Phase 1 report

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Phase 1 report

  1. 1. TOILETS FOR THE SAFETY OF ELDERLY PROGRESS REPORT PHASE 1 , MILESTONE 1 submitted by : Mamta Gautam NDBI , NID ,PALDI .Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  2. 2. list of all the protos to be fabricated as per the proposal : - 1 ) over moulding for grab bars 2 ) tiles 3 ) wc 4 ) basin 5 ) tap 6 ) doorknob 7 ) bathing seat 8 ) installation of temp structure 9 )alarm system prototypes developed for phase 1 , milestone 1 : - 1 ) tile 2 ) grabars 3 ) doorknob 4 ) alarm system 5 ) tapBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  3. 3. Taps/faucets : existing taps and problems identified : - according to my research , large percentage of people get hurt due to the sharp and hard taps metal suurface. design brief : To avoid the injury on hitting , avoid chnaces of scalding , easy to open and close and appropriate product semantic. design directions: - Cushioning on the taps. - Temperature control. - Taps with flexible material. below : existing range of productsBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  4. 4. Properties of PU - Excellent abrasion resistance. Good tear resistance. Hot and cold water resistance. Good shock absorption. Impact resistance. Good elasticity. above : PU in water for 3months , no discolouration or salt deposit. below : pu hollow casted pipes for taps and grab bars in different shoresBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  5. 5. Cast Polyurethanes: Cast Polyurethanes are a versatile family of elastomers that can be molded to optimize a combination of the following properties, depending on the application: Excellent resilience (high or low) Extra toughness and durability Very high load bearing capacity High tear strength and cut resistance Low compression set Very good impact resistance Outstanding abrasion resistance Good machinability Oil, solvent, water and ozone resistant. Non-marking Mold, mildew , fungus resistance Flex fatigue resistance Good electrical properties Friction (high or low) Types of Polyurethanes Cast Polyurethanes based on TDI, MDI, PPDI, polyethers, polyesters, polycaprolac- tones...etc as building blocks, offer a wide variety of application possibilities and advantages. Polyethers perform well in dynamic applications and in hydrolytic envi- ronments. They are extensively used in applications such as die-forming pads, press brake dies, die springs, fork lift tires, roller coaster wheels, rolls for steel and paper mills. Polyesters have superior cut, tear and abrasion resistance as well as better resistance to oil and solvents. Typical applications include hydraulic seals, scraper blades, rolls for graphic arts, pipeline pigs,chute liners, etc. Polyurethanes or Urethanes are a family of elastomers, similar to rubbers, offering a unique combination of properties. When designing these products, it is important to note that these properties and some of the terminology differ considerably from metals or plastics. Elastomers are extensible and deform easily, and some properties change as the part is stressed. The combination of many outstanding properties within the single material makes a urethane distinctive from conventional rubbers and plastics. Urethane elastomers are often considered as a bridge between rubbers and structural plastics because they combine many of the desirable properties of both. Poly-Pro Polyurethanes are thermosetting materials characterized by unusual toughness. They combine resilience and high load-bearing capacity with resistance to impact, abrasion and com- pression set and degradation by oxygen, ozone and oil. They are liquid polymers which are mixed with curingagents and poured into molds of any cross section or size to produce parts with consis- tent properties throughout. Since it is a low pressure molding process, large and inexpensive molds are often fabricatedwith sheet metal, aluminum, urethane or wood. Polyurethanes are available from 20A (soft as gum rubber) to 75D (hard as a bowling ball).Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  6. 6. Engineering Information Polyurethanes or Urethanes are a family of elastomers, similar to rubbers, offering a unique combination of properties. When designing these products, it is important to note that these properties and some of the terminology differ considerably from metals or plastics. Elastomers are extensible and deform easily, and some properties change as the part is stressed. The combination of many outstanding properties within the single material makes a urethane distinctive from conventional rubbers and plastics. Urethane elastomers are often considered as a bridge between rubbers and structural plastics because they combine many of the desirable properties of both. Poly-Pro Polyurethanes are thermosetting materials characterized by unusual toughness. They combine resilience and high load-bearing capacity with resistance to impact, abrasion and compression set and degradation by oxygen, ozone and oil. They are liquid polymers which are mixed with curing agents and poured into molds of any cross section or size to produce parts with consistent properties throughout. Since it is a low pressure molding process, large and inexpensive molds are often fabricated with sheet metal, aluminum, urethane or wood. Abrasion Resistance: The outstanding abrasion resistance of cast polyurethanes has resulted in thousands of successful applications. In laboratory tests as well as in field applications, cast Polyurethanes show a definite wear advantage over many other materials. In field studies, polyurethanes have outworn rubbers andplastics, as well as steel and ceramics in some applications, by a factor of 8 to 1. Stress / Strain Properties: Some plastics have high modulus and tensile strength but low elongation. Most rubbers, have high elongation but low modulus and tensile strength. Polyurethane elastomers have high modulus, h igh tensile strength and high elongation. This combination imparts toughness and durability to the part. Compression Properties: Cast Polyurethanes have much higher load-bearing capacity than conventional elastomers of simi- lar hardness. This high load bearing capacity, combined with the superior abrasion and toughness is an important advantage in applications like metal forming die-pads, die springs, Fork lift tires, caster wheels, industrial rolls, etc. Hardness and Resilience: Cast Polyurethane elastomers can be compounded in a wide range of hardness from 20A to 75D (soft as a rubber band or as hard as plastic) Special formulations of cast polyurethanes can be made with resilience values as low as 2% or 75%. This is ideal for applications such as springs and shock mounts. Other applications include mining, quarrying and civil engineering, automobile industry, tex- tilemachinery, footwear and shoe manufacture and mechanical handling.Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  7. 7. below : option 1 , tap in silicone above : option 2 , tap in PUBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  8. 8. Working dwg for final prototype Working prototype of the tap and mechanism .Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  9. 9. user feedback session , to be installed in near future at old age home jeevan sandhiya .Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  10. 10. Tile : existing tiles and problems identified : - slippage, dirt collection, huge injuries, water does not drain out Direction: - Use the soft material coating on any raw plastic or chief ma- terial to avoid the injury. - Need to look at different material option and their properties. exisitng tile options ceramic , antiskid ceramic and rubber mats .Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  11. 11. option 1 - Latex casting on the ceramic tiles option2 , 5 mm pu sheet for shock absorption , tilesBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  12. 12. user feedback session , to be installed in near future at old age home JEEVAN SANDHIYABathrooms for the safety of elderly
  13. 13. Grab bars : existing products and problems : - - very expensive, availale in hard surfaces ( steel finish and powder coated ms pipes ) , can lead to injuries when hit during accident or slipping. direction : - To help to stand, seat and walk safely, - Cushioning of grab bars. - Plumbing pipes as grab bars. - Fixing the position and placement of the grab bars. existing barsBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  14. 14. option 1 , in latexBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  15. 15. below : option 2, in PU, shore 55 and 45 in varied thickness.Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  16. 16. below : option 3, various profiles in silicone have been tried to reduce the material. .Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  17. 17. Door latch : existing product and problems : - - people get locked , difficult to open from outside , small and not easy to operate for senior citizens . design brief : To make it easy for the person outside to get inside the bathroom in the emergency situation. design directions : Design a HANDLE in such a way that it works as latch. Can be opened from both side and breakable in emergency situation left and below : most commonly used latchesBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  18. 18. right : working proto- type of the doorhandle , such that it can be opened from outside in case of emergency with certain amount of push .Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  19. 19. above working dwgs of the door latch .Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  20. 20. Alarm system : existing product and problems : - - when people fail unconscious due to varied reasons, there is no product available to communicate it to the relatives outside . design brief : To alert people outside for the help. Few directions: - Manual alarm at multiple places like near WC, bathing seat etc. - Automatic alarm which tracks motion and buzzes in case of no movement .Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  21. 21. In order to arrive at the above explained prototypes , the design methodology and intensiive re- search has been discussed in following pages : - Questionnaire for USERS and their feedback from respective users. General information - 1) Name : 2) Age : 3) No of family members: 4) No of rooms in house : 5) Distance of toilet to elderly room: photo : 6) How long have you been staying here? 7) What is your daily schedule? Bathroom related- 1) What are the different activities do you do in bathrooms? 2) How many people use the bathroom? Do you think they should have separate bathroom, toilet for elderly? Yes: why? No: Why? 3) Any past experience which is scary / you remember that you would like to share? 4) Because of health /physical problem do you have any difficulty? E.g while bathing / showering a) YES: What sort of difficulty? b) What causes this difficulty? c) NO : you mean you don’t have any difficulty at all? 5) By yourself and without using any special equipment, how much difficulty do you face while bathing / showering? - some - A lot - Unable to do? 6) What special equipment do you use? a) How frequently. b) All the time you go? c) Who suggested you to use it? d) What else they have suggested? e) Have you follow all the instruction suggested d by them? f) No: why? 7) Do you receive any help from others while bathing /showering? a) How frequently? b) What kind of help? c) From whom? 8) What are other conditions cause the trouble while bathing? 9) Besides above condition is there any other conditions cause the problem? 10) Any previous experience you want to share where you face the problem or had accident while using bathroom or toilet ? 11) Is these troubles caused in other conditions? 12) Which of this conditions causes you main problem while bathing, showering or using toilet ? - Wet floor - No handles /support bars - No sitting arrangement while bathing - While using taps - Low ht of toilets - Darkness / insufficient light in the toiletsBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  22. 22. 13) Do you have problem to seat for a longer time in toilet? a) what problem? b) after how long ? 21) Do you face problem in lifting or holding the objects? a) What problem? b) Why? c) What it causes? 22) How do you manage to go to bathrooms in the night time ? a) Any problem you faced particularly while going to bathroom? 23) Do you face problem in doing following activities? Walking Sitting Standing Holding Turing Bathing Using toilet Showering Cleaning vessels Washing cloths How frequently you use the bathroom in a day ? 24) Do you know of any products /special equipments available in the market for elderly? a) Yes : which ? b) How do you came to know about it ? 25) Would you like to spend some extra money on bathroom for some special facilities like handle bars, anti-skid tiles? a) How much money can you spend? 26) How to keep the Market updates ? 27) Any other suggestions for us: Scenarios 1) Your wife/husband is inside the bathroom and got fainted, how will you came to know about it? What will you do? What precautions will you take to avoid such situations next time? 2) You are slipping and woke up in night around 2-3 am, you want to go to bathroom and all the lights are off. How will you manage to go to bathroom? What precautions will you take to avoid such situations next time? 3) Nobody at home and you are having bath and phone starts ringing what will you do? 4) You need to change the tiles of your bathroom, what action will you take ?Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  23. 23. Elder either of them with their family (category of user ) General information 1) Ghanshyambhai Shah, - Age : 64 yrs - C-16, Komal Enclave, Ahmedabad Housing typology - 4 members - He, Son - Daughter in law, grand son - 4 rooms- 2bhk - Staying since : 3 years - 2 bathrooms : 1 Indian style : common bathroom: used for other things like shaving , brush , washing cloths etc. 1 Western style : used by him Health related problems - Diabetes and low BP - Keep night lamp ON - No Market updates as never seen any add on TV related to such accidents - Bathroom safety is important than the money , if any thing is needful then the cost is not an is- sue. Scenario And their Answers( (in users words ) : - Scenario 1 2) Will wait for 15-20 min. if he don’t come out will give a call. 3) Have to break the door 4) Will try to look for the lock which can be opened from outside. - Scenario 2 1) Keep the night lamp ON 2) Switch should be outside 3) When there is no electricity then we have to keep the torch / emergency light near by the bed. - Scenario 3 1) Approach to contractor / plumber 2) Advice for permanent solution 3) Also will take concern for 2-3 friends or relative before taking any decision . Requirements : - Automatic alarm system should be there - Auto call system should be there - Call diversion systemBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  24. 24. 2) Manohar Narayan Lal Age : 71 yrs. Requirements : - There should be space to keep the soap on/ near Sink. - Place to keep something next to mirror . Like to keep spects. - Size of WC should be bigger to seat and the taps of reservoir should be of good quality. - There should be floor difference for the toilet and bathing area in common bathrooms, most of bathrooms has bath area level on lower side and toilet level is high. But it should always be op- posite. So that water from bathroom can go in to the toilet only, also toilet water will not come in bathroom area. - Cold and hot water facility - Exhaust fan + Regular fan should be there and the position of fan should be above sink. - Windows should be there for natural light and for emergency. - Indian + western style commodes should be there. - Indian style is good for building pressure and for good exercise. - Don’t keep cupboards inside the bathroom for cloths because of germs. - Take bath by standing , sometimes sit. - Call bell should be there. - Door should be open from both sides. - When no body in house he keep the door open - Phone should be provided in the bathroom or close to bathroom - Its good practice to inform each other before going to toilet or bathroom - Keep the night lamp always ON in night time. - Good relation with neighbor, call neighbor . Elder couple with their family 1) Sharada Dalal And Sushila Dalal Age: 85 yrs and 87 yrs. Use Plastic tool for different activities like Bathing , Dressing , and while watching television as a foot rest No problem while having bath or during using toilet. 2) Rangwala M. E. 72 years Staying more than 25 yrs Stay with wife and daughter Wet floor is the main problem , some nakpin to clean the floor Keep the dim light always on in Night time Use the Stone flooring which are not polished In house also use carpets.Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  25. 25. 3) Mr. J. P. Patel and Amrut Bhai Makwana - Age : 76 yrs. & 69 yrs. - Family members : 5, husband- wife, son-daughter in law, grandson 6, husband-wife, son-daughter in law, 2 grandsons - Bathroom is very close to the bedroom - They are staying in the house more than 50 years. - General Daily schedule : 5.00am -6.00 am --- walk and go for walk 6.00 am - 8.00 pm --- morning activity like brush toilet bath 8-00 am - 10-00 am --- paper reading breakfast 10.00 am - 12 noon-- in the garden 12-00 pm - 5.00 pm -- lunch and rest 5-00 pm - 7.00 pm -- garden / temple 7-00 pm - 10-11-00 pm -- dinner , watching TV reading - Bathroom and toilet are separate - All family members share the bathroom n toilet. - I have bathroom with flooring of stone. And have proper slope so that water doesn’t accumulate. - We need to go for urine frequently. - We switch on the light while going to bathroom. We don’t keep the light ON. - Take care when you are using bathroom. Take support of wall, doors, wash basin for balance or walk. In the night time if you want to use bathroom you need to get up first then sit for a while till you get conscious. 4) Satyanarayana Prakash 5 members ,6 rooms - He slipped once , he used oil on his toes and went bathroom - Do regular Pranayana - Only use homeopathy - Floor should not shiny - In Ranchi he has separate toilet bathroom - In noida they have attached bath- toilet - Bath by sitting , but he do bathing by standing - No night lamp, as they know the way to bathroom and very close - Indian type is good for avoiding health problem - Western commodes are good for the people having joint problem - Need help while get up - Clean bathroom before entering or leaving the bathroom to keep it always dry - Whenever you use the bathroom don’t make hurry. Do all the work slowly - Make sure that water should not come out of bathroom - Use rough Slipper. - I don’t need any bathroom aids, when I will be old or in need then only I will think on this - According to them a person above 75 + or 80+ need supports except special cases. - Indian toilets must have grab bars in side wall as that have more problem while standing or sit- ting. - No Market updates - they will ask their son for the things they need . But in their own village they can directly call the concern guy for any help. - Scenario 1 - Don’t lock bathroom - Wait for particular time then will give call - Call son for help,Shout for neighbor helpBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  26. 26. 5) D J Shukla 6) S M Joshi - Bathroom precautions - No glare tiles, Use stone tiles - Provide grab bars to support while standing and sitting - Alarms - for emergencies - Two way locking systems where you can open the door from outside - Railing for the supports in side and outside bathrooms - Doors should be as Less as possible. - Good illumination - natural lights - Ventilation exhaust fan People don’t have awareness - but its not true ? or Is it because of cost that they don’t want to spend on ? I don’t think the cost is the reason. As people would like to spend little extra on purchasing the things rather than spending much more money after wards in the situation of accident. Then where is the gap ? Why people don’t take precautions ? Was not able to answer …. - Indian thinking psychology. - Indian People are of very orthodox nature. Why should I change? Don’t change by the selves don’t do anything different unless some one else do it. - They will not listen to the fact unless they go thro their own experience. - They just like to do adjustments and JUGAD. - Cost should me less. I guess people don’t have the seriousness of the matter. Need to create awareness through …. - Publicity thro’ newspaper - Contractor must have the knowledge and awareness of all this. Contractor can make the schemes as the USP (Unique selling point) to their design and retails, giving all facilities for senior citizens like they give for kids garden and all. - Newspaper, radio and TVs for adds - Govt. can also take interest in building such houses for the elderly to increases the awareness. - There should be society for senior citizens.Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  27. 27. Then where is the gap ? Why people don’t take precautions ? Was not able to answer …. - Indian thinking psychology. - Indian People are of very orthodox nature. Why should I change? Don’t change by the selves don’t do anything different unless some one else do it. - They will not listen to the fact unless they go thro their own experience. - They just like to do adjustments and JUGAD. - Cost should me less. I guess people don’t have the seriousness of the matter. Need to create awareness through …. - Publicity thro’ newspaper - Contractor must have the knowledge and awareness of all this. Contractor can make the schemes as the USP (Unique selling point) to their design and retails, giving all facilities for senior citizens like they give for kids garden and all. - Newspaper ,radio and TVs for adds - Govt. can also take interest in building such houses for the elderly to increases the awareness. - There should be society for senior citizens Where all the facilities can be make available like - purchase facility - Periodic medical health check up - Servants to render services to them - Some one who can pay all the bills and payments . - If you can explain the importance of the design we are ready to buy and can pay little extra money - We are ready to pay for extra services on the basis of salary or pensions we get. - Govt should bare some money for the people who don’t get the pensions. ELDER COUPLES ( IN GROUP ) 1) Rajnikant J Soneji 2 ) Shashikant Gandhi, 62 Age : 67 yrs. 4 members 2+2 Staying from 2 yrs. Plot no 11, Jalnath society, Near Sagar hall Komal Enclave Ahmedabad 3) Shankarlal Marathe Husband and Wife 71 yrs 4 rooms 4 members 1+ 2 +1 2 BHK Staying since : 37 years and more Staying from 4 yrs. Commodes : 4) Nareshbhai Bhawsar - Brands known : Parshuram 64 yrs. - Ht of the toilet is 3" less than required 6 members 2+2+2 - Commodes ht is not good for people having joint problem 2BHK Staying from 4 yrs. Support Bars : 5) Dayaram Pancholi - Some side Bars must be provided for easy standing and sitting while 61 yrs. using toilet or bathroom 5 members 2+2+1 - For good griping the dia. Of handle should be around 1.25" and not 2BHK more than that Staying from 6 yrs. - Location of bars : 2.5 from the ground 6) Sarosh Mestri - Handles /bars should be longer; running from one end to other 76 yrs. 5 members 2+2+1Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  28. 28. Flush Tank : - Water should not be wasted . - If possible control over the quantity of water to flush. - He has raised the flooring area to raise the ht. of the toilet. For Bed: - H X W X L = 18"- 20" X 3.5" X 6.0" Flooring : - Not polished - Now a days Antiskid floors are available in the market . - Continuous type : There should be minimum joints for equal level - Slope should be maintained to drain the water quickly. - Floor should be cleaned and water should be drained after every bath . Sitting arrangement : - Small stool or table should be there for sitting while bathing and dressing in order to avoid the fall down due to unbalance - Few of use small PATALA to sit while bathing. - Something like plastic table should be there as it is always in the contact of water. Shower : - Manual showers should be there. (pipe showers.) Commodes : - Indian /western both are good depends on the situation. Indian style is good but If you have prob- lem in knee then western style is good. - Jet Spray should be there. - If you have Indian style then it should have handle in front of the sit. It is good for small children also so that they can hold it too. FANs : - Both Exhaust and normal fan should be there. - Air ventilation system must be there. - Jet Spray on both side. - He also has Urinal pot as he has joint problem. Alerts : - Call bell should be there. - Music should be played when you inside the bathroom, and not latched the bathroom - Wash basin inside the bathroom to complete all the activities at the same time, to save the time Door : - Door with semi transparent window or something on top side so that you can see blur things in the time of emergency . - Hair sucking system in wash bath / bathroom to avoid the blockage of water. - There is no requirement of special bathrooms Walker - When I was sick sometimes I use the walker - But in walker you have to always walk by bending down to front. - Also you always have fear of falling down on back. - They don’t like to take the help of anyone. Want to be independent as much possible. Don’t want to suffer others because of us. - Corner WCs is good to save the space.Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  29. 29. Lighting : - Good illumination . - I have 2-3 lights for back up purpose. - There should be two way switch one outside one inside the bathroom - Bathroom should be designed in such way that more natural light can come. - They use sticks only when in need. When there is pain Other problems: - Cant lift/avoid to lift the heavy wts. - Avoid to visit the places where they feel uncomfortable. Night time : - Always keep the night lamp ON. How do you keep the updates about the market ? - Television, Exhibitions, media, templates, holdings. - Doctors are very crucial person who can give the information regarding the requirements . - We would like to spend but the cost should be bearable by the middle class person. - Air vent must be there. - Water management should be considered. 7) R N Mehata Age : 75 yrs. Husband and Wife 4 rooms Staying since : 15 years and more - Wet flooring - The main problem, we seniors face is arthritis which make quick damage of our bones - Joint problems - Guiltiness - High Cholesterol - Western style id good and comfortable for us - Bathing by standing - No problem in standing no need of support as I am fit- do regular exercise, walk - When we feel ill then I sit on floor , my wife also sits on the floor but we cant fold our legs just keep it straight - We avoid sitting for long time and always prefer to have chair. - Shower stool is convenient - Doctor don’t suggested anything related to taking care in bathroom or about any particular ac- cessories. They just suggest for doing regular exercise, walk and medicine and hot and cold water shake - Get up slowly.Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  30. 30. Requirements - Double way switch one outside and one inside. - Grab bar for support - Better not to go outside - Personally I don’t like to take help. - There should be something to tell hotness and coldness of the water. As some times people try to insert the hand in hot water tub which can be dangerous. - Scenario And their Answers : - Scenario 1 8) We dont lock the bathroom. Tell each other before going for bathroom/ toilet 9) Will wait for 15-20 min. if he don’t come out will give a call. 10) Think on matter 11) Find out the way or Have to break the door 12) This electronic system of automatic calling and all will not work in India - As people don’t know how to use it - Such systems will not be affordable. - Electricity is the biggest problem. Load shading and all. - There should not be locking system as such - Scenario 2 13) When there is no electricity then we have to keep the torch / emergency light near by the bed, Other wise there is no problem while using bathroom in the night time - Accident are mostly due to wet surface. - And as people use glossy tiles those are very slippery - Make a proper level difference between toilet space n bathroom space Scenario And their Answers : - Scenario 1 1) They should inform each other before going for bath/toilet . 2) Will wait for 10-15 min. if he don’t come out will give a call. 3) Shout for neighbors help 4) Break the door 5) Call doctor 6) Take to hospital Precautions :: 7) Dont lock the door 8) Inform each other 9) Some body should be there while you are having bath Sce 1 - 1 10) Keep extra keys with neighbors 11) Alarm system should be there 12) Torch should be kept in some place which you can access easily. 13) Not much problem in night as we are use to the way to the toilet and also its very close to the BED.Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  31. 31. 8) Mukund bhai Shelat Age : 76 yrs. Husband and Wife 4 rooms Staying since : 30+ years and more - Tiles - no slippery - Flooring + rubber mats - Instate of using stools you should use chairs as on stool you cant take support and no back support - Why you need latch for bathrooms ? You should not provide latch to bathrooms. Instate keep the small light indicator which can turn red when someone enter inside bathroom and turn green when no body inside. - In UK,US there was trend of not having latch to the bathroom doors. - Use sleepers of good grips. - Use Grab/ Side bars - Grab bars should be firmly concealed in the wall and not come out. - Door should be kept open and not locked - Architect should take care of designs for safety - Door should be sliding for easy handling , ball-Barings should be of good quality for sliding, door of less weight . - Small kids can also open - Winter we need hot water - but after bath , steams get accumulate and you cant see there for exhaust fan must be there . - Good ventilation should be there - Flooring of stone without polish should be there - Night lamp+ mosquitoes repellent - Attached bathroom to the bedroom should be there - In the night time keep the torch with you or keep the mobile with torch facility near to you - Mobile is very helpful for different purposes like alarm + emergency call + small light + to see time - Washbasin is outside bathroom , where we do shaving and brush. Less prone to slipping as wash- basin is outside. - Sit while bath - Use stool for sitting while bathing - Indian toilets are good for pressure build. I use Indian style toilet but my wife use western style as she has joints problem - Another problem as you ageing age is you start loosing confidence … even while crossing roads. There fore design products which elderly can use very confidently. - Ht to keep bucket should be also raised to avoid bending.Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  32. 32. Scenario And their Answers : - Scenario 1 9) They should inform each other before going for bath/toilet . 10) Will wait for 10-15 min. if he don’t come out will give a call. Precautions :: 11) Use semi-transparent glass window to see the inside in emergency 12) Dont lock the door 13) Inform your partner before going to bathroom 14) Some body should be there while you are having bath Requirements - You can wear some sensing band which can give alert if there is and danger or you got faint. - Ht. of geezer should be above 5 ft so that small kids cant play with it - Switch of alarm should be in the place so that even if you faint out it is easy reachable to hand - Bathroom should be of bigger size so that even you fall down you will not be hit by taps ,walls or other obstacles. You can directly fall flat on floor - Small cupboard to keep the bathroom materials and required clothes. Scenario 2 - Don’t use the night lamp as we are habitual to the path towards the bathroom Market updates : - From TV, friends , private hospitals - Awareness only when will face the problem then only will use and think about the facilities. - No awareness - until and unless feel need of something. 9) D r. Girish Shah Gynecologist 81 yrs 10) Sudhkar Shah 71 yrs 11) Karnal Sharada - Age : 70 - Health problem: BP , her wife has joint problem. - 2 members onlyBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  33. 33. - For the people who are staying in apartments they should take care of other people staying in other flats - There should no leakage - Hygiene issue should be considered - Drainage pipes should be leak proof. - Use good quality and good slandered products. - Most accident are due to slip - Rough flooring - Stone type flooring is good. - You should always keep in mind the replacement factor while designing . - Use stool for bathing - Its better to have separate bathroom and toilet for hygiene purpose. - Door should not be closed - Bath in early morning when everyone is there in home - Inform before you go to bathroom. - Carry some informing device when you are alone and using bathroom - No need of use night lamp - Use Intellectual precautions rather than mechanical precautions - Side bars should be there but people don’t like to have it or want to spend on it. - Indian style is designed according to your body posture. - No problem in using WCs ht. is ok for me. 12) Y C Goyal - Age : 64 yrs. Wife 60 yrs - Diabetes - Inform each other , wait for the defined time - If you can design something where alarm can ring if some body fall down in the bathrooms - Night lamp always ON - Anti-skid tiles - We will not feel need unless go thro some experience. - Bath by sitting 13) Dr Madhu Jardoshi - Age : 60(M) and 62 (F) - There should be no latches to the bathroom doors or if its there then it should be open from both side. - Windows should be there for natural light as well as for entering inside bathroom in emergency - You can provide small window near bathroom latch through which you can insert your hand only and can open the latch. - BP fluctuate in the morning time. - Carpets/ rugs outside the bathroom for drying the foots - All the taps should be leakage proof - I can spend only Rs 50 extra on the Taps if its safe to use with all design consideration for senior citizens - I don’t feel the need of replacing the tap as its comfortable for me - We can spend as much as Rs 1000 for renovation or changing all the taps - Ceramics are easy to clean so will prefer ceramics for toilets soft material will catch the dirt early. - You can provide the Cap/case of soft materials. - Can provide semi - transparent Glass window at some height for emergency. - We like to clean the bathroom ourselves.Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  34. 34. - Exhaust fan is important - Mosquito repellent - Will prefer the WC at some distance from corner not in the corner - You should feel comfortable when you seat on the WC - Taps should be on right side - Jets and hand shower both has there own advantages. - Stool / chair should be used while bathing - We prefer to stand when we took shower, and prefer to sit while having bath by using bucket 14) Arunbhai Patel - Age : 70(M) and 67 (F) - Experience of her mother how she face the accident in the bathroom - Once she had electric shock . From that time they have installed Gas geezer instead of electric geezer. - 2 windows for natural light also have exhaust fan - Rough floor - 2 members use the bathroom - Shouting - Alarm will not work - Some automatic device which can start blinking after some time - Took help of taps while having bath. - Safety of electric geezer - Mostly prefer shower in summer otherwise use buckets only for bathing - She has Arthritis , use the taps to support while sitting and standing for bathing and toilet time. - Uses the stool for sitting while bathing - Railing should be there in the bathroom - We face problem while standing after sitting for a long time. - In the night time uses the night lamp. - Doctor only give advise about exercise not other - There should be another switch which you can operate from distance like near your bed where you sleep in the night time - Automatic light ON - in the night time OFF - in the day time - Rubber mat in the bathroom atleast for half part of bathrooms - Tub scare to use, don’t like - She uses a belt which we brought from US for the back problem, It keeps you hot all the time and become a good massage. - We use hot water for bath - Bathroom should not be boring I like to keep floors some paintings in bathroom too. - Awareness through News paper, Advertisement in TV and Radio,publicity, - Friends , social contacts, shops, word of mouth - No awareness abut the market - Western style is not hygienic as compare to Indian style , but if you can keep some rubber / plas- tic seat on the WCs. - Hand shower are good to use - Material - ceramic is the best for cleaning. 15) Sudhir Desai Retd. Bank manager Age : 68 yrs wife age : 63 yrsBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  35. 35. - Staying in this house from 23 years and more. - Health problems : BP, Diabetes, heavy body- wt , less visibility in the night. - Doctor just suggest medicine and walk - Do not use any special equipment for walking - They have kept wooden chair inside bathroom for bathing, and increased ht of bucket by keeping it on small stool - I can stand on my own without any support but for precautions I took support but I don’t feel need of grab bar yet. - When we will feel the need of grab bars which after 75s- 80s / come across any accidents then only we will think of installing grab bars - We cant put extra money on grab bars right now - We will tell our son and daughter for any purchase - If doctor suggest us to buy something we will buy then - Orthopedics says that our get fracture first and then we slip because of unbalance and fracture and then other bone breakage happens. - We dont latch the door - There should be no latches for the doors. - Tele phone should be easily accessible in emergency- - We will wait for specific time if one of us go for toilet or bathroom. - Neighbor are very helpful in emergency situations - Precautions and safety is very important - Always one big light keep on in the night time - We can avoid all the accident if we take proper precaution ourselves Walk slowly , take support while standing and sitting , - For them something automatic means luxurious atoms and they don’t want such things. - Will buy only things which are needful not because of just we want it. - We will definitely not buy any accessories as we don’t need it now. - For us need are having healthy and at proper time food , and staying happily . - Awareness through TV, Paper. We know the nearby shops we will ask them for the things re- quired . - "Truly speaking we don’t have any problem inside the home we can take care of each other , can take all the precautions, have all the facilities but the actual problems starts when you step outside home." - Problem we face outside the home are - - No police protection - Don’t have any priorities and facilities in various areas 16) Shabbir husen fida ali Momin - Age : 70 yrs - Staying since 1980 i.e. (30 yrs) - Arjunmand (65 yrs.)Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  36. 36. - BP, Colestrol and diabetes - Aunty - knee problem, face the problem while sitting and standing. - Bath by sitting on the small stool of aluminium - There should be some chair on which you can sit and bath - Grab bards should be there - Hot and cold mix shower should be there - Place to keep Soap properly. - Anti-skid tiles - No use of tub - After 80+ we will feel need of the grab bars Why people don’t buy accessories ? - Cost is first thing - Space is another problem, they don’t want more obstacles. - WC with sitting facility which you can hang on wall and can use when required.(foldable) - We follow what ISLAM says , keep the cleanness, cant use bathroom without water . S1 - Small glass window say 4X4 through which you can insert the hand to open the latch, can be semi-transparent, can breaks easily - We came to generally by the time taken to bath. - We dont latch the door - If you are making something to avoid such accidents make something which is innovative ,helpful, easy to operate and understand and can cost within Rs 1000. which ppl can by without giving second thought - But people will start thinking for Rs. 5000. S2 - Habitual to the path towards the toilet and bathroom so don’t feel need of the night lamp. As we cant sleep is there is any small light ON. S3 - Will do the estimation of the cost - Will give the contract to someone - We see Quality rather than Quantity - Awareness thro TV, paper and radio adds , templates in the paper. - Ppl standing on the road and distribute the flyers. - There is no awareness in middle class - People don’t know or fell the need to adopt such kind of facilities The following pages show images of senior citizens doing various activities .Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  37. 37. visual refernces of user study, showing different activities .Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  38. 38. visual refernces of user study, showing different activities .Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  39. 39. visual refernces of user study, showing different activities .Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  40. 40. Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  41. 41. visual refernces of user study, showing different activities .Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  42. 42. Market study Branded Showrooms Price of WCs: Rs. 3000 to 11,000 , ranging form parryware to Cera Wall mounted Wcs ranges from Rs. 4500 - 10,000/- Brands doing good in market are : CERA and JAQWAR Taps : Florentine series and cubical series costs around rs. 4450 for Single tap. Concealed tank WCs : Rs 8000+ Surgical Shops ABC Surgical , Ahmedabad - Demands for the folding chair type toilets ,as you can fold and hang on the wall and use when- ever required - 70 % of Gujarat people has diabetes and BP problems - Only folding type will work , don’t make it permanent fixed type as their are other family mem- bers also who don’t need equipments that senior citizens requires - Aluminum is best material for such products as ○ It is of low weight and has a good strength too. ○ There is less corrosion as compare to MS when come in contact with water. ○ Cleaning is easy. - Rs 600 - 650 is affordable for a middle class person. Depends on the products and usage . Market requirements - People asks for the sticks which you can use for sitting also, as they feel need of seating while walking. Such product is in market but it was a big flop as ○ It become heavy to handle ○ Very small space for sitting which is uncomfortable for elderly. - People who come here in shop most of the time don’t compromise on the cost they will prefer to buy quality product once we explain them. As these are the people coming from long distance or around villages which is costly affair for them to come as they have to take someone with them , they have to do lunch outside so they spend money to visit the place and if they took bad quality product which will not last long they will not prefer to come again and again and spend more time and money on that. - Digitalization really helped man kind in various ways so people prefer to buy some digital equip- ments like digital BP meter. It saves there money and time to meet everytime to visit Dr. Person- ally instead they can just call Dr and told them this much is my BP .. You can tell me now what I can do ? - Doctor suggest some times but mostly people come by themselves as this is well know shop they knows they can find if they can ask shopkeeper about their need and shopkeeper can fulfill their requirements - People prefer to bye local items 20 % only for imported atoms requirement (Taiwan is good market for such atoms less costely as compare to US and Germany) 80% for local atoms ○ Reasons are : § Cost is double § Don’t want to spend more as the requirement is for less time § The time spend on the chairs or WC’s is very less , so why should spend moreBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  43. 43. Ahmedabad local Market Chair for Indian commodes with back rest : Rs. 550/- Chair for Indian commodes without backrest : Rs. 450/- Bed rest back support : Rs. 475 /- Wheel chairs without break : Rs. 1950 /- Wheel chairs with break : Rs. 2950 /- Walker : Rs. 375/- 2) Walker : with ht adjustment :locking -unlocking and fold - Rs- 850/- Walker -flexible folding : Rs 1800/- 3) WC for physically challenged- western style(Complete Folding commodes) : Rs 2200 Whole-sale Rs 3200 retail Bed (air circulating mattress ) Rs.- 5500/- Heating pads (heat belt)- Rs . 450-400 wholesale rate Cool packs / pads : Rs 165/- Imported wheel chair from Taiwan: Rs. 4500/- Other local wheel chairs : ranges from Rs. 1500 to 7500 /- 4) KAYANK Taiwan company : Shower table : Rs 1200 to Rs 2000 for different materials like SS, MS, Aluminium Guangdong Kaiyang Medical Tech Co. Ltd.Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  44. 44. Juvapura Sanitary market : Washbasins /Sink: Rs 150 Tiles : Ranging from : Rs 120 to Rs 140/box (each box contain 10 tiles 8 X 12 size) Different sizes available are : 4X6, 4X4, 10 X 13, 16X16 Quality : Premier ---- Rs.200 / box Commercial --- Rs. 150/box Lower ---- Rs 120/ box - People use KOTA and Marble for floorings - Rough stone type tiles (22"X16"): Rs 50/piece - Polished stone type tiles (22"X16"): Rs 60/piece WCs: 3 types Anglo Indian (With foot ) European (Western style) Odessa Style (Indian style ) Low - Rs 300 Good - Rs 600 Low - Rs 200 Good - Rs 400 Low - Rs 100 Good - Rs 200 With colours - Rs 250-300 - Wall mounted don’t have demand in local market . - All are floor mounted which has good demand. - Indian style toilets are good for pressure building. - Separate Cover for the costs : Rs 170 - Reservoir(8lit ) : 450 Taps : Lever type: Rs 140 - 240 - 300 Hand Sprayer/shower: Rs 220 to Rs 320Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  45. 45. Teen Darwaja Monday, March 15, 2010 11:06 AM Folding chair for bathing /showering : Rs.2500 /- This folding chair can be mounted on wall Grab bars : Rs 550 to Rs 700/- Available sizes in market : 8’’ - Rs 175 10” - Rs 190 12” - Rs 205 ---- SS material Hand Showers : Plastic : Rs . 105 Steel : Rs. 225 Taps : Lever type : Brass: Rs. 105 - Rs 155 Hand Jet Spray : Can be fitted to WCs to clean the potty by water pressure. No need to use the hand Delhi Market : Yusuf sarai Brands Available : TUFF local brand ,Tinoar ,Visco Commodes - Rs . 450 Commodes with chair - Rs . 850 to Rs . 1150 Walkers - Rs . 1100 -2200 Sticks- Rs . 300, Rs . 350 local Rs . 180 With 4 legs : Rs . 500 and more Visco Elevator seats : Rs . 2200/- Commodes range from Rs . 300 to Rs . 2200/- Wheel chairs - Rs . 3000 to Rs . 5000 Sticks - Single leg - Rs . 150 - Rs . 400 3 leg - Rs . 300 - Rs . 600 4 leg - Rs . 300 - Rs . 600 - Good market for all these products - People are aware of this market - Most of people come thro doctors advice but there people who knows what they need and where they can buy this / they ask us for particular requirementsBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  46. 46. Foldable Commodes - Local Rs . 450 - Rs . 1000 Imported - Rs . 1100 - Rs . 2400 Wheelchairs - Rs . 2200 - Rs . 8000,9000 Imported and automatics electric wheelchairs with Bed +Toilet+ chair Sticks Rs . 250 - Rs . 500 3-4 legs Rs . 500 - Rs . 600 Walkers With folding Rs . 500 - Rs . 1600 imported - We supply the goods to all delhi + NCR hospitals - Hot pad and cold pads - You can get anything related to your health problem from this market. 1. Like problems in shoulders, wrist, fingers, Exercise material jj Chandani Chowk Monday, March 15, 2010 11:09 AM There are two types of buyers 1) Who has knowledge of the market - educated 2) Who don’t know more about the market - uneducated Trend - - White and off-white for higher or higher middle classes - Wall mounted instead of floor mountings ○ Rs 2000- 5000 - Wash Basins with table top(sink which mounted placed on flat tops) ○ Rs. 1000-5000 - Jaquar has good market in Delhi. - Faucets : In domestic applications Single lever taps are more popular § While for institutional use Twist type taps are more used - Grab bars are available but demand is very less. Purchase only those have awareness. - Brass - Castings & - SSBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  47. 47. Discussions with specialists : Orthopedics Dr. Nilesh Shah , recommendations : - - Floor should be always dry. - Good illumination and in the night time there should be small light always ON - Mats which can absorb moisture - Some sitting arrangement while bath or washing cloths 15” to 18”. - Should avoid usage of TUB if want to use should be some arrangement for sitting on the side - Handles, tabs handles should be easy to open and close - Easy access for communication, Alarm’s - Important contact nos. and medicines at easy reach - Back support while sitting is very important - Anti-skid mats. - Health Issues: Shoulder, lower and upper back, neck and spine related issues. - Heating pads and cooling pads - Foot paddle and movable for easy operations of the tabs - The height of toilet should be raised by 3” to 5” - Side rails are very important for support while having bath or doing other activities. Dr . Harsh Shaha , recommendations : - - Tripping and slipping is the major problems - Use rubber mats - People are not aware of the availability of products in the market , cost of these products is high - No of patients having problem / accident in bathroom are @20 /year - Main problems faced due to such accidents are : Wrist ,elbow, knee fractures - Railing supports - Cloths should not have buttons - Tongue for picking the objects - Main fractures at knee and hip - The height of the toilet should be 18” vary from 16” – 17” - Collapsible supports on the sides - Monkey bars are the simple solutions to get the supports - Walking aids like stick should be used by them - Back support is important but not very essential for the WCs. - They should always keep mobile with them with imp contacts - Width of door should be keep by considering the width of wheel chair entry. - There should be no barriers in bathroom or toilets like no difference in levels.Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  48. 48. Dr . Jeneem Patel, family physician - Main disorders in elderly are : Knee, back and neck fracture and vision and hearing disability. - Others related health issues are hypertension, diabetes, paralysis and kidney disorder - Best solution to avoid the accidents is don’t let them to go to bathroom instate there should be some automatic arrangement, automatic chair or mobile sink with easy height adjustment. - Other main problems faced by them are Syncope (Syncope is temporary loss of consciousness and posture, described as “fainting” or “passing out.” It’s usually related to temporary insufficient blood flow to the brain. It most often occurs when the blood pressure is too low (hypotension) and the heart doesn’t pump a normal supply of oxygen to the brain it may be caused by emotional stress, pain, pooling of blood in the legs due to sudden changes in body position, overheating, dehydration, heavy sweating or exhaustion. Syncope may occur during violent coughing spells (especially in men) because of rapid changes in blood pressure) and Vertigo (Vertigo is the feel- ing that you or your environment is moving or spinning. It differs from dizziness in that vertigo describes an illusion of movement. When you feel as if you yourself are moving, it’s called subjec- tive vertigo, and the perception that your surroundings are moving is called objective vertigo.) - There should be no sharp edges. - No sleeper floors, handles with good grips on it. - Chair with height adjustment. - It should be waterproof. - Good footware. - Door unlocking system. - The height of the toilet or chairs should be such that it will make 90 degree or more angle be- tween thigh and leg - Black color rubber mats are available In the market - THE MAIN ATTATION AREAS ARE CHAIR < HANDLE < FLOOR - Prostate and constipation are the problems also faced by the elderly. - Keep the two way switches outside bathroom. - Alarming system. - Mobile sink. Spine specialist Dr. Subir javeri - Most faced diseases is Osteoarthritis. - Antiskid floor - Consider knee ht of patient while design WC - Hip and knee 90 degree - Use of Shower chair - Bucket should be at some ht level . for easy access without bending - Washbasin ht should be at elbow level - Don’t use bath tub - Sitting is not preferable for bath - Size of door should big to accommodate the wheel chair - Ergonomically designed taps/ faucets - Unlock the door / some - Soap and other stuff be easy accessible and at some height.Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  49. 49. NGO Samarthyam- Anjali Agarwal , American Disability Act - Most of the standards are derived from ADA - But these standers are not designed according to Indian Standards - Only government, NGOs are adopting this ACCESSIBLE DESIGNS Some design Suggestions: - No glare tiles - Use different and contrast color for low vision people - Door must be open outside as if some one got faint or anything else near door difficult to open door toward inside. - WCs at corner - Buffer wall for ladies - TOTO dipper sit /table for arthritis ppl - Green and Red light outside the toilet or bathroom to know if the person is inside. - Hooks and Shelves. - Coin operated lock opening doors. - Automatic doors - Dialing system. - Signages on walls and doors - 400 -500 mm above the floors - Poster of how to use the toilet - Use of cubicles for bathing area - Scotch bite finish for Grab Bars. Some brands making yellow tactile tiles - Kaanzira - Durato - Gupta K K (cement ) - User friendly toilet rather than high / lower class toilets - “Pariware’s” has the range of toilets and sinks for elderly. I C Shah President of Senior citizen association, Gujarat Age : 73 yrs. - There are more than 40 thousand members - There should me some policies and rights given to senior citizens - Make the medical facilities affordable to them - Law that son must pay to their parents otherwise he can be fined - Help lines for senior citizens - Gatherings for them to avoid the loneliness - Separate compartments for senior citizens - Bathroom related - Bathroom of big size - Accidents are due to slippery , soaps or soap water - Use ropes or rings for supports - Rough tiles - Alarms in order to inform neighborsBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  50. 50. Design Directions for the toilet for the safety of Elderly Tiles: Why? - To avoid the slipping and the possible injury. Quick water drain. Direction: - Use the soft material coating on any raw plastic or chief material to avoid the injury. - Need to look at different material option and their properties. Door: Why ? - To make it easy for the person outside to get inside the bathroom in the emergency situa- tion. Three main Directions : 1 Design a HANDLE in such a way that it works as latch. o Can be opened from both side and breakable in emergency situation 2 Design a DOOR which is easy to break in the emergency. 3 Keep the same latch but keep Small window/panel for (semi transparent glass/Acrylic) o To look inside to know persons condition. o To break/unscrew in emergency for easy access of latch. Bathing: Why ? - To bath comfortably by avoiding the slippage and safety while standing and seating. Three main Directions: - Provide folding bathing seat at ergonomically appropriate height. - Using WC as bathing seat. - Combining the basin with bucket function. Shower suggestions. Faucets: Why ? - To avoid the injury by heating on taps, easy to open and close and appropriate product semantic. Few directions: - Cushioning on the taps. - Foot operated taps. - Temperature control. - Taps with flexible material. - Combining the taps with grab bar. - Flexible pipes as taps. - Combining the grab bar with taps. WC: Why? - Seating and standing comfortably, easy to clean the potty manually. Few Directions: - Support at front. - Placement of commode in the corner. - Foot rest for WC. - Accessibility for cleaning by mug & health jet.Bathrooms for the safety of elderly
  51. 51. Support system: Why? - To help to stand, seat and walk safely, Few directions: - Cushioning of grab bars. - Plumbing pipes as grab bars. - Fixing the position and placement of the grab bars. Basin: Why ? - Avoiding injury by hitting, place to keep the stuffs like spectacles, shaving stuff. Few directions: - Use of different material to avoid injury. - Using Vanity top with protected edges. Alarm: Why ? - To alert people outside for the help. Few directions: - Manual alarm at multiple places like near WC, bathing seat etc. - Automatic buzzer which can call the desired no after set time. Switch: - Outside for Light, inside switch should be placed at the dry area for Geyser. Geyser system: Users choice but suggesting the safety. Illumination: Follow standards. Ventilation: On top Exhaust fan: Yes. products developed in phase one : tile grip bar faucets alarm system doorhandleBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  52. 52. • tap - doesnt hurt on falling alarm - in case of no movement , buzzes • tile and grab bar - provides cushion to avoid injury on falling • door handle - that can be opened from outside in case of emergencyBathrooms for the safety of elderly
  53. 53. Bathrooms for the safety of elderly

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