence of any need-based drive. </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity drives explorers and scientists to discover. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hierarchy of Needs
  7. 7. Hunger The Physiology of Hunger <ul><li>1- Body Chemistry (insulin and glucose) </li></ul><ul><li>2- The Brain (hypothalamus) </li></ul><ul><li>3- Set Point </li></ul><ul><li>4- Basal Metabolic Rate </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Brain The Hypothalamus <ul><li>The Lateral Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>(brings on hunger) </li></ul><ul><li>When deprived of food and blood sugar is low, the LH churns out orexin, a hunger-triggering hormone. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ventromedial </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>(depresses hunger) </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate this area and an animal will stop eating. </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy it & the animal’s intestines will process food very rapidly causing it to eat more often. </li></ul>
  9. 9. How Does these Complementary Areas in the Hypothalamus Work? <ul><li>1- They influence how much glucose is converted to fat and how much is left available to fuel immediate activity (and minimize hunger). </li></ul><ul><li>2- Distributed brain systems monitors the body’s state and reports to the hypothalamus, which sends the information to the frontal lobes, which decide behavior. </li></ul>
  10. 10. How Does these Complementary Areas in the Hypothalamus Work? <ul><li>3- Manipulating the lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus alters the body’s weight thermostat, which predisposes us to keep our body at a particular weight level called “set point.” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Maintaining the Body’s Set-Point Weight <ul><li>1- The body adjusts to food intake. </li></ul><ul><li>2- the body adjusts to energy output </li></ul><ul><li>3- The body adjusts to its basal metabolic rate </li></ul>
  12. 12. Basal Metabolic Rate <ul><li>The rate at which the body burns calories for energy depending on: </li></ul><ul><li>1- fat cells </li></ul><ul><li>2- hormones </li></ul><ul><li>3- metabolism </li></ul>
  13. 13. Hunger The Psychology of Hunger <ul><li>1- External Incentives </li></ul><ul><li>2- Taste Preferences </li></ul>
  14. 14. Eating Disorders <ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Anorexia Nervosa </li></ul><ul><li>Bulimia </li></ul>
  15. 15. What Causes Eating Disorders? <ul><li>Early Maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Genes </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><li>The Desire to Fit the Social Ideal of Slender </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul>
  16. 16. Obesity The Physiology of Obesity <ul><li>1- Fat Cells </li></ul><ul><li>2- Set-Points and Metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>3- The Genetic Factor </li></ul><ul><li>4- Losing Weight </li></ul>
  17. 17. Genes and Weight <ul><li>Set-Point Theory </li></ul><ul><li>A biological mechanism keeps a person’s body weight at a genetically influenced set-point – the weight you stay at when you are not consciously trying to gain or lose weight. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The “Obese” Gene <ul><li>Obese gene causes fat cells to produce leptin. </li></ul><ul><li>Leptin travels through blood to hypothalamus (regulates appetite) </li></ul><ul><li>Leptin reduces appetite </li></ul>
  19. 19. Why Do People Gain Weight Rapidly? <ul><li>Secretion of leptin is impaired </li></ul><ul><li>May produce plenty of leptin but their body does not respond to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to store calories which have a survival advantage. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Losing Weight <ul><li>1- Minimize exposure to tempting food cues. </li></ul><ul><li>2- Take steps to boost your metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>3- Be realistic and moderate. </li></ul><ul><li>4- Modify both your metabolic rate and you hunger by changing what you eat. </li></ul><ul><li>5-Don’t starve all day and eat one big meal at night. </li></ul><ul><li>6- Beware of the binge </li></ul><ul><li>7- Begin only if you are prepared to exercise and restrict your eating permanently. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Motives for Love <ul><li>Need for Affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>The need to associate with others, as by seeking friends, companionship, and love </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Attachment </li></ul><ul><li>The deep emotional tie to, and sense of almost physical connection with a loved one </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Contact Comfort </li></ul><ul><li>The pleasure derived from close physical contact </li></ul>
  22. 22. Contact Comfort Margaret & Harry Harlow <ul><li>The Rhesus Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Two Kinds of Surrogate Mothers: </li></ul><ul><li>1-One made of wires and warming lights,with a milk bottle connected to it </li></ul><ul><li>2-One was made of wire and covered with foam rubber and cuddly terry cloth </li></ul><ul><li>Which mother did the rhesus monkeys chose? </li></ul>
  23. 24. Separation Anxiety <ul><li>The distress that most children develop, at around 7-9 months of age, when their primary caregivers temporarily leave them with strangers or in a new environment </li></ul>
  24. 25. Motives for Sex <ul><li>1-The Biology of Desire </li></ul><ul><li>2-The Psychology of Desire </li></ul><ul><li>3-The Culture of Desire </li></ul>
  25. 26. The Biology of Desire <ul><li>The Sexual Response Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Masters and Johnson (1966) </li></ul><ul><li>1- Excitement Phase </li></ul><ul><li>2- Plateau Phase </li></ul><ul><li>3- Orgasm </li></ul><ul><li>4- Resolution Phase (refractory period) </li></ul>
  26. 27. The Biology of Desire <ul><li>Sex Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Testosterone contributes to sexual arousal. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual activity contributes to the production of testosterone. </li></ul><ul><li>At ovulation, women’s sexual desire is only slightly higher than at other times. </li></ul>
  27. 28. The Psychology of Desire <ul><li>The Brain is the sexiest organ </li></ul><ul><li>Motives for Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement </li></ul><ul><li>Intimacy </li></ul><ul><li>Coping </li></ul><ul><li>Self-affirmation </li></ul><ul><li>Partner approval </li></ul><ul><li>Peer approval </li></ul>External Stimuli Imagined Stimuli
  28. 29. Sexual Orientation <ul><li>In Europe and the US 3 or 4 percent of men are homosexual. </li></ul><ul><li>1 or 2 percent of women are homosexual. </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer than 1% are bisexual. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Brain and Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Simon LeVey </li></ul><ul><li>A cell cluster was reliably larger in heterosexual men than in women and homosexual men. </li></ul><ul><li>The critical question is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When did the brain difference begin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything psychologically is simultaneously biological </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Genes and Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Research on Twin Brothers of Homosexual Men </li></ul><ul><li>Among their identical twin brothers , 52% were homosexual. </li></ul><ul><li>Among the fraternal twin brothers, 22% were homosexual. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Genes and Sexual Orientation <ul><li>A Follow-up Study on Twin Sisters of Homosexual Women </li></ul><ul><li>48% of their identical twins were homosexual. </li></ul><ul><li>16% of their fraternal twins were homosexual </li></ul><ul><li>With half the identical twin pairs differing, we know that genes are not the whole story </li></ul><ul><li>This is the sort of pattern we expect to see when genes are having an influence. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Prenatal Hormones and Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Female sheep will show homosexual behavior if their pregnant mothers are injected with testosterone during a critical gestation period. </li></ul><ul><li>With humans, a critical period for the brain’s neural-hormonal control system may exist between the middle of the second and fifth months after conception. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: homosexuals were exposed to atypical prenatal hormones. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Sexual Orientation <ul><li>1-Genetic and biological factors </li></ul><ul><li>2-Family, peers, and environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>3-Complex interplay of genetic, physiological, and environmental factors </li></ul>
  34. 35. The Culture of Desire <ul><li>Attitudes and sexual behaviors vary across the planet. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes and sexual behaviors vary with time within the same culture. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Why Don’t Teens Use Contraceptives? <ul><li>1- Ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>2- Guilt related to sexual activity </li></ul><ul><li>3- Minimal communication about birth control </li></ul><ul><li>4- Alcohol use </li></ul><ul><li>5- Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity </li></ul>
  36. 37. Motives for Achievement <ul><li>Satisfaction on the job </li></ul><ul><li>The job itself </li></ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul><ul><li>Influence over others </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Useful feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities offered </li></ul><ul><li>Clear and consistent rules </li></ul>
  37. 38. Holland’s Personality Type Theory Occupations involving arts Artistic Managers, politicians, Enterprising Clerks, secretaries, bank tellers Conventional Salesmen, teachers, counselors Social Careers in math and science Intellectual Farmers, laborers, truck drivers Realistic
  38. 40. Why Do People Work? <ul><li>1-Extrinsic Rewards </li></ul><ul><li>2-Intrinsic Rewards </li></ul><ul><li>3-Personal Identity </li></ul><ul><li>4-Social Lives </li></ul><ul><li>5-Status </li></ul>
  39. 41. Sources of Achievement Motivation <ul><li>Emotional Roots </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Roots </li></ul>
  40. 42. Motivating People <ul><li>Cultivate Intrinsic Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Attend to People’s Motives </li></ul><ul><li>Se Specific, Challenging Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Choose an Appropriate Leadership Style. </li></ul>